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Creating the Path for Quality of Work life: A Study on Nurse Performance

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Since March 2020, it is known that Indonesia has experienced the impact of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) Pandemic, and making health workers at the forefront of potential exposure to the Covid-19 virus because they have to deal with Covid-19 patients every day during the pandemic. The purpose of this study is to focus on developing an empirical model to increase job performance in the hospital to create the right quality of work and still make the organization grow well sustainably. This study will use assistance of quality of work life, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and psychological empowerment in creating an increase in job performance needed by nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta. This study uses a quantitative approach through a questionnaire survey method conducted on nurses at 36 Type B Hospital in Jakarta, totalling 400 respondents. The sample used in this study was obtained through a purposive sampling technique with the criteria of a service period of more than 2 years. Then the data were analysed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM). Though quality of work life is found to significantly affect organizational commitment, job satisfaction and psychological empowerment, its effect on job performance found to be insignificant. Further findings will be discussed further.
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Creating the Path for Quality of Work life: A Study on Nurse Performance
Diana, Anis Eliyana, Mukhtadi, Aisha Anwar
PII: S2405-8440(21)02788-2
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08685
Reference: HLY 8685
To appear in: HELIYON
Received Date: 21 March 2021
Revised Date: 19 August 2021
Accepted Date: 23 December 2021
Please cite this article as: Diana, Eliyana, A., Mukhtadi, Anwar, A., Creating the Path for Quality of Work
life: A Study on Nurse Performance, HELIYON, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08685.
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Creating the Path for Quality of Work life: A Study on Nurse Performance
Diana
Universitas Negeri Jakarta
diana_9917917001@mhs.unj.ac.id
Anis Eliyana (corresponding author)
Universitas Airlangga
anis.eliyana@feb.unair.ac.id
Mukhtadi
Universitas Pertahanan
mukhtadi.harry@idu.ac.id
Aisha Anwar
Government Viqar-un-Nisa Post Graduate College Pakistan
ayeshaanwar80@gmail.com
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Abstract
Since March 2020, it is known that Indonesia has experienced the impact of the Corona Virus
Disease 2019 (Covid-19) Pandemic, and making health workers at the forefront of potential
exposure to the Covid-19 virus because they have to deal with Covid-19 patients every day
during the pandemic. The purpose of this study is to focus on developing an empirical model
to increase job performance in the hospital to create the right quality of work and still make the
organization grow well sustainably. This study will use assistance of quality of work life,
organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and psychological empowerment in creating an
increase in job performance needed by nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta. This study
uses a quantitative approach through a questionnaire survey method conducted on nurses at 36
Type B Hospital in Jakarta, totalling 400 respondents. The sample used in this study was
obtained through a purposive sampling technique with the criteria of a service period of more
than 2 years. Then the data were analysed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM). Though
quality of work life is found to significantly affect organizational commitment, job satisfaction
and psychological empowerment, its effect on job performance found to be insignificant.
Further findings will be discussed further.
Keywords: Quality of Work Life, Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction,
Psychological Empowerment, Job Performance, Quality Jobs, Psychological Wellbeing,
Corporate Sustainability
1. INTRODUCTION
Organizations require high-performing workers to fulfill their goals and gain a competitive
advantage in today's highly competitive business environment. The health industry is similarly
impacted by the Industrial Era 4.0, with consumers placing greater demand on health services,
both in terms of quantity and quality. Patients require care that is both quicker and more precise.
The government has shown concern by issuing various laws targeted at preserving the quality
and competency of health worker graduates, but this is difficult to achieve because obtaining a
registration certificate takes a long time. Nurses' performance has an impact on not just
customer loyalty, business image, and word-of-mouth communication, but it may also be
viewed as a competitive aspect in distinguishing the hospital from its competitors (TETIK,
2016). Nurses have become significant frontline players in the healthcare sector, and their
performance and satisfaction are crucial to the hospital's success. As a result, it can be stated
that testing elements that positively influence performance levels is an essential study topic.
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Since March 2020, Indonesia has experienced the impact of the 2019 Corona Virus Disease
Pandemic (Covid-19) which then elevate the role of medical staff especially nurses.
Considering their expose to the virus, nurses are likely to experience increased stress which
also refers to stunted growth and development, and consequently has a negative impact on their
performance (Ashwini et al., 2014). Difficulty to handle the stress will also have an impact on
their health, personal and professional lives.
Hospitals will continue to be faced with the challenges of demand and supply from patients
who are constantly changing, especially during the pandemic. In order for the hospital to adapt
to tight competition and retain employees well, it requires organizational members who are
internally committed (Kaleel et al., 2018a) and with the limited workforce of nurses who fulfill
government criteria, hospitals need to optimally improve nursescommitment and performance
to provide good service.
In order to achieve the goal of continuous improvement of service quality, organizations in
health care must continue to monitor and promote the health and satisfaction of all people
involved in the care process (Al-Abri & Al-Balushi, 2014). In particular, the nurse will help
patients to maintain or improve their health and direct them to achieve independence as soon
as possible. To achieve this goal, it is more important that nurses build good relationships with
patients through psychological empowerment which can refer to the psychological conditions
that individuals need to feel control in relation to their work (Catholic et al., 2015). An empathic
attitude with patients can also help in offering adequate care to meet the real needs of those
being assisted and to make them feel more satisfied with the treatment process (Dal Santo et
al., 2013).
Job satisfaction is defined as the combination of positive or negative feelings employees have
about their jobs, Locke with his mostly cited definition describes it as "a pleasant or positive
emotional state resulting from an assessment of one's job or work experience" (Dinc et al.,
2018a). Many factors can have an effect on nurse job satisfaction. Job content characteristics,
such as autonomy, routine, and role conflict, as well as characteristics of the work environment,
such as leadership, supervisory relationships and participation, are all related to job satisfaction.
Therefore, knowledge of the factors contributing to job satisfaction is very important for
nursing management and leadership, and will be of great use and great importance in the human
health care resource planning process (Kavanaugh et al., 2006).
Hospitals compete for high-potential employees in today's healthcare business climate, which
is recognized to be exceedingly dynamic, complex, and unpredictable. Only if nurses and other
people feel psychologically empowered and have a full organizational commitment to their
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organization can these potentials be realized. Furthermore, in recent years, the quality of one's
work life has become more widely recognized as a progressive predictor of an organization’s
function and long-term viability (Kaleel et al., 2018a).
Despite the fact that various researches have attempted to uncover variables affecting job
performance, this study is relevant to the current world situation and brings up the question of
whether the environment in the midst of a pandemic leads to different empirical outcomes. The
pandemic has created pressure and barriers in the professional world, particularly in terms of
employee performance. It is envisaged that conducting study that puts highlight on job
performance in difficult situations will improve knowledge and offer empirical proof that can
be applied to other similar situations.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theory Basis
2.1.1 Quality of Work Life
Quality of work life is one of the most important factors that can shape employee organizational
behavior, and it includes work environment, relationship with directors, job perceptions,
working conditions, support services and wages (Eren & Hisar, 2016). Quality of work life also
refers to the likes or dislikes of the work environment for people which refers to the quality of
the relationship between employees and the total work environment (Kaleel et al., 2018a). This
is connected to bettering manpower management in order to increase organizational
performance and employee commitment, both of which are increasingly being recognized as
progressive markers of an organization’s function and long-term viability.
The notion of work life quality is significant because it has the potential to conserve human
values that have been overlooked in the pursuit of technical advancements in productivity and
economic growth. (Alqarni, 2016). Moreover, according to Nayak et al., (2018) quality of
work life is divided into work environments, occupational stress, professional development,
compensation and rewards, and social support.
2.1.2 Organizational Commitment
Organizational commitment is described as the degree to which employees feel a sense of
belonging to the organization. These employees, in turn, will support the organization because
they want to keep their membership in the organization. (Syabarrudin et al., 2020).
Organizational commitment also refers to identification and loyalty to the organization and its
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goals, which are the core of human resource management, and are very important for
organizations that want to retain talented employees (Dinc et al., 2018a). Basically, the
definition of organizational commitment emphasizes that employees who are committed to
work harder and better have a stronger intention to stay with the organization, compared to
employees with low commitment. Organizations need these types of employees to survive and
improve the services and products (Setiawan et al., 2019). In addition, according to Diana et
al., (2020) employees with high organizational commitment will make efforts towards
organizational targets and organizational values at a high level.
2.1.3 Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction is known to consist of various aspects that have been categorized by many
researchers. One such classification includes aspects of satisfaction with salary, with
promotions, with colleagues, with the job itself, and with supervision. Job satisfaction is an
optimistic emotional state arising from a person's job, which is related to how a person likes
their job, a positive view of employees on their work, and job satisfaction is an observable
expression of affective reactions to certain jobs (Yuspahruddin et al., 2020). Job satisfaction is
also considered an effective indicator of happiness because it reflects a pleasant state of mind
and positive emotions resulting from well-being at work, which is largely determined by human
resource management practices (R.M. et al., 2019). So, it can be stated that a person's thoughts
and actions to produce job satisfaction are determined by the individual himself in doing his
job.
2.1.4 Psychological Empowerment
Psychological empowerment is a series of psychological conditions required by individuals to
feel control in relation to their work, which also reflects the integration of four cognitions
related to work, competence, meaning, self-determination, and impact (Catholic et al., 2015).
Psychological empowerment is also the belief and perception of someone who thinks they can
make a difference by having independence in the decision-making process and having the
confidence to initiate change, having the ability and skills to determine their own destiny,
achieve goals, and feel meaning in the work they do (Kustanto et al., 2020). Employees that
have psychological empowerment can also see themselves as influential in their workplaces
and inspire them to be more proactive, independent, and show initiative. In other words,
employees who feel empowered at work will develop an active rather than passive orientation
towards their job roles (Guerrero et al., 2018).
