Balancing Competing Goods: Design Challenges Associated with Complex Learning

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Designing authentic simulations to replicate professional work environments is a difficult task for instructional designers. In this chapter, we describe our process and experience adding an ethical dilemma to a cybersecurity simulation designed to introduce undergraduate students to cybersecurity careers. We present an analysis of student responses to an ethical dilemma prompt that was added later to the simulation and report student reactions to it. We discuss design challenges such as how to subtly point students toward the ethical dilemma without making it too explicit. We also stress the importance of formative evaluation when adding features like an ethical dilemma.

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... They perform SQL injection, password cracking, and find hidden files within a Linux machine, and ultimately identify a hacker who placed a backdoor into the system. An ethical dilemma is embedded into the experience to provide a safe place for students to fail and learn from their failure (Neupane et al., 2021). Figure 2 shows the core interface elements. ...
Conference Paper
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Playable Case Studies (PCSs) are online simulations that allow learners to adopt (play) a professional role within an authentic scenario (case) as they solve realistic problems alongside fictionalized experts in an unfolding narrative. The PCS architecture offers scalable options for creating learning activities for individual learners and student teams, and the means for observing and analyzing these activities. This interactive demo will showcase PCSs the team has developed for topics ranging from cybersecurity to technical writing to disaster response, illustrating how we embed learning assessments and research surveys and run them in classroom environments. Participants and potential collaborators will interact with and provide feedback on the prototype PCS Authoring Tool, designed to streamline the creation of new PCSs.
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This paper describes the rationale for and implementation of an experimental graduate-level cybersecurity ethics course curriculum recently piloted at the at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This case study-based ethics curriculum immerses students in real life ethical dilemmas within cybersecurity and engages in open dialogue and debate within a community of ethical practice. We uphold the importance of preparing students for a future that is truly unknown and uncertain and note that this requires a push beyond some established curricular guidelines for cybersecurity that underlie a rule and compliance-based approach to ethics education. Details of the course layout are offered as well as results from a student-evaluation survey.
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Over the years, the news media has reported numerous information security incidents. Because of identity theft, terrorism, and other criminal activities, President Obama has made information security a national priority. Not only is information security and assurance an American priority, it is also a global issue. This paper discusses the importance of Global Information Security and Assurance in information systems (IS) education. Current university graduates will become tomorrow's users and protectors of data and systems. It is important for universities to provide training in security and assurance of information systems. Are students getting adequate education in this area? If not, this leaves them ill-prepared for the needs of the workplace. The security of our information systems needs to be a major concern for educators and corporate leaders. We recommend that instruction in security and assurance be a core component of the curriculum for all IS and business students. The purpose of this special issue is to provide insights, ideas, and practical tips from IS educators and professionals. Along with the academic papers in this issue, a new section was added, advisory from professionals. Just as a university information systems department has an advisory board of professionals, this new section provides an advisory to academics; professionals provide insights into the corporate world and they need.
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Why do many innovations fail to improve the quality of instruction or student achievement? In 1990, we began to explore this question by studying schools that have tried to restructure. Unfortunately, even the most innovative activities—from school councils and shared decision making to cooperative learning and assessment by portfolio—can be implemented in ways that undermine meaningful learning, unless they are guided by substantive, worthwhile educational ends. We contend that innovations should aim toward a vision of authentic student achievement, and we are examining the extent to which instruction in restructured schools is directed toward authentic forms of student achievement. We use the word authentic to distinguish between achievement that is significant and meaningful and that which is trivial and useless. To define authentic achievement more precisely, we rely on three criteria that are consistent with major proposals in the restructuring movement: 1 (1) students construct meaning and produce knowledge, (2) students use disciplined inquiry to construct meaning, and (3) students aim their work toward production of discourse, products, and performances that have value or meaning beyond success in school.2
This chapter presents a new platform for technology-mediated learning that holds the promise of helping to teach students to both think and act like professionals in a particular discipline. It provides an educational experience that goes beyond presenting information- and skill-based content knowledge and leading students to develop greater interest and more mature perspectives of the field. We have called this new educational platform a Playable Case Study (PCS). It is planned to be a 2-week interactive simulation that allows students to take the role of a professional and interact with fictional characters through online mediums such as emails, online chats, and videoconferencing. We present findings on research conducted with a group of college-aged students who participated in a PCS called Cybermatics, designed to introduce students to the work of a cybersecurity professional. We found that the Cybermatics PCS was successful in giving students a hands-on, interactive skill-building experience that ultimately reshaped their perceptions of cybersecurity and increased their interest in the field. We believe that the PCS has potential to be a useful learning tool to teach beyond instructional content and help students develop skills, attitudes, viewpoints, values, and interest in not only cybersecurity but other fields as well.
