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Abstract

Population of India as well as world continues to grow for the last few decades and with this growing population availability of per capita fresh water declines day by day. Rice is the most important staple food crop of India as well as world and growing rice with continuous flooding have been wasting large volumes of water form last several years. There is very limited scope of increase in rice cultivation area Therefore, to meet the demand of present and future generation, it is need to be increased rice productivity by using less water with more efficient agronomic practices. As an alternate rice cultivation methodology, System of Rice Intensification (SRI), developed to increase rice productivity with less input use. SRI is the application of certain management practices those include changes in nursery management, time of transplanting, water and weed management which provide better growing condition in the root zone of rice plants compare to plants grown under conventional practices. As a result of the organic fertilizer application, SRI improves soil structure and increases nutritional value, as well as environmental benefits including reduced water usage due to intermittent flooding.
Indian Journal of Natural Sciences www.tnsroindia.org.in ©IJONS
Vol.12 / Issue 69 / December / 2021 International Bimonthly (Print) ISSN: 0976 – 0997
37424
System of Rice Intensification-A New Approach of Rice Cultivation
Swarnali Duary*, Tufleuddin Biswas and Amit Biswas
Centurion University of Technology and Management, Odisha, India.
Received: 14 Oct 2021 Revised: 16 Nov 2021 Accepted: 24 Nov 2021
*Address for Correspondence
Swarnali Duary
Centurion University of Technology and Management,
Odisha, India
Email: swarnali.duary@cutm.ac.in
This is an Open Access Journal / article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License
(CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original work is properly cited. All rights reserved.
Population of India as well as world continues to grow for the last few decades and with this growing
population availability of per capita fresh water declines day by day. Rice is the most important staple
food crop of India as well as world and growing rice with continuous flooding have been wasting large
volumes of water form last several years. There is very limited scope of increase in rice cultivation area.
Therefore, to meet the demand of present and future generation, it is need to be increased rice
productivity by using less water with more efficient agronomic practices. As an alternate rice cultivation
methodology, System of Rice Intensification (SRI), developed to increase rice productivity with less input
use. SRI is the application of certain management practices those include changes in nursery
management, time of transplanting, water and weed management which provide better growing
condition in the root zone of rice plants compare to plants grown under conventional practices. As a
result of the organic fertilizer application, SRI improves soil structure and increases nutritional value, as
well as environmental benefits including reduced water usage due to intermittent flooding.
Keywords: SRI, principles, modified SRI, resource use efficiency, carbon sequestration.
INTRODUCTION
Food security is a big challenge for any developing country like India. Due to factors such as population growth,
urbanization, and per capita increases in income, demand will undergo several changes and the natural resource will
become increasingly stressed, based upon which agriculture depends. Global rice production must be increase at
least30% by 2050 to meet demand of future generation (Shew et al., 2019).Producing more yield with less input use,
while preserving and enhancing the livelihoods of small-scale and farming family, is a key challenge for the future.
To meet the growing and changing food demand, globally it need to be achieved improvements in resource-use
efficiency and gains in resource conservation which will halt and reverse environmental degradation (Tampubolon et
al., 2021).
ABSTRACT
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Indian Journal of Natural Sciences www.tnsroindia.org.in ©IJONS
Vol.12 / Issue 69 / December / 2021 International Bimonthly (Print) ISSN: 0976 – 0997
37425
For more than half of the population of the world, Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the staple food and an important target to
provide food security and livelihoods for millions. Globally India ranks number one in rice area and stands next only
to Chinain total paddy production (Duary and Pramanik, 2019).Different technologies are now used for reducing
water requirement of rice in India. One such approach is SRI which has the potential to improve the water and land
productivity using less water while it increases production (Anbarassan et al., 2013; Midya et al., 2021a, b).SRI an
alternate rice cultivation methodology developed 25 years ago in Madagascar is gaining wider acceptance in many
countries including India (Kumar et al., 2017; Mohanta et al., 2021).