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2.1.5 Job Performance
Job performance is defined as a measure of good quality and quantity results in a certain period
of time influenced by several factors that will be carried out through employees’ for achieving
organizational goals (Muzakki et al. al., 2019). Job performance can be a factor that can
significantly affect the profitability of an organization, because performance is the results
achieved or achievements made in the workplace related to organizational policies,
performance features, and organizational practices (Kustanto et al., 2020). Job performance
can also be a construct that is associated with an individual's ability to fulfill the expectation of
targets, jobs, and standards set by the organization (Rajper et al., 2020).
2.2 Hypothesis Development
2.2.1 Quality of Work Life on Organizational Commitment
In the literature, organizational commitment has been aimed at believing and accepting
organizational goals and values in trying harder for the organization and also showing a
continuous willingness to maintain one's membership in the organization (Eren & Hisar, 2016).
The desire of employees for organizational commitment and being involved in attendance will
also be influenced by the quality of work life. Quality of work life includes evaluation of
working conditions, employee satisfaction with their work, management style and the
relationship between work life and social life outside of work, or in short, the strengths and
weaknesses of the work environment (Eren & Hisar, 2016). There is also a linear relationship
between the quality of work life and organizational commitment in this study. A person with a
high quality of work life will also have an increased organizational commitment. According to
Kaleel et al., (2018a) quality of work life and organizational commitment are the two most
important and fundamental subjects in organizational behavior today. Contemporary
employees and employersconcluded that “low levels of employee organizational commitment
can be attributed to improper selection and promotion which leads to the preservation of
managerial styles and behaviors which have a negative effect on subordinate organizational
commitment”, therefore the right quality of work life is needed. Quality of work life can
function as a program designed to increase and strengthen employee satisfaction for workplace
learning and help them manage change and transitions to produce high organizational
commitment (Omugo et al., 2016). A significant positive relationship between quality of work
life and organizational commitment can make employees feel more comfortable and happier.
This notion is also supported by some previous research (El Badawy et al., 2018; Kaleel et al.,
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2018; Eren & Hisar, 2016) which stated that a better quality of work life will lead to higher
organizational commitment.
H1: Quality of Work Life has a positive effect on Organizational Commitment
2.2.2 Quality of Work Life on Job Satisfaction
Quality of work life and job satisfaction are both abstract concepts and are related to the work
and work environment in an organization (J. et al., 2017). It seems that these two concepts are
crucial concepts for both the employee and the organizational perspective. Quality of work life
can increase employee dignity through job satisfaction and humanizing work (Jabeen et al.,
2018). The scope of quality of work life does not only affect employee job satisfaction but also
their life outside of work, such as leisure time, family, and social needs. When employees'
needs are not met, they tend to experience work-life stress which may have a negative impact
on welfare Literature reviews have emphasized that quality of work life is a strategy to improve
employees’ quality of life to meet organizational goals and employee needs (J. et al., 2017).
Conversely, successful organizations regard job satisfaction as indispensable to job
performance. Quality of work life is also related to organizational conditions and practices that
aim to promote the safety, health, and mental and physical satisfaction of employees, to attract
and retain employees by creating positive job satisfaction (Acheampong et al., 2016). Previous
research by Chmiel et al., (2017); Diriwaechter & Shvartsman, (2018); Jabeen et al., (2018); J.
et al., (2017) have explicitly emphasized job satisfaction’s positive effect on quality of work
life.
H2: Quality of Work Life has a positive effect on Job Satisfaction
2.2.3 Quality of Work Life on Psychological Empowerment
Quality of work life will examine the relationship between employees and their work
environment (Eren & Hisar, 2016). Quality of work life is considered better as a strategy that
can improve the quality of the relationship between employees and conditions in the work
environment, which in turn leads to better organizational effectiveness (Alqarni, 2016). This is
important because ongoing changes in employment can directly affect employees’
psychological empowerment by obliging them to learn new procedures and develop new
competencies over and above normal job requirements (Catholic et al., 2015). Psychological
empowerment can be enriched with the quality of work life in the workplace, because
employees have control over their workload, get support from peers, feel more valued for their
achievements and are treated fairly (Tarigan et al., 2020). The same notion is supported by the
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following studies by Patah et al., (2009); (Salimi & Saeidian, 2015); Türkay et al., (2018);
Tarigan et al., (2020).
H3: Quality of Work Life has a positive effect on Psychological Empowerment
2.2.4 Quality of Work Life on Job Performance
There are several factors that affect job performance of an employee, such as quality of work
life which cover most of the most important aspects to increase employee job performance
(Thakur & Sharma, 2019). A better quality of work life is when employees’ needs of life are
met, which can eventually instill employee loyalty, and in turn support better job performance
(Nayak & Sahoo, 2015). The concept of quality of work life will show positive emotional
reactions and individual attitudes towards their work. The most important determinant is an
employee who finds the job attractive, has good relationships with managers and colleagues,
is allowed to work independently, has sufficient income, and has clear career advancement
opportunities (Suyantiningsih et al., 2018). This will then create benefits for organizations to
carry out quality of work life programs effectively, that is an increase in job performance.
Employees with the right psychological composition, including being able to meet personal
needs, will see and understand the quality of work life provided by the organization with
enthusiasm, and then be motivated to show better job performance (K.R. & Dr.A., 2017). Some
previous studies (Acheampong et al., 2016; Thakur & Sharma, 2019; Tarigan et al., (2020);
Suyantiningsih et al., 2018) also found that quality of work life had a positive overall
relationship with job performance.
H4: Quality of Work Life has a positive effect on Job Performance
2.2.5 Job Satisfaction on Organizational Commitment
Job satisfaction is considered as an antecedent of organizational commitment in several studies
that show a proper positive relationship (Suyantiningsih et al., 2018). Employees with positive
job satisfaction become an important determinant of organizational commitment (Moon et al.,
2014). Job satisfaction will be an important component of organizational commitment for
employees wherever they work (Ashraf, 2020). Job satisfaction will create employee mental
persuasion towards a positive workplace, which will bring positive consequences in the form
of higher organizational performance and productivity, and it is said that adequate job
satisfaction can result in an increase in organizational commitment (Bashir & Gani, 2019). In
addition, job satisfaction is known to be related to the way employees observe, reflect on, and
feel about their work, as an emotional pleasure in assessing their work and work experience
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(Ali et al., 2018). There are many studies that have examined job satisfaction and organizational
commitment together and have found a positive and significant relationship between them,
such as Sait, (2017); Fabi, Lacoursière, & Raymond (2015); Ocen, Francis, & Angundaru
(2017); Mahmood, Akhtar, Talat, Shuai, & Hyatt (2019); Suyantiningsih et al., (2018); Ashraf,
(2020).
H5: Job Satisfaction has a positive effect on Organizational Commitment
2.2.6 Psychological Empowerment on Organizational Commitment
Psychological empowerment is used as intensive intrinsic motivation, which comes from
certain cognitive states related to psychological empowerment which has a significant and
positive relationship with employee organizational commitment (Qing et al., 2020). Through
psychological empowerment, it will generate norms that explain how someone must behave
and those who follow these norms are obliged to behave reciprocally (Qing et al., 2020). Most
exchange relationships are established when organizations give their followers full support and
take good care of them. Furthermore, this relationship leads to valuable work behaviors such
as organizational commitment. Employees with psychological empowerment in the workplace
will develop an active rather than passive orientation towards their work roles (Guerrero et al.,
2018). In addition, employees with psychological empowerment will feel like and feel able to
shape and control their roles and work context. Through psychological empowerment
employees can increase their sense of autonomy and self-determination and they feel they can
control well the tasks given and the work environment as a whole (Tripathi et al., 2020) which
leads to increased organizational commitment. Several researchers have shown that
psychological empowerment stimulates employee work attitudes including organizational
commitment El Badawy, Magdy, & Srivastava (2018); Nikpour, (2018); Qing et al., (2020);
Almadhoun & Ling (2015).
H6: Psychological Empowerment has a positive effect on Organizational Commitment
2.2.7 Organizational Commitment on Job Performance
Organizational commitment is associated empirically and theoretically with work performance
such as job performance. To achieve organizational goals, leaders must inform employees of
the desired performance, because employee performance will be directly related to the quality
of organizational performance (Karem et al., 2019). It is known that organizational
commitment has become a promising research field because it plays a bridge role in the jon
performance that will be produced (Berberoglu, 2015). Social exchange theory has been used
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to explain how organizations implement and also practice various mentoring activities or
generate ideas that allow employees to feel the organization trusts them (Babalola, 2016). As
a result, employees develop organizational commitment and lead to increased job performance.
Employees with organizational commitment are likely to perform better than employees who
are less committed because they exert more effort on behalf of the organization towards its
success and strive to achieve its goals and mission (Jafri & Lhamo, 2013). In today's
competitive business world, organizations need high performing employees to meet their goals
and to achieve competitive advantage. Therefore, it is highly recommended that organizational
managers must describe the performance needed to specifically allow their employees to
recognize organizational expectations to meet organizational goals by fostering organizational
commitment to employees (Dinc et al., 2018a). Several studies confirm the influence and
strong relationship between organizational commitment and job performance (Chiang & Hsieh
(2012); Vough, Hewlin, & Vandenberghe (2018); Dinc, Kuzey, & Steta, (2018); Kock &
Moqbel, (2019); Karem et al., (2019); Dinc et al., (2018a).