Humans did not discover fire—they designed it. Design is not defined by software programs, blueprints, or font choice. When we create new things—technologies, organizations, processes, systems, environments, ways of thinking—we engage in design. With this expansive view of design as their premise, in The Design Way, Harold Nelson and Erik Stolterman make the case for design as its own culture of inquiry and action. They offer not a recipe for design practice or theorizing but a formulation of design culture’s fundamental core of ideas. These ideas—which form “the design way”—are applicable to an infinite variety of design domains, from such traditional fields as architecture and graphic design to such nontraditional design areas as organizational, educational, interaction, and health care design. Nelson and Stolterman present design culture in terms of foundations (first principles), fundamentals (core concepts), and metaphysics, and then discuss these issues from both learner’s and practitioner’s perspectives. The text of this second edition is accompanied by new detailed images, “schemas” that visualize, conceptualize, and structure the authors’ understanding of design inquiry. This text itself has been revised and expanded throughout, in part in response to reader feedback.
In this paper we describe the criteria of Technology I, II, and III, which some instructional theorists have proposed to describe the differences between a formulaic and a reflective approach to solving educational problems. In a recent study, we applied these criteria to find evidence of a technological gravity that pulls practitioners away from reflective practices into a more reductive approach. We compared published reports of an innovative instructional theory, problem-based learning, to the goals of the theory as it was originally defined. We found three reasons for technological gravity, as well as three approaches some practitioners have used to avoid this gravity. We recommend that instructional technologists adopt our three approaches, as well as the criteria of Technology III, so they may better develop instruction of a quality consistent with the innovative instructional principles they claim, and that best characterizes the goals they have for their practice.
This paper, develops the concept of epistemic frames as a mechanism through which students can use experiences in video games, computer games, and other interactive learning environments to help them deal more effectively with situations outside of the original context of learning. Building on ideas of islands of expertise [Crowley, K., & Jacobs, M. (2002). Islands of expertise and the development of family scientific literacy. In G. Leinhardt, K. Crowley, & K. Knutson (Eds.), Learning conversations in museums. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum], communities of practice [Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press], and ways of knowing [Broudy, H. (1977). Types of knowledge and purposes of education. In R. C. Anderson, R. J. Spiro, & W. E. Montague (Eds.), Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge (pp. 1–17). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum], epistemic frames are described as the ways of knowing, of deciding what is worth knowing, and of adding to the collective body of knowledge and understanding of a community of practice. Data from two experiments [Shaffer, D. W. (2004a). Pedagogical praxis: the professions as models for post-industrial education. Teachers College Record, 106(7); Shaffer, D. W. (2004b). When computer-supported collaboration means computer-supported competition: professional mediation as a model for collaborative learning. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(2); Shaffer, D. W. (2005a). Studio mathematics: The epistemology and practice of design pedagogy as a model for mathematics learning (WCER Working Paper Series No. 2005-3). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin Center for Educational Research] are used to show that students can incorporate epistemic frames into their identities when engaged in extended educational role-playing games. Epistemic frames are thus proposed as a possible mechanism through which sufficiently rich experiences in computer-supported games based on real-world practices may help students deal more effectively with situations in the real-world and in school subjects.
We need to talk-opening a discussion about ethics in infosec
  • I Kwiatkowski
Toward a concept of facilitative theorizing: An alternative to prescriptive and descriptive theory in educational technology
  • S C Yanchar
  • J E Faulconer
  • SC Yanchar