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF SRI
SRI is the integration of different agronomical cultivation practices such as reduction of plant population,
transplanting single young seedling per hill, wider square planting, mechanical weeding with cono weeder and use
of the leaf colour chart (LCC) for better nitrogen management resulted higher yield (Anbarassan et al., 2013). One of
the main principal factors in SRI for better crop growth and productivity is use of intermittent irrigation with
alternate wet and dry intervals (AWD). Seedlings are transplanted quickly, within 15-30 min of gentle removal from
nursery. They are gently transplanted at a depth of only 1-2cm. Unlike the traditional method, which transplants
seedlings into flooded soil, the SRI method transplants seeds into appropriately moist soil. They are not subjected to
shock, which slows their growth.
MODIFIED SRI
Modified SRI (MSRI) implies an intermediate practice between SRI and conventional transplanting system of rice
which includes transplanting of 20-days-old seedlings in square planting at 20 cm X 20 cm spacing with using two
seedlings hill-1 as against transplanting of 10 to 12-days-old seedlings, one seedling hill-1 and wider spacing of 25 cm
X 25 cm under SRI. In this system of transplanting, medium aged seedlings have been found to withstand in extreme
rainfall condition and maintain adequate plant population and enhances rice productivity (Das et al., 2012). Under
MSRI the rice productivity is increased up to 39% and employment and net returns were enhanced by 15% and
61%respectively than that of conventional method.MSR I also resulted increase in water-use efficiency by 12% and
water productivity by 59% compared to traditional method and rice crop matured 15 days earlier under MSRI (Das
et al., 2018).
Comparative study between SRI and Conventional Methods
SRI (97.3%) recorded the highest establishment percent of seedling after transplanting that is significantly different
from the conventional method (81.7 %) due to careful handling of seedlings as well as transplanting of very young
seedlings which prevented transplanting shock of the roots. It also enhanced the days to 50 % flowering and took the
longest (104.3) days to flower than the conventional methods (91.0), probably due to longer and higher accessibility
of nitrogen by the SRI plants (Dzomeku et al., 2016). Compared to the traditional system, yield parameters including
the number of fertile tillers per m2, the number of spikes, the weight of the 1000 grains including yield is higher in
SRI and is more productive and economically more profitable than the traditional system (Diedhiou et al., 2021).
Single plant in SRI showed greater root-pulling resistance (RPR) compared to clumps of multiple rice plants grown
in the transplanted methods of rice cultivation. SRI cultivation method contributes better nutrient uptake by the rice
plants due to greater root growth, quantified by measured differences in root-pulling resistance and in root length
density (Barison and Uphoff, 2011). Though, SRI is little more costly but also more profitable due to higher yield
brought on by the adoption of best agronomic practices associated with SRI. The promotion of the SRI method is
possible by creating awareness, extension services and different training programme (Abankwah and Tutu, 2021).
Reduction in cost of nursery, seed, weeding, irrigation, plant protection chemicals and labour requirement resulted
lower cost of production in SRI by 15.6% than conventional practices (Ali and Izhar, 2017).SRI creates a situation for
agriculture which ensure climate security and food security. It increases rice production with a sustainable manner
and also farmer incomes. SRI also strengthens crops’ resilience to climate change and variability
Swarnali Duary
Indian Journal of Natural Sciences www.tnsroindia.org.in ©IJONS
Vol.12 / Issue 69 / December / 2021 International Bimonthly (Print) ISSN: 0976 – 0997
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Under SRI, plant roots are significantly longer and heavier than conventional method. Number of root hairs also
increased by 60%, and root hairs were healthier and more vigorous in SRI method compared with conventional
method.In SRI method, the rates of photosynthesis at the vegetative, flowering, grain filling, and mature grain
phases were significantly different compared to the conventional method (Hidayati et al.,2016).As a result of aerobic
and biologically rich soils and less competition for resources, SRI fields are better able to resist pest and disease
attacks and withstand drought and severe wind or storms (Hayat et al., 2019).