H7: Organizational Commitment has a positive effect on Job Performance
2.2.8 Job Satisfaction on Job Performance
Job satisfaction is proven to increase job performance and efficiency which has a beneficial
impact on job satisfaction, because elevated job satisfaction can increase employee
productivity based on quality (Karem et al., 2019). According to this study, individuals who
obtain a good level of job satisfaction tend to provide higher job performance to their
organization when compared to individuals in other organizations who face low job
satisfaction. According to Hendri, (2019) for several years, there has been a strong belief from
company managers that employees with high job satisfaction will provide higher job
performance than dissatisfied employees, and can also increase company size. Job satisfaction
is an effective indicator of happiness because it reflects a pleasant state of mind and positive
emotions resulting from well-being in the workplace, which is largely determined by human
resource management practices (R.M. et al., 2019). That way, they will lead to positive
behavior in the workplace which is shown by high job performance. In line with previous
research that has found a relationship between job satisfaction and job performance Torlak, N.
G., & Kuzey (2019); Dinc, Kuzey, & Steta, (2018); Karem et al., (2019); Dinc et al., (2018a);
Hendri, (2019).
H8: Job Satisfaction has a positive effect on Job Performance
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2.2.9 Psychological Empowerment on Job Performance
When the term psychological empowerment was coined, researchers paid attention to the
relationship with work performance, because the ultimate goal of studying psychological
empowerment is to improve work performance, especially in creating higher job performance
(Sun, 2016). Psychological empowerment practices, when applied simultaneously, can be
associated with greater productivity, welfare, performance and employee service (TETIK,
2016). Employees who feel empowered will be more productive than teams without a sense of
empowerment so that they will be better able to improve job performance. Furthermore, it will
show how well employees do their jobs, the initiatives they take and the sense they show in
solving problems and how they use the available resources and the time and energy they spend
on their work (TETIK, 2016). Job performance will be significantly influenced by
psychological empowerment dimensions in the form of meaning and self-determination based
on job characteristics theory (Hackman & Oldham quoted by (Iqbal et al., 2020) In such a
scenario, employees will feel encouraged in the assigned task, and they will exert themselves
to work well and are determined to complete their work efficiently (Tripathi et al., 2020).
According to Chiang & Hsieh (2012); Torlak, N. G., & Kuzey, (2019); Sun (2016); Guerrero
et al., (2018); TYPES, (2016); Sun, 2016) psychological empowerment will act as a driver that
guides behavior and improves employee job performance properly.
H9: Psychological Empowerment has a positive effect on Job Performance
2.2.10 Quality of Work Life on Job Performance through the mediation of Organizational
Commitment
Some literature has shown a significant correlation between quality of work life and
organizational commitment (Gulbahar et al., 2014; Farid et al., 2015; Farjad & Varnous, 2013).
It is also stated by a study conducted by Musabah et al., (2017) that it was found that
organizational commitment has an important influence on job performance. Quality of work
life that results from the response to various employee desires is one of the important predictors
of organizational commitment. This will create a relationship between quality of work life and
organizational commitment based on social exchange theory (Ehido et al., 2019), which creates
the belief that employees will receive benefits that will be tied to a strong obligation to return
these benefits in a certain way. So that it will lead to an increase in job performance that is right
for employees and organizations. With a high organizational commitment will make employees
feel that the quality of work life they receive is right which can enable them to improve job
performance.
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H10: Quality of Work Life has a positive effect on Job Performance through mediation of
Organizational Commitment
2.2.11 Quality of Work Life on Organizational Commitment through the mediation of Job
Satisfaction
Previous research has shown job satisfaction to be a mediating variable for the relationship,
including HR Practice with organizational commitment (Mahmood el., 2019), employee
training with organizational commitment (Ocen et al., 2017), role stressor with organizational
commitment (Yousef, 2002). The three studies show significance when job satisfaction
becomes a mediator of the independent variables formed from work conditions with
organizational commitment. Here, quality of work life will be related to job characteristics and
working conditions (Rekhi & Sharma, 2018), so this supports the construction of this research
where job satisfaction is a mediator in the relationship of quality of work life with
organizational commitment. According to Lok & Crawford (2001) in their findings, job
satisfaction is proven to be a mediator of organizational commitment and its antecedents. This
can include the quality of work life found by various studies (Ayta, 2017; Daud Normala, 2010;
Zain et al., 2018). This can occur because specifically the quality of work life is considered a
condition and mediation of job satisfaction as a psychological state in forming organizational
commitment. Basically, the construction of the quality of work life relationship with
organizational commitment is mediated by job satisfaction based on an attitudinal perspective
approach, where this approach focuses on identifying events that contribute to the development
of organizational commitment (Starnes & Truhon, 2006).
H11: Quality of Work Life has a positive effect on Organizational Commitment through
mediation of Job Satisfaction
2.2.12 Quality of Work Life on Organizational Commitment through the mediation of
Psychological Empowerment
Fong & Snape (2015) have found that there is evidence of mediation of psychological
empowerment in explaining the relationship between leadership empowerment and behavior
in the role of job performance. Özarallı, (2015) has revealed that psychological empowerment
can moderate the relationship between leadership empowerment and employee creativity
which is a significant predictor of job performance. In addition, Bordin et al., (2006) also found
that psychological empowerment had a more positive effect on employee job satisfaction when
social support was high. Humanizing the workplace and increasing organizational productivity
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& efficiency are the main goals of quality of work life (Omugo et al., 2016). Therefore,
employees will be more committed to an organization that provides them with a good quality
of work life and allows them to balance work and personal commitments and feel productive
and valued, especially if they feel something that inspires them to be more proactive,
independent, and show initiatives with psychological empowerment.
H12: Quality of Work Life has a positive effect on Organizational Commitment through
mediation of Psychological Empowerment
2.2.13 Quality of Work Life on Job Performance through the mediation of Job Satisfaction
Previous research has found that job satisfaction is one of the important considerations of job
performance, and that job satisfaction is the result of various factors that employees expect for
their contribution to the organization Gazioglu & Tansel, (2006). The research will be expected
to find gaps to consider the dimensions of quality of work life as a predictor of employee job
performance. His attention to job satisfaction is an antecedent of quality of work life and job
performance as a result of the mediating influence of job satisfaction (Basher Rubel & Kee,
2014). It is known that the focus of quality of work life occurs on personal reactions from work
experience which can be considered as an important determinant of job satisfaction, which
leads to a point that satisfied employees have good job performance in the organization (Wright
et al., 2007). Thus, quality of work life can be used as a predictor of job satisfaction and
employee job performance as a result of job satisfaction that can be linked.
H13: Quality of Work Life has a positive effect on Job Performance through mediation of Job
Satisfaction
2.2.14 Quality of Work Life on Job Performance through the mediation of Psychological
Empowerment
Many researchers show that psychological empowerment has become a mediating variable,
such as Seibert et al., (2011); Gregory et al., (2010) and ROSTAMI et al., (2016), who have
conducted research that designed structural models of quality work life and job performance
as well as the role of psychological empowerment mediators. Psychological empowerment will
lead to increased levels of behavior based on the generally accepted idea that individuals enjoy
work more when they feel they are able to do their job well, when they feel their work is
meaningful, when they have the autonomy to make decisions about their work, and when they
feel like their job has an impact on organizational outcomes (Gregory et al., 2010).Overall,
workers with psychological empowerment will feel that their work contribution is meaningful
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and strong in their ability to form a good organization or an appropriate quality work life. In
addition, employees who are more suited to their organization will be in a position to
demonstrate that job-fit can lead to psychological empowerment of cognition. Psychological
cognitive empowerment can then be considered to form a mechanism that will have an impact
on a worker who will complete his / her task adequately in fulfilling the results of increasing
job performance.
H14: Quality of Work Life has a positive effect on Job Performance through mediation of
Psychological Empowerment
Figure 1. Conceptual Framework
3. RESEARCH METHODS
This study uses quantitative methods in testing the hypotheses that have been set. According
to John W. Creswell (2018), quantitative research is a method of testing objective theory by
looking at the connection between variables. Furthermore, John W. Creswell (2018) also stated
that quantitative research will create hypotheses and collect data. The instrument's data will be
used to assess attitudes and information, which will then be evaluated using statistical
techniques and hypothesis testing, with the hypothesis being approved or rejected afterwards.
The quantitative approach is the most suited for the purpose of this study, because it examines
the relationship between quality of work life on job performance with the mediation of
organizational commitment, job satisfaction and psychological empowerment.
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This research was conducted at an accredited type B hospital in DKI Jakarta. The independent
variable in this study is Quality of Work life, the mediating variable in this study is
organizational commitment, job satisfaction and psychological empowerment, while the
dependent variable in this study is job performance.
3.1 Measurement
This study previously conducted a try out to test the measurement scale of the variables, namely
quality of work life, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, psychological empowerment,
and job performance on 30 nurses (who are excluded from the research sample) at a type B
hospital in the city of Tangerang. The results of the try out show that the item validity of the
quality of work life is 0.571-0.858 and the reliability of Cronbach's Alpha is 0.944.
Psychological empowerment shows a validity range of 0.645-0.811 with a reliability value of
Cronbach's Alpha of 0.933. Next, all job satisfaction items have a validity range between 0.376-
0.732 and Cronbach's Alpha reliability of 0.933. In self-rated performance, the validity value
is in the range of 0.764-0.837 with Cronbach's Alpha reliability of 0.826. While the supervisor
rated performance has a validity value in the range of 0.683-0.885 and Cronbach's Alpha
reliability is 0.847. Overall, these results indicate that the measurement scale used in this study
is valid and reliable because all items from the five variables (quality of work life,
organizational commitment, job satisfaction, psychological empowerment, and job
performance) exceed the limit of the r critical value table (3.61) with a significance level of 5%
in the calculation of 30 samples, and exceed the minimum limit of Cronbach's Alpha (0.06). It
can be concluded that the measurement scale used in this study has been supported by pre-
research results.
All items in this study were measured using a five-point Likert Scale. Sekaran and Bougie
(2016) explain that the Likert Scale is used to test how strong the agree or disagree responses
are given by the respondents to the statements presented. The Likert scale used in this study
has five scales with 1 (strongly disagree) 5 (strongly agree).
Quality of Work Life in this study was developed from research by Zin (2004) which consists
of seven dimensions of Quality of Work Life, namely compensation, growth and development,
participation, physical environment, supervision, social relevance and workplace integration.
A higher score indicates a higher level of quality of work life experienced by nurses.
Organizational Commitment in this study uses 15 items of OCQ (Organizational Commitment
Questionaire) which were modified from research by Porter, Mowday, & Steers, (1979). A
higher score indicates a higher level of organizational commitment experienced by nurses.
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Moreover, Job Satisfaction with the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) measurement tool was
developed from research by Raddaha et al. (2012). A higher score indicates a higher level of
job satisfaction experienced by nurses.
Psychological Empowerment in this study was developed from research by Kundu, Kumar, &
Gahlawat (2019). The scale measured four dimensions of psychological empowerment,
namely, enriched understanding of job tasks (EUJT) or meaning, competence in job related
abilities (CJRA), level of self-determination (LSD) and overall impact on department (OID).
A higher score indicates a higher level of psychological empowerment experienced by nurses.
Job Performance in this study was modified from research according to Parker & Kulik (1995).
This study uses two methods to measure Job Performance, namely five measurements that are
filled in by employees (Self-Rated Performance) and those carried out by supervisors
(Supervisor-Rated Performance). The results are then combined into a single size that
complements each other.
3.2 Data and Sample Collection Techniques
The type of instrument used in this study is a questionnaire with closed questions meaning that
the choices of answers have been priorly determined. A letter explaining the survey's aim and
ensuring anonymity was provided with the questionnaire. These respondents were also sent
reminders, with the request that they needed to complete answering each item, ensuring that no
data was missing. The sampling technique used in this study was purposive sampling with the
criteria of a service period of > 2 years. The selection of nurses with a tenure of > 2 years refers
to the statement by Brimeyer et al., (2010) that workers with at least two years of experience
already have sufficient personal importance of the job that helps predict the variables well. The
total population of the study is 7178 nurses. After being selected based on their tenure, 400
nurses met the qualification as the respondents of the study.
A questionnaire was distributed to nurses who worked at the 36 Type B Hospital in DKI Jakarta
in this study. Because the data obtained on variables X and Y reflects only one moment in time,
this design is referred to be cross-sectional (Olsen & George, 2004). The fundamental argument
for choosing a cross-sectional design is that it is thought to be more efficient in terms of
utilizing scarce research resources (Spector, 2019). As a result, it would make sense to start a
new line of study, one that uses the most efficient means of presenting preliminary proof that
the research subject is worthy of consideration. Furthermore, in a more advanced field of
research, it is appropriate to adopt a cross-sectional design in order to rule out alternative
hypotheses where possible. The distribution of questionnaires had problems with access to
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hospitals and limited time for nurses in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic, so it took time
from June to December 2020.
Universitas Airlangga, especially its research and development section, has given its ethical
permission to this project. Universitas Airlangga's Research and Innovation Institutes which is
now known as Development and Innovation Institute for Publishing Journal and Intellectual
Property Rights (LIPJIPHKI) is an institute at Universitas Airlangga that is in charge of
overseeing a number of areas, including publications and journals, innovation and intellectual
property rights, and publishing (Airlangga University Press). This institute is responsible for
conducting research and guiding the outcomes of new research products for the community's
benefit. This Institute also has the power to grant ethical approval for research conducted by
Universitas Airlangga academics.
3.3 Data Analysis Techniques
The data analysis technique in this study uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), or it is
stated as a statistical modeling technique that is very cross-sectional, linear and general in
nature. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is a factor analysis, path analysis and regression.
This study uses SPSS software version 24 to test the validity and reliability of the instrument
and Amos v.24 software to test the research model that has been formed based on the
formulated hypothesis.
3.4 Findings
In this study, the questionnaire was addressed to nurses who worked at Type B Hospitals in
DKI Jakarta.
Table 1
Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
Characteristics of
Respondents
Category
Numbers
Percentage
Gender
Male
80
20,00%
Female
320
80,00%
Age Range
< 25 y.o
81
20,25%
25 - 30 y.o
197
49,25%
31 - 40 y.o
110
27,50%
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>40 y.o
12
3,00%
Marital status
Single
161
40,25%
Married
232
58,00%
Widow widower
7
1,75%
Level of education
High school
8
2,00%
D3
179
44,75%
S1
47
11,75%
Profession
166
41,50%
Working period
2 - 5 Years
285
71,25%
6 - 10 Years
91
22,75%
11 - 15 Years
15
3,75%
>15 Years
9
2,25%
Based on Table 1, it is known that female respondents dominate the numbers of respondents.
Then respondents with an age range are dominated by 25-30 years. Furthermore, the results of
respondents who have married status have the highest number. In the category of education
level, respondents are dominated by nurses with D3 education. The results showed that
respondents who had a long work span had worked 2-5 years at most.
Table 2
Test the Validity of Measurement Items on Research Variables
Item
Pearson Correlation
Sig.
Information
Quality of Work Life
C1
0,804
0,000
Valid
C2
0,844
0,000
Valid
C3
0,641
0,000
Valid
G1
0,845
0,000
Valid
G2
0,529
0,003
Valid
G3
0,538
0,002
Valid
P1
0,815
0,000
Valid
P2
0,771
0,000
Valid
P3
0,801
0,000
Valid
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PE1
0,566
0,001
Valid
PE2
0,698
0,000
Valid
PE3
0,869
0,000
Valid
S1
0,829
0,000
Valid
S2
0,699
0,000
Valid
S3
0,678
0,000
Valid
SR1
0,710
0,000
Valid
SR2
0,674
0,000
Valid
SR3
0,494
0,006
Valid
WI1
0,581
0,001
Valid
WI2
0,674
0,000
Valid
WI3
0,661
0,000
Valid
Job Satisfaction
PA1
0,568
0,001
Valid
PA2
0,492
0,006
Valid
PA3
0,568
0,001
Valid
PA4
0,483
0,007
Valid
PR1
0,498
0,005
Valid
PR2
0,635
0,000
Valid
PR3
0,432
0,017
Valid
PR4
0,543
0,002
Valid
SU1
0,530
0,003
Valid
SU2
0,479
0,007
Valid
SU3
0,472
0,009
Valid
SU4
0,451
0,012
Valid
FB1
0,680
0,000
Valid
FB2
0,490
0,006
Valid
FB3
0,513
0,004
Valid
FB4
0,502
0,005
Valid
CR1
0,448
0,013
Valid
CR2
0,572
0,001
Valid
CR3
0,476
0,008
Valid
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CR4
0,479
0,007
Valid
OP1
0,604
0,000
Valid
OP2
0,514
0,004
Valid
OP3
0,528
0,003
Valid
OP4
0,476
0,008
Valid
CW1
0,531
0,003
Valid
CW2
0,525
0,003
Valid
CW3
0,557
0,001
Valid
CW4
0,497
0,005
Valid
NW1
0,505
0,004
Valid
NW2
0,505
0,004
Valid
NW3
0,443
0,014
Valid
NW4
0,526
0,003
Valid
CM1
0,662
0,000
Valid
CM2
0,601
0,000
Valid
CM3
0,461
0,010
Valid
CM4
0,568
0,001
Valid
Psychological Empowerment
CO1
0,835
0,000
Valid
CO2
0,790
0,000
Valid
CO3
0,836
0,000
Valid
SD1
0,693
0,000
Valid
SD2
0,839
0,000
Valid
SD3
0,860
0,000
Valid
IM1
0,750
0,000
Valid
IM2
0,649
0,000
Valid
IM3
0,855
0,000
Valid
M1
0,846
0,000
Valid
M2
0,727
0,000
Valid
M3
0,787
0,000
Valid
Organizational Commitment
OC1
0,869
0,000
Valid
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OC2
0,804
0,000
Valid
OC3
0,586
0,001
Valid
OC4
0,786
0,000
Valid
OC5
0,672
0,000
Valid
OC6
0,766
0,000
Valid
OC7
0,630
0,000
Valid
OC8
0,816
0,000
Valid
OC9
0,611
0,000
Valid
OC10
0,741
0,000
Valid
OC11
0,547
0,002
Valid
OC12
0,612
0,000
Valid
OC13
0,834
0,000
Valid
OC14
0,829
0,000
Valid
OC15
0,606
0,000
Valid
Job Performance
SLR1
0,647
0,000
Valid
SLR2
0,769
0,000
Valid
SLR3
0,672
0,000
Valid
SLR4
0,756
0,000
Valid
SLR5
0,793
0,000
Valid
SPR1
0,663
0,000
Valid
SPR2
0,543
0,002
Valid
SPR3
0,784
0,000
Valid
SPR4
0,745
0,000
Valid
SPR5
0,727
0,000
Valid
The validity test in this study was conducted by measuring the validity of the questionnaire
using Pearson's product moment correlation (r). If the correlation value of r in each statement
item produces a value greater than r table or produces a significance value (Sig.) < 5%, then
the statement item is declared valid. The value of r table for n=400 and 5% is 0,098. Validity
testing was carried out with the SPSS version 24 program. Table 2 shows that the calculated r
value of each measurement item on the research variable has a range between 0.543-0.793,
meaning all statement items have r value> r table 0,098 and also a significance value (Sig.) <Α
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5%. Thus, it can be concluded that all statement items used to measure the research variables
are valid and can be used for further analysis.