SRI AND RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY
For the conventional 15 kg/ha of rice cultivation is high because of huge quantity of seeds, fertilizers, plant protection
chemicals, animal labour seeds is required but for SRI only 5 kg of seeds is required for nursery (Ali and Izhar,
2017).Use of fertilizer and agrochemical inputs decreased by 30-50%, and by 100% with organic SRI when relying on
organic fertilization and higher nutrient uptake also resulted by larger root systems (Toriyama and Ando, 2011).The
variable cost in conventional method and irrigation charges compare to SRI method and per hectare cost of
cultivation is around five per cent lower than the conventional method (Anbarassanet al., 2013).
CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND RICE ECOSYSTEM
In SRI as soils are maintained under mostly in aerobic conditions as a result methane (CH4) emission is reduced by
between 22% and 64% (Suryavanshi et al., 2013). Cono weeding in SRI aerates the rhizospheric soil which in turn
promotes microbial activities and proliferates root growth. Rhizosphere soils has a higher enzyme activity viz.,
dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphate, alkaline phosphate and nitrogenase in SRI than conventional system.
Weeding implement in SRI churns up the top 3-5 cm of soil and buries weeds and decomposing the weeds provides
additional nutrients to the plants and beneficial aerobic microorganisms. SRI soils reported higher microbial biomass
carbon (MBC) in the range of 2-41 %in all seasons (Rajkishore et al., 2015).
Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission is reduced as use of N fertilizers is reduced in SRI, so global warming potential is also
reduced (Choi et al., 2014). Total global warming potential (GWP) from flooded rice paddies is reduced 20-30% in SRI
(Jainet al., 2014).Several environmental benefits are resulted by SRI production systems like reducing water and
energy use by 60% and 74% per kg respectively, reducing GHG emissions by 40% per kg, reducing reliance on
nutrient inputs and also improving farmer returns by more or less 400% through increasing yields while reducing
costs (Gathorne-Hardy et al., 2016).
CONSTRAINTS
The main constraints for SRI production in farmers field are lack of skill labour required for transplanting, weed
management with manual conoweeder, availability of FYM at proper time, lack of suitable irrigation and drainage
facility(Channa and Syed, 2017).Apart from these other major constraints in SRI production are lack of awareness,
scarcity of skilled labour, nursery management (Agarwal and Kumar, 2017).
CONCLUSION
To apply in the field SRI required a lot of technicalities and resulted a higher production cost. Difference field
experiments shown that adoption of SRI particularly or fully has a great influence on yield and income. SRI creates a
favourable soil-water-plant-atmosphere condition than traditional wetland rice production, which depends on
constantly flooded fields and hypoxic soil conditions. Practices of SRI creates beneficial effect on soil micro-organism,
as well as rice plant roots and canopies. In comparison to currently favoured farming methods with inundated rice
paddies, SRI practises show positive impact on crop performance and water productivity, as well as an increase in
land productivity (yield per unit of land).