Table 3
Reliability Test on Each Research Variable
Variable
Cronbach's Alpha
Critical
Value
Information
Quality of Work Life
0,947
≥ 0,60
Reliable
Psychological Empowerment
0,944
≥ 0,60
Reliable
Job Satisfaction
0,923
≥ 0,60
Reliable
Organizational Commitment
0,930
≥ 0,60
Reliable
Job Performance
0,890
≥ 0,60
Reliable
Reliability testing was carried out using the cronbach's alpha technique. According to
Malholtra, questionnaire is declared reliable if it produces a cronbach's alpha value greater than
0.60 (Solimun, 2005). From Table 3, it can be seen that the cronbach's alpha value for all
variables has a value of> 0.60, so it is concluded that the arrangement of questionnaire
statement items used to measure the variables used, such as quality of work life, psychological
empowerment, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job performance can be
declared reliable and trusted as a consistent measuring tool.
Table 4
Descriptive Statistics of Research Variables
Indicator
Item
Information
Mean
Item
Mean
Indicator
Quality of Work Life
Compensation
(QWL.1)
C1
The hospital provides a salary
according to the employee's position
3,60
3,48
C2
The hospital provides a salary
according to labor regulations
3,39
C3
The hospitals provide good incentives
3,44
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Indicator
Item
Information
Mean
Item
Mean
Indicator
Growth and
Development
(QWL.2)
G1
A job as a nurse in a hospital provides
ample opportunities for growth
3,57
3,71
G2
A job as a nurse allows to hone a
variety of skills
3,75
G3
There are challenges in working as a
nurse to make me grow
3,80
Participation
(QWL.3)
P1
The hospitals provide opportunities to
contribute ideas
3,52
3,47
P2
The hospitals provide effective job
advice scheme
3,48
P3
The hospitals implement the nurse's
advice
3,42
Physical
Environment
(QWL.4)
PE1
The hospitals are conducive and safe
3,70
3,67
PE2
The hospital buildings are appropriate
and suitable for employees
3,59
PE3
Hours of work for nurses are good
3,72
Supervision
(QWL.5)
S1
The supervisors have confidence in
the ability of nurses
3,63
3,64
S2
The supervisors are able to develop
teamwork for nurses
3,63
S3
The supervisors pay attention to
nurses' conditions at work
3,67
Social
Relevance
(QWL.6)
SR1
The nurses’ job in the hospital allows
contribution to society
3,68
3,70
SR2
The nurses’ job in the hospital makes
it possible to be part of the community
3,73
SR3
The nurses’ job in the hospital is in
accordance with personal values
3,67
Workplace
Integration
(QWL.7)
WI1
The working relationship among
nurses is like a team
3,75
3,82
WI2
The nurses support each other
3,86
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Indicator
Item
Information
Mean
Item
Mean
Indicator
WI3
There is a mutual relationship among
nurses
3,86
Mean Variable
3,64
Job Satisfaction
Pay (JS.1)
PA1
I feel satisfied with the opportunity for
a raise
3,71
3.62
PA2
The salary increase is sufficient
3,94
PA3
The raise is sufficient. I feel
appreciated by the hospital
considering what they are paying
3,45
PA4
I feel that I am being paid a fair
amount for the work I do
3,38
Promotion
(JS.2)
PR1
Those who do well in hospital jobs
stand a fair chance of being promoted
3,66
3.61
PR2
The employees have rapid promotions
in this hospital like anywhere else
3,58
PR3
I am satisfied with my chances for
promotion
3,73
PR4
There are some opportunities for
promotion in my job as a nurse
3,48
Supervisor
(JS.3)
SU1
I like my supervisor
3,63
3.50
SU2
My supervisor shows a lot of interest
in the feelings of the subordinates
3,38
SU3
My supervisor is quite competent in
doing his job
3,74
SU4
My supervisor is fair to me
3,23
Fringe Benefits
(JS.4)
FB1
The incentive package received is
good
3,29
3.34
FB2
The incentives this hospital provides
are just as good as those offered by
most other hospitals
3,38
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Indicator
Item
Information
Mean
Item
Mean
Indicator
FB3
I am satisfied with the incentives I
received
3,31
FB4
There are incentives that have been
paid by the hospital that I should have
received
3,37
Contingent
Rewards (JS.5)
CR1
The work I do is appreciated
3,35
3.34
CR2
When I do a good job, I get the
recognition I deserve
3,45
CR3
There are many awards for the nurses
who work here
3,31
CR4
My efforts are properly rewarded
3,25
Operating
Conditions
(JS.6)
OP1
My efforts to do a good job are rarely
hindered by hospital bureaucracy
3,36
3.32
OP2
I have an efficient administrative job
as a nurse
3,34
OP3
The hospital procedures can make the
job easy to do well
3,28
OP4
The work I have to do in the hospital
is quite appropriate
3,32
Co-workers
(JS.7)
CW1
I enjoy working with other nurses
3,84
3.64
CW2
I feel comfortable with other nurses
3,96
CW3
I have to work hard as a nurse because
my fellow nurses are competent
3,44
CW4
Disputes are rare in the workplace
3,33
Nature of Work
(JS.8)
NW1
I like to do the things that I do in the
hospital
3,33
3.37
NW2
My job as a nurse is meaningful
2,82
NW3
I take pride in doing nursing work
3,73
NW4
My job as a nurse is very enjoyable
3,62
Communication
(JS.9)
CM1
Communication seems to be working
well within this hospital
3,73
3.37
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Indicator
Item
Information
Mean
Item
Mean
Indicator
CM2
The duties have been explained by the
hospital
3,33
CM3
I know what happened at the hospital
3,13
CM4
The purpose of this hospital is clear to
me
3,30
Mean Variable
3,46
Psychological Empowerment
Competence
(PE.1)
CO1
I am confident about my ability to do
my job as a nurse
3,92
3,94
CO2
I am confident about my ability to
carry out my work activities as a nurse
3,87
CO3
I have mastered the skills necessary
for my job as a nurse
4,04
Self
Determination
(PE.2)
SD1
I have autonomy in my job as a nurse
3,97
3,89
SD2
I have great opportunities in the way I
do my job as a nurse independently
3,89
SD3
I can decide for myself how to do my
job as a nurse
3,82
Impact (PE.3)
IM1
I have great control over what goes on
in my department
3,85
3,71
IM2
I have significant influence over what
happens in my department
3,57
IM3
The influence of my department is
huge for other departments in the
hospital
3,72
Meaning (PE.4)
M1
The job as a nurse is very important to
me
3,93
3,92
M2
My work activity as a nurse is
personally meaningful to me
3,91
M3
The work I do as a nurse is very
important to me
3,93
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Indicator
Item
Information
Mean
Item
Mean
Indicator
Mean Variable
3,87
Organizational Commitment
Organizational
Commitment
OC1
I will do my best to help achieve the
success of this hospital
3,22
OC2
I told friends that this hospital was a
good place to work
3,60
OC3
I feel that loyalty to the hospital is
already high
2,96
OC4
I will accept almost any type of
assignment given by the hospital
3,57
OC5
I feel there is a similarity in views of
the values at the hospital
3,39
OC6
I proudly tell others that I am part of
the hospital
3,30
OC7
I wouldn't have been able to do better
at another hospital
3,07
OC8
This hospital has truly provided the
best inspiration for my performance as
a nurse
3,30
OC9
Even though there have been many
changes that have happened to me, I
will not leave this hospital
3,25
OC1
0
I am very happy that I chose this
hospital to work over other hospitals
3,29
OC1
1
There are many things that can be
obtained by continuing to work at this
hospital
2,94
OC1
2
I agree to hospital policy on important
matters relating to nurses
3,26
OC1
3
I really care about the fate of this
hospital
3,30
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Indicator
Item
Information
Mean
Item
Mean
Indicator
OC1
4
For me, this hospital is the best
organization
3,25
OC1
5
The decision to work in this hospital is
the right decision in life
3,07
Mean Variable
3,25
Job Performance
Self-Rated
Performance
SLR1
Nurse's understanding of work
procedures
3,82
3.91
SLR2
Interaction skills of nurses with peers
3,89
SLR3
Dedication of the nurse as towards the
hospital
3,86
SLR4
Quality of nursing care for patients
4,07
SLR5
Overall performance of the nurse
3,91
Supervisor-
Rated
Performance
SPR1
Nurse's understanding of work
procedures
3,92
3.97
SPR2
Interaction skills of nurses with peers
3,96
SPR3
Dedication of the nurse as towards the
hospital
3,93
SPR4
Quality of nursing care for patients
4,13
SPR5
Overall performance of the nurse
3,94
Mean
(Self-Rated dan
Supervisor-
Rated)
JP.1
Nurse's understanding of work
procedures
3,87
3,94
JP.2
Interaction skills of nurses with peers
3,93
JP.3
Dedication of the nurse as towards the
hospital
3,90
JP.4
Quality of nursing care for patients
4,10
JP.5
Overall performance of the nurse
3,92
Mean Variable
3,94
The average results of respondents' responses to each statement item, indicator, and variable
were then categorized using the class interval formula guide (Nazir, 2009:379). The resulting
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class interval is 0.80, this value is then used as a guideline to determine the category based on
the average interval. Table 4 shows that all variables used in type B hospital nurses in DKI
Jakarta are perceived as high category, this is indicated by the average answer score in the
range of 3.4 - 4.2 (agree / high).
Table 5
Multivariate Normality Test Results
Testing
Kurtosis
c.r multivariate
Conclusion
Multivariate
normality
202,27
34,89
c.r. are outside the range ±
1.96, so that the multivariate
data are not normally
distributed
Based on Table 5, it shows that the normality test results have a multivariate c.r of 34.89 which
is outside the range -1.96 to +1.96 at the 5% significance level, so it can be concluded that
multivariate data are not normally distributed. This result is not a significant problem, because
according to Hair et al. (2014) MLE in SEM is proven to remain robust under abnormal
distribution conditions, and Solimun et al. (2017) are also able to strengthen that the MLE
estimation method in SEM is still good even if there is a violation of the normality assumption.