Swarnali Duary
Indian Journal of Natural Sciences www.tnsroindia.org.in ©IJONS
Vol.12 / Issue 69 / December / 2021 International Bimonthly (Print) ISSN: 0976 – 0997
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Table 1: Different cultivation practices of SRI and conventional method
Practices
SRI
Conventional
Seed rate (kg ha
-1
)
5 kg/ha
15 kg/ha
Seedling age (days)
8 to 12 days
15
-
30 days old seedling
Spacing
25 cm X 25 cm
30 cm X 10
-
15 cm
Seedling number hill
-1
1
4
-
7
Water management
Alternate wetting
and drying
Continuous flooding throughout crops
growing cycle
Weed management
Mechanical weeding (Mainly
cono weeder)
Use of herbicide and sometimes hand
weeding
Nutrient management
Organic fertilizer (chemical
fertilizer added in need bases)
Depends onl
y in chemical fertilizer
Yield
8 t/ha
3 t/ha
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Indian Journal of Natural Sciences www.tnsroindia.org.in ©IJONS
Vol.12 / Issue 69 / December / 2021 International Bimonthly (Print) ISSN: 0976 – 0997
37429
Table 2: Difference on plant growth parameter between SRI and conventional method of rice cultivation
Management
practice
Plant height
(cm)
Culm height
(cm)
Average tiller
number (hill-1)
Tiller number
(m-2)
Average tiller
perimeter(cm)
SRI
124.20
84.0
18.3
450.1
2.9
Conventional
101.40
67.5
8.9
441.2
2.1
[Source: Thakur et al., 2014]
Table3: Effect of cultivation methods on root characteristics of rice
Cultivation
methods Root aerenchyma area (%)
Root
length
(cm)
Root dry
weight
Number of root hairs
(number/mm2)
Conventional
70.9
32
7.4
510
SRI
45.1
34
14.2
816
[Source: Hidayati et al., 2018]
Table 4: Difference on cost of cultivation between SRI and conventional method of rice cultivation
Sl
.
No
P
articulars
SRI
Conventional
1
Total Fixed cost
11788
12462
2
Total variable cost
28863
30210
3
Total cost
40651
42672
[Anbarassan et al., 2013]
Table 5: Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon equivalent emission from rice soils as influenced by
different methods of rice cultivation
Method of planting Methane
Nitrous
oxide
Global warming potential
(kgCO2eq. ha-1)
Carbon equivalent
emission (CEE)
Transplanted rice
22.59
0.61
888.1
242.2
SRI
8.81
0.91
644.3
175.7
Modified SRI
8.16
0.89
620.4
1
69.2
[Soursce: Jain et al., 2013]
[Source: Kumar et al., 2020]
Fig.1.Climate change and variability
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Rice is the main staple food of the North Eastern Region of India and the region is still in deficit of about 0.95 million tons (triennial average) of rice. The situation in 2010-11 was much better with a deficiency of about 3 % only. For centuries, the farmers of the region depended on rice and rice based cropping system for their subsistence and livelihood. The farmers come across various hardships during their production practices. Flood, drought, frost, insect-pests and diseases are some of the common problems regularly posing challenge on rice production systems. In the absence of modern technologies, farmers of the region relied heavily on traditional knowledge systems for managing rice based systems for centuries. Considering the increase in population pressure and subsequent need for higher productivity, it is high time that farmers follow resource conservation and climate resilient technologies for sustainable rice production. Over exploitation of lands coupled with removal of residues and no or meager application of manure and fertilizer has caused degradation of soil health in rice ecosystems. Adoption of optimum production technology along with resource conservation practices will enhance rice productivity in the region. The authors of the present bulletin on “Improved rice production technology for resource conservation and climate resilience” believes that it will serve as resource book for the farmers and extension workers involved in promoting sustainable rice production in the region.
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The "System of Rice Intensification"(SRI) represents a sustainable alternative to improve household yields and incomes. This study aimed to evaluate the yields and the profitability of the SRI and the Traditional Practices (TP) in Ziguinchor district, Senegal. A directed sampling based on criteria for selecting the system used and the cultivated varieties common to both systems was applied to collect the yield parameters and yields of paddy rice. Thus, 18 producers in the Badiate, Essyl, and Fanda sites were selected, nine per system and four 1 m2 yield squares were installed in each selected producer plot. A total of 72 yield squares, 36 per system, were installed, and an individual questionnaire was randomly administered to 55 producers using at least one of the systems to collect data on rice production and costs. The yield parameters including the number of fertile tillers per m2, the number of spikes, the weight of the 1000 grains are significantly higher (p<0.05) in the SRI including yield compared to the traditional system. Transplanting density and plant duration are higher in TP (26±5.6 plants/m2 and 26 days) than in SRI (16±0.4 plants/m2 and 16 days). The lower the transplanting density, the higher the yield parameters and the yield. The economic profitability, determined based on the benefit/cost ratio, is higher in SRI (1.5) than in TP (1.2). The SRI required a lot of technicality in its implementation and generated more cost of production. However, SRI was more productive and economically more profitable than the traditional system.