Thus, the analysis can be continued to the next stage.
Table 6
Univariate Outlier Test Results
Variable
Indicator
Z-score
Terms
Information
Min.
Max.
Quality of Work
Life
QWL.1
-1.972
2.035
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
QWL.2
-2.581
1.961
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
QWL.3
-2.119
2.196
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
QWL.4
-2.668
2.131
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
QWL.5
-2.495
2.060
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
QWL.6
-2.531
1.949
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
QWL.7
-2.371
2.440
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
OC.1
-1.246
1.830
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
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Variable
Indicator
Z-score
Terms
Information
Min.
Max.
Organizational
Commitment
OC.2
-2.299
2.005
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
OC.3
-1.313
2.779
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
OC.4
-2.101
1.920
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
OC.5
-1.965
2.284
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
OC.6
-1.394
1.817
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
OC.7
-1.593
2.895
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
OC.8
-1.384
1.823
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
OC.9
-1.854
2.613
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
OC.10
-1.463
1.939
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
OC.11
-1.253
2.736
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
OC.12
-2.234
2.974
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
OC.13
-1.640
2.153
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
OC.14
-1.553
2.167
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
OC.15
-1.369
2.460
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
Job Satisfaction
JS.1
-2.676
2.291
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
JS.2
-2.712
2.336
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
JS.3
-2.862
2.467
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
JS.4
-2.924
2.651
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
JS.5
-2.908
2.629
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
JS.6
-2.819
2.591
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
JS.7
-2.881
2.389
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
JS.8
-2.819
2.826
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
JS.9
-2.640
2.646
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
Psychological
Empowerment
PE.1
-2.597
1.706
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
PE.2
-2.839
2.020
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
PE.3
-2.940
2.215
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
PE.4
-2.114
1.823
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
Job Performance
JP.1
-1.354
1.763
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
JP.2
-1.520
1.767
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
JP.3
-1.331
1.636
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
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Variable
Indicator
Z-score
Terms
Information
Min.
Max.
JP.4
-1.884
1.553
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
JP.5
-1.365
1.598
-3 < Z-score < 3
non outlier
Univariate outlier detection can be done by calculating the Z-score value of each indicator. In
samples of 80 or less, outliers are defined as observations with Z-scores outside the range of
±2.50, while for samples >80, outliers are defined as observations with Z-scores outside the
range of ±3 (Hair et al, 2014). As shown in Table 6 that the Z-score value for each indicator
on the variable quality of work life, psychological empowerment, job satisfaction,
organizational commitment, and job performance, all of which show that the Z-Score is in the
± 3 range, thus univariate. It can be concluded that none of the observations in the study were
identified as outliers.
Table 7
Multivariate Outlier Test Results
Observation number
Mahalanobis d-squared
p1
p2
263
101.994
.000
.000
347
99.073
.000
.000
373
92.418
.000
.000
94
89.275
.000
.000
225
88.895
.000
.000
87
87.026
.000
.000
394
84.952
.000
.000
390
82.990
.000
.000
399
82.034
.000
.000
279
81.053
.000
.000
334
80.320
.000
.000
364
79.277
.000
.000
264
75.647
.001
.000
85
74.705
.001
.000
319
74.025
.001
.000
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Observation number
Mahalanobis d-squared
p1
p2
366
73.324
.001
.000
346
72.817
.001
.000
377
72.430
.001
.000
239
71.123
.002
.000
86
70.684
.002
.000
278
70.465
.002
.000
150
70.067
.002
.000
391
68.902
.003
.000
261
68.747
.003
.000
90
67.439
.004
.000
320
67.272
.004
.000
:
:
314
50.281
.128
.000
179
50.189
.130
.000
392
50.115
.131
.000
Table 7 shows the results of the detection of multivariate outliers which have 15 observations
that have expensive d-squared values> the chi-square limit of the table 73.40, hence the fifteen
observations (respondents) can be indicated as outliers, and are then eliminated from the
analysis. The number of samples is by 15 to 385, meaning 96.25% of all respondents in this
study were free from extreme or deviant answer data.
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Figure 2. Evaluation of the Exogenous Construct Measurement Model
Figure 3. Evaluation of the Intervening Construct Measurement Model
Figure 4. Evaluation of the Intervening Construct Measurement Model (Revised)
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Figure 5. Evaluation of the Endogenous Construct Measurement Model
Table 8
Measurement Model Fit
Measurement Model
GFI
CFI
Information
Exogenous constructs
0,905
0,938
Marginal fit
Intervening constructs
Initial model
Revised model
0,783
0.840
0,830
0.887
Poor fit
Marginal fit
Endogenous constructs
0,985
0,986
Good fit
Terms
≥ 0,90
≥ 0,95
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Tests for model fit use at least one absolute index and one incremental fit index (Hair et al,
2014). The absolute index that is often used is GFI, while the incremental index is CFI, because
this index is not sensitive to the impact of model complexity (Hair et al, 2014). Table 8 shows
the analysis from Figure 2-5 by showing the evaluation of the suitability of the measurement
model on exogenous constructs, intervening constructs, and endogenous constructs consisting
of variables of quality of work life, psychological empowerment, job satisfaction,
organizational commitment, and job performance. the value of GFI is> 0.90 and the CFI is
also> 0.95. Only exogenous constructs have a CFI value <0.95 but still> 0.80 indicating a
marginal fit or acceptable category. Thus, the measurement model for exogenous constructs,
intervening constructs, and endogenous constructs is concluded to be fit with the data used.
Table 9
Construct Validity Test
Variable
Indicator
Initial Model
Revised model
Factor
Loadings
AVE
Note.
Factor
Loadings
AVE
Note.
Quality of
Work Life
QWL.1
0.754
0.622
Valid
0.754
0.622
Valid
QWL.2
0.768
Valid
0.768
Valid
QWL.3
0.853
Valid
0.853
Valid
QWL.4
0.856
Valid
0.856
Valid
QWL.5
0.860
Valid
0.860
Valid
QWL.6
0.761
Valid
0.761
Valid
QWL.7
0.644
Valid
0.644
Valid
Organizational
Commitment
OC.1
0.632
0.352
Valid
0.632
0.501
Valid
OC.2
0.382
Invalid
-
-
OC.3
0.409
Invalid
-
-
OC.4
0.599
Valid
0.599
Valid
OC.5
0.609
Valid
0.609
Valid
OC.6
0.844
Valid
0.844
Valid
OC.7
0.654
Valid
0.654
Valid
OC.8
0.817
Valid
0.817
Valid
OC.9
0.060
Invalid
-
-
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Variable
Indicator
Initial Model
Revised model
Factor
Loadings
AVE
Note.
Factor
Loadings
AVE
Note.
OC.10
0.826
Valid
0.826
Valid
OC.11
0.437
Invalid
-
-
OC.12
0.105
Invalid
-
-
OC.13
0.636
Valid
0.636
Valid
OC.14
0.750
Valid
0.750
Valid
OC.15
0.419
Invalid
-
-
Job
Satisfaction
JS.1
0.679
0.507
Valid
0.679
0.507
Valid
JS.2
0.713
Valid
0.713
Valid
JS.3
0.711
Valid
0.711
Valid
JS.4
0.728
Valid
0.728
Valid
JS.5
0.728
Valid
0.728
Valid
JS.6
0.740
Valid
0.740
Valid
JS.7
0.700
Valid
0.700
Valid
JS.8
0.681
Valid
0.681
Valid
JS.9
0.728
Valid
0.728
Valid
Psychological
Empowerment
PE.1
0.853
0.585
Valid
0.853
0.585
Valid
PE.2
0.770
Valid
0.770
Valid
PE.3
0.649
Valid
0.649
Valid
PE.4
0.774
Valid
0.774
Valid
Job
Performance
JP.1
0.649
0.526
Valid
0.649
0.526
Valid
JP.2
0.583
Valid
0.583
Valid
JP.3
0.761
Valid
0.761
Valid
JP.4
0.811
Valid
0.811
Valid
JP.5
0.796
Valid
0.796
Valid
In SEM, the construct validity test is carried out through convergent validity, with the rule of
thumb that a construct is said to meet convergent validity if the indicator on the construct has
a standardized regression weight (lambda/factor loading) value above 0.50 and an Average
Variance Extracted (AVE) also greater than 0.50 (Hair et al., 2014). Table 9 shows that each
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indicator in the exogenous construct, the intervening construct (revised model), and the
endogenous construct consisting of the variables of quality of work life, psychological
empowerment, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job performance, all have a
factor loading value. > 0.50, and each construct also produces an AVE value> 0.50, thus the
indicators are valid in forming constructs and can be used to build models.
Table 10
Construct Reliability Test
Variable
Construct Reliability
Information
Quality of Work Life
0,919
Reliable
Organizational Commitment
0,898
Reliable
Job Satisfaction
0,903
Reliable
Psychological Empowerment
0,848
Reliable
Job Performance
0,845
Reliable
The rule of thumb construct reliability value must be greater than 0.70 (Hair et al, 2014), but
actually the internal consistency test (reliability) is not absolute if the validity of the indicator
has been met, because a valid construct is a reliable construct. On the contrary a reliable
construct not necessarily valid. Thus, the value of construct reliability greater than 0.60 is still
acceptable as long as each indicator has met convergent validity (Hair et al, 2014). As shown
on Table 10 that each variable produces the respective construct reliability value> 0.70, so it
can be concluded that these indicators are reliable in reflecting exogenous constructs,
intervening constructs, and endogenous constructs consisting of variables of quality of work
life, psychological empowerment, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job
performance.
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Figure 6. Estimation Results of Structural Equation Modelling (Base Model)
Table 11
Goodness of Fit Criteria in Base Model SEM
Goodness of Fit criteria
Model Test Results
Critical Value
Conclusion
Absolute Fit
Indices
Probability
Chi-square
0,000
≤ 0,05
Good fit
Cmin/DF
3,049
3,00
Poor fit
GFI
0,772
0,90
Poor fit
RMSEA
0,073
0,08
Good fit
Incremental
Fit Indices
TLI
0,858
0,95
Marginal fit
CFI
0,869
0,95
Marginal fit
Parsimony Fit
Indices
AGFI
0,738
0,90
Poor fit
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Based on Table 11, the results of the structural model suitability test (base model) as seen in
Figure 6 show that each of them has at least one criterion for absolute fit indices and
incremental fit indices that meet the requirements, namely chi-square and RMSEA for absolute
fit indices, as well as TLI and CFI for incremental fit indices. Therefore, the structural model
(base model) is actually acceptable. However, there are two criteria for absolute fit indices that
are still not good (poor fit), namely GFI and Cmin / df, so the researchers want the structural
model to be even better by modifying the model.
Figure 7. Estimation Results of Structural Equation Modeling (Modification Model)
Table 12
Goodness of Fit Criteria in the SEM Modification Model
Goodness of Fit criteria
Model Test Results
Critical Value
Conclusion
Absolute Fit
Indices
Probability
Chi-square
0,000
≤ 0,05
Good fit
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Cmin/DF
2,155
3,00
Good fit
GFI
0,854
0,90
Marginal fit
RMSEA
0,055
0,08
Good fit
Incremental
Fit Indices
TLI
0,920
0,95
Marginal fit
CFI
0,928
0,95
Marginal fit
Parsimony Fit
Indices
AGFI
0,826
0,90
Marginal fit
Table 12 also shows the results of the calculation of the goodness of fit index values generated
by the structural modification model SEM in Figure 7. Table 12 shows that the size of the
suitability criteria for the modification model is appropriate and much better than the base
model, as well as the standardized residual value The covariances are in the ± 2.58 range, it
can be concluded that the modified structural model is acceptable and can be continued to the
next analysis.
Table 13
Coefficient of Determination (R2)
Influence Between Variables
R2
QWL JS
RJS2 = 0,261
QWL PE
RPE2 = 0,507
QWL, JS, PE OC
ROC2 = 0,484
QWL, JS, PE, OC JP
RJP2 = 0,604
Information:
QWL : Quality of Work Life
JS : Job Satisfaction
PE : Psychological Empowerment
OC : Organizational Commitment
JP : Job Performance
Based on Table 13, RJS2 is 0.261, meaning that the percentage of the influence of quality of
work life on job satisfaction is 26.1%, while the remaining 73.9% is influenced by other
variables. RPE2 is 0.507, meaning that the percentage effect of quality of work life on
psychological empowerment is 50.7%, while the remaining 49.3% is influenced by other
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variables. Furthermore, ROC2 is 0.484, meaning that the percentage effect of quality of work
life, psychological empowerment, and job satisfaction on organizational commitment is 48.4%,
while the remaining 50.6% is influenced by other variables. Finally, RJP2 is 0.604, meaning
that the percentage effect of quality of work life, psychological empowerment, job satisfaction,
and organizational commitment to job performance is 60.4%, while the remaining 39.6% is
influenced by other variables.
Table 14
Testing Structural Relationships Between Variables
Hip.
Structural Relations
Std.
Estimate
C.R.
P
value
Information
H1
Quality of
Work Life
Organizational
Commitment
0.158
2.057
0.040
Significant
H2
Quality of
Work Life
Job
Satisfaction
0.511
8.136
0.000
Significant
H3
Quality of
Work Life
Psychological
Empowerment
0.712
11.660
0.000
Significant
H4
Quality of
Work Life
Job
Performance
0.010
0.141
0.888
Not
significant
H5
Job
Satisfaction
Organizational
Commitment
0.196
3.551
0.000
Significant
H6
Psychological
Empowerment
Organizational
Commitment
0.466
5.748
0.000
Significant
H7
Organizational
Commitment
Job
Performance
0.181
2.754
0.006
Significant
H8
Job
Satisfaction
Job
Performance
0.101
1.916
0.055
Not
significant
H9
Psychological
Empowerment
Job
Performance
0.591
6.647
0.000
Significant
Based on Table 14, it shows that in testing structural relationships, hypothesis testing is carried
out to test the significance of the influence between variables, using the critical ratio (CR) value
and the probability value (p-value). If the CR value is ≥ 1.96 or the p-value is ≤ 5% significant,
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then it is decided that there is a significant influence between these variables, on the contrary,
if the CR value is <1.96 or the p-value> level 5% real, then it was decided that there was an
insignificant influence between these variables (Hair et al, 2014). In short it was found that
there are seven hypotheses that have a significant influence on each other, and two hypotheses
that show no significant relationship with each other.
Table 15
Testing of Indirect Path Structural Relationships
Hypothesis
Indirect Path
Estimate
SE
C.R.
P-value
The
nature of
the
mediator
H10
QWL OC JP
0.023
0.011
2.010
0.045 (s)
Fully
mediation
H11
QWL JS OC
0.112
0.035
3.222
0.001 (s)
Partially
mediation
H12
QWL PE OC
0.371
0.072
5.135
0.000 (s)
Partially
mediation
H13
QWL JS JP
0.041
0.022
1.849
0.065 (ts)
No
mediation
H14
QWL PE JP
0.336
0.058
5.762
0.000 (s)
Fully
mediation
Information: s (significant); ts (not significant)
As seen in Table 15 that the next stage of structural model analysis is the testing of structural
relationships in the path of the indirect effect. Hypothesis testing to test the significance of this
indirect effect is carried out in the same way, namely using the critical ratio (CR) value and the
probability value (p-value). If the CR value is ≥ 1.96 or the p-value is ≤ 5% significant, then it
is decided that there is a significant effect, on the contrary if the CR value is <1.96 or the p-
value> 5% real level, then it was decided that there was an insignificant effect variable (Hair
et al., 2014). After testing the significance of the mediation effect, the next step is to know the
nature of the mediation. Detecting the nature of mediation can be seen from the effect of
mediation, if the direct effect of exogenous variables on endogenous variables is significant,
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and the indirect effect through intervening variables is also significant, then it is said to be
partially mediation (Baron & Kenny, 1986). On the other hand, if the direct effect of the
exogenous variable on the endogenous variable is not significant, while the indirect effect of
the intervening variable is significant, then it is said to be fully mediation or perfect meditation.
So that in testing the indirect relationship between variables, it was found that there were 2
hypotheses that were proven to be fully mediation, 2 hypotheses that were proven to be partially
mediation, and one hypothesis showed that the variables used were unable to mediate.
4. DISCUSSION
The results show that the estimated parameter of the influence of quality of work life on
organizational commitment shows a significant effect with a CR value of 2.057 (> 1.96) and a
significance value (p-value) of 0.040 (<real level 5%). The resulting coefficient of influence is
0.158 (positive), meaning that the higher the quality of work life, the stronger the nurse's
organizational commitment. Thus, the first hypothesis which states that quality of work life has
a positive and significant effect on organizational commitment to type B hospital nurses in DKI
Jakarta, is acceptable (H1 accepted). It can be stated that when the quality of work life that
occurs in Type B Hospitals in Jakarta is getting higher, it will also affect the increase in
organizational commitment to nurses at Type B Hospitals in Jakarta, in line with previous
research (El Badawy et al., 2018; Kaleel et al., 2018; Eren & Hisar, 2016) which states that a
better quality of work life will lead to higher organizational commitment. The results of this
study indicate that nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta consider their quality of work life
to be positive, and tend to have higher welfare because they are able to show confidence in
their work. Thus, the nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta will be more committed to the
organization.
The next data analysis shows that the estimated parameter of the effect of quality of work life
on job satisfaction also proved to be significant with a CR value of 8.136 (> 1.96) and a
significance value (p-value) of 0.000 (<5% real level). The resulting coefficient of influence is
0.511 (positive), meaning that the higher the quality of work life, the higher the job satisfaction
of the nurses. Thus, the second hypothesis which states that quality of work life has a positive
and significant effect on job satisfaction at type B hospital nurses in DKI Jakarta, is also
acceptable (H2 is accepted). This is in line with previous research Chmiel et al., (2017);
Diriwaechter & Shvartsman, (2018); Jabeen et al., (2018); Ramawickrama et al., (2017) which
have explicitly emphasized job satisfaction because of its positive effect on quality of work
life. The results of this study indicate that nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta feel that the
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quality of work life they receive is in accordance with the conditions and practices of their
organization that can promote employee health, safety, and mental and physical satisfaction.
That way, nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta are able to make quality of work life very
important for the organization which leads to an increase in positive job satisfaction.
Furthermore, the increase in job satisfaction of nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta will be
of greater use in the planning process of nursing resources that will be carried out by nurses at
the Type B Hospital in Jakarta.
The results of data analysis show that the estimated parameter of the effect of quality of work
life on psychological empowerment also shows a significant effect with a CR value of 11.660
(greater than 1.96) and a significance value (p-value) of 0.000 (less than the real level of 5 %).