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Sustainable agricultural intensification (SAI) practices can help meet current and future food security needs while decreasing environmental impacts. To date, no studies have simultaneously estimated the food security and environmental implications of previously adopted rice intensification regimes. Thus, our study analyzes the food security and environmental impacts associated with two major rice intensification practices in Bangladesh: (1) planting rice in multiple seasons and (2) replacing traditional (TYV) rice with High Yielding Varieties (HYV). Bangladeshi rice production data by growing season and variety were gathered for 2012–2015 from the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics and farm management information were collected from the Bangladeshi Livelihood Systems survey. A partial equilibrium trade model of the global rice economy was implemented to estimate trade impacts, price effects, and producer and consumer welfare changes from rice instensification. Additionally, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used to estimate the environmental impacts of both intensified and traditional rice systems. The results indicate a 12.60% increase in Bangladeshi consumption associated with historical HYV rice adoption, which equates to enough additional rice for nearly 26 million people annually. Moreover, the LCA results suggest that HYV was more input and water use efficient per kg of rice produced even with increased inputs per ha in at least one season, and in no case was TYV more efficient. Global Warming Potential associated with rice systems was substantially less across all seasons in HYV compared to TYV per kg of rice produced. These results demonstrate the importance of promoting improved seed technology adoption and multiple rice seasons as key pathways for addressing food insecurity and reducing environmental impacts from agriculture.
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Some studies consider the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) method of rice production as more profitable than the Conventional method. Others, however, claim that there is no significant difference in yields between the two methods. The mixed representation of the economic value of the two methods of rice production by various authorities demands an empirical examination of the profitability of the two methods in Ghana. The study was, therefore, designed to identify which of the two methods of rice production is more profitable in Ghana. Two-stage sampling technique was used to select 220 farmers, comprising 110 farmers under each of the two methods of rice production which are predominant in Ejura-Sekyedumase Municipality and Sekyere East District of the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The data collected from farmers were summarized using descriptive statistics including arithmetic mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum, frequencies and percentages. Gross margin and gross profit ratio were used to estimate profitability per acre of rice production under each method. The study revealed that, while farmers under the SRI method obtain GH¢60.68 for every GH¢100.00 sale of rice, farmers under the conventional method obtained GH¢44.04 per every GH¢100.00. The study, therefore, concludes that SRI method of rice production, though a little more costly, is more profitable resulting from a higher yield brought on by the adoption of best agronomic practices associated with the method. Based on the empirical results, the study recommends for the promotion of the System of Rice Intensification method of production in Ghana through awareness creation, extension services and training.
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The development of plant roots is known to play a very important role in the uptake of water and nutrients by rice plants. However, there are few studies on what changes, if any, are induced in the rooting systems of rice plants under System of Rice Intensification (SRI) management. This research evaluated changes of rice roots with SRI method compared to conventional method of irrigated rice cultivation and assessed influences that could improve rice yield. Under SRI management, plant roots were significantly longer and heavier than with conventional method. SRI method also increased the number of root hairs by 60%, and root hairs were healthier and more vigorous compared with conventional method. However, root respiration was not different in the two methods. There was less formation of aerenchyma (air pockets) in rice roots with SRI method, as both the number and size of root aerenchyma were lower with SRI than with conventional method. The SRI method was able to improve the root length, root dry weight compared to the conventional method. The SRI method was also able to increase the number of root hairs by 60% compared with the conventional method. Eh measurements in the soil with SRI method were higher than with conventional method. However, there was no significant different in root respiration. The aerenchyma formation of rice roots in SRI method was lower than conventional method.