The resulting coefficient of influence is 0.712 (positive), meaning that the higher the quality of
work life, the higher the psychological empowerment of nurses. Thus, the third hypothesis
which states that quality of work life has a positive and significant effect on psychological
empowerment in type B hospital nurses in DKI Jakarta, is also acceptable (H3 accepted). It can
be stated that when the quality of work life in the Type B Hospital in Jakarta is getting higher,
it will also affect the increase in psychological empowerment of nurses at the Type B Hospital
in Jakarta. These findings are supported by some previous studies by Patah et al., (2009);
(Salimi & Saeidian, 2015); Türkay et al., (2018); Tarigan et al., (2020). The results of this study
indicate that the quality of work life received by nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta can
provide pleasure from their work life, especially in individual decision making. That way,
during this pandemic, the nurses still feel psychologically empowered by their organization,
this means their workplace have fulfilled what have been expected.
The results of data analysis show that the estimated parameter of the influence of quality of
work life on job performance shows an insignificant effect with a CR value of 0.141 (less than
1.96) and a significance value (p-value) of 0.888 (greater than the real level 5 %). The resulting
coefficient of influence is only 0.010 (close to zero), meaning that the higher the quality of
work life is not able to have a direct impact on increasing job performance. Thus, the fourth
hypothesis which states that quality of work life has a positive and significant effect on job
performance in type B hospital nurses in DKI Jakarta, cannot be accepted (H4 is rejected). This
finding is not in line with previous research (Acheampong et al., 2016; Thakur & Sharma,
2019; Tarigan et al., (2020); Suyantiningsih et al., (2018) which stated that the quality of work
life has a positive and significant effect on jobs. The results of this study indicate that the nurses
at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta do not pay attention to the quality of work life in terms of
affecting job performance. It is enough if only pay attention to the quality of work life. They
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need something else so that they are more effective and motivated to improve job performance
in the workplace. Sometimes, the quality of work life does not affect the job performance of
workers, because they have different reasons to trigger job performance.
The results of data analysis show that the estimated parameter of the effect of job satisfaction
on organizational commitment shows a significant effect with a CR value of 3.551 (greater
than 1.96) and a significance value (p-value) of 0.000 (smaller than the real level of 5%). The
resulting coefficient of influence is 0.196 (positive), meaning that the higher the job
satisfaction, the stronger the organizational commitment to nurses. Thus, the fifth hypothesis
which states that job satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on organizational
commitment to type B hospital nurses in DKI Jakarta, is acceptable (H5 accepted). Therefore,
it can be stated that when the job satisfaction that occurs in Type B Hospitals in Jakarta is
getting higher, it will also affect the increase in organizational commitment to nurses at Type
B Hospitals in Jakarta. In line with the previous research of Sait, (2017); Fabi, Lacoursière, &
Raymond (2015); Ocen, Francis, & Angundaru (2017); Mahmood, Akhtar, Talat, Shuai, &
Hyatt (2019); Suyantiningsih et al., (2018); Ashraf, (2020) regarding job satisfaction has a
positive and significant effect on organizational commitment. The results of this study indicate
that the job satisfaction of nurses at Type B Hospital in Jakarta creates good mental persuasion
towards their positive work, so that it will bring positive consequences in the form of higher
organizational productivity, and can result in an increase in organizational commitment.
The results of data analysis show that the parameter estimation of the influence of
psychological empowerment on organizational commitment also shows a significant effect
with a CR value of 5.748 (greater than 1.96) and a significance value (p-value) of 0.000
(smaller than the real level of 5%). The resulting coefficient of influence is 0.466 (positive),
meaning that the higher the psychological empowerment, the stronger the organizational
commitment to nurses. Thus, the sixth hypothesis which states that psychological
empowerment has a positive and significant effect on organizational commitment to type B
hospital nurses in DKI Jakarta, is also acceptable (H6 accepted). Therefore, it can be stated that
when psychological empowerment that occurs in Type B Hospitals in Jakarta is getting higher,
it will also affect the increase in organizational commitment to nurses. This result is in line
with previous research by El Badawy, Magdy, & Srivastava (2018); Nikpour, (2018); Qing et
al., (2020); Almadhoun & Ling (2015) regarding psychological empowerment’spositive and
significant effect on organizational commitment. The results of this study indicate that
psychological empowerment will be related to the attitudes of the nurses at the Type B Hospital
in Jakarta during Covid 19 pandemic which are relatively based on their needs which have been
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fulfilled by the increasingly empowered organization. So, they will have the intention to
maintain their membership in the organization which leads to increased organizational
commitment.
The results of data analysis show that the estimated parameter of the influence of organizational
commitment on job performance shows a significant effect with a CR value of 2.754 (greater
than 1.96) and a significance value (p-value) of 0.006 (smaller than the 5% real level). The
resulting influence coefficient is 0.181 (positive), meaning that the stronger the organizational
commitment of nurses, the higher the job performance. Thus, the seventh hypothesis which
states that organizational commitment has a positive and significant effect on job performance
in type B hospital nurses in DKI Jakarta, is acceptable (H7 accepted). Therefore, it can be stated
that when the organizational commitment that occurs in Type B Hospitals in Jakarta is getting
higher, it will also affect the increase in job performance of nurses at Type B Hospitals in
Jakarta. In line with the previous research of Chiang & Hsieh (2012); Vough, Hewlin, &
Vandenberghe (2018); Dinc, Kuzey, & Steta, (2018); Kock & Moqbel, (2019); Karem et al.,
(2019); Dinc et al., (2018a) regarding organizational commitment have a positive and
significant effect on job performance. The results of this study indicate that nurses at type B
hospitals in Jakarta who are committed can effectively internalize organizational goals and
identify with their well-being, and they are motivated to engage in behaviors that are beneficial
to the organization that lead to an increase in their job performance.
The results of data analysis show that the estimated parameter of the effect of job satisfaction
on job performance shows an insignificant effect with a CR value of 1.916 (less than 1.96) and
a significance value (p-value) of 0.055 (greater than the real level of 5%). The resulting
coefficient of influence is only 0.101 (close to zero), meaning that the higher job satisfaction
on nurses is not able to have a real impact on improving their job performance. Thus, the eighth
hypothesis which states that job satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on job
performance at type B hospital nurses in DKI Jakarta, cannot be accepted (H8 is rejected).
Therefore, it can be stated that when the job satisfaction that occurs at Type B Hospitals in
Jakarta is getting higher, it does not affect the increase or decrease the job performance of
nurses at Type B Hospitals in Jakarta. This finding is not in line with previous studies by
Torlak, N. G., & Kuzey (2019); Dinc, Kuzey, & Steta, (2018); Karem et al., (2019); Hendri,
(2019) regarding job satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on job performance. The
results of this study indicate that the nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta experience many
obstacles in influencing their job performance when they are satisfied with their work. In short,
nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta in influencing their job performance, it is not enough
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just to pay attention to job satisfaction. Today's healthcare business environment is known to
be very dynamic, complex and unpredictable. This makes nurses at the Type B Hospital in
Jakarta, who are satisfied with their work, still unable to create an increase in their job
performance. This can also be triggered because the service standards are getting higher to be
achieved, especially in the industrial era 4.0 in the health world. The results of data analysis
show that the parameter estimation of the effect of psychological empowerment on job
performance shows a significant effect with a CR value of 6.647 (greater than 1.96) and a
significance value (p-value) of 0.000 (less than the real level of 5%). The resulting effect
coefficient is 0.591 (positive), meaning that the higher the psychological empowerment of the
nurses, the higher the job performance. Thus, the ninth hypothesis which states that
psychological empowerment has a positive and significant effect on job performance for type
B hospital nurses in DKI Jakarta, is acceptable (H9 accepted). Therefore, it can be stated that
when psychological empowerment that occurs in Type B Hospitals in Jakarta is getting higher,
it will also affect the increase in job performance of nurses at Type B Hospitals in Jakarta. This
finding provides support for Chiang & Hsieh's (2012) previous research; Torlak, N. G., &
Kuzey, (2019); Sun (2016); Guerrero et al., (2018); TETIK, (2016) regarding psychological
empowerment has a positive and significant effect on job performance. The results of this study
indicate that nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta who feel psychological empowerment
will feel encouraged in the assigned task, and they will exert themselves to work well and are
determined to complete it efficiently. Therefore, the psychological empowerment of nurses at
the Type B Hospital in Jakarta will act as a driving force to guide behavior in improving job
performance.
The results of data analysis show that the result of the indirect path significance test
QWL→OC→JP shows a significant effect with a CR value of 2.010 (greater than 1.96) and a
significance value (p-value) of 0.045 (<5% significance level). Thus, the tenth hypothesis
which states that quality of work life affects job performance through mediating organizational
commitment to type B hospital nurses in DKI Jakarta, is acceptable (H10 accepted). The nature
of the mediator is known to be fully mediation, meaning that improving the performance of
nurses cannot only rely on the quality of work life, but must also be supported by strengthening
the nurse's organizational commitment, so that their performance can be increased. In line with
previous research Gulbahar et al., 2014; Farid et al., 2015; Farjad & Varnous, 2013; Ehido et
al., 2019) regarding the role of Organizational Commitment in influencing the quality of work
life on job performance. The results of this study indicate that the quality of work life resulting
from the response to the various desires of nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta is an
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important predictor of organizational commitment. This leads the nurses at the Type B Hospital
in Jakarta to believe that they are receiving benefits that will be tied to a strong obligation to
return those benefits in some way. So that it will lead to an increase in job performance that is
appropriate for nurses at Type B Hospitals in Jakarta and its organizations.
The results of data analysis show that the results of the indirect path significance test
QWL→JS→OC show a significant effect with a CR value of 3.222 (greater than 1.96) and a
significance value (p-value) of 0.001 (<5% real level). Thus, the eleventh hypothesis which
states that quality of work life affects organizational commitment through mediation of job
satisfaction on type B hospital nurses in DKI Jakarta, is acceptable (H11 accepted). The nature
of the mediator is known to be partially mediation, meaning that it can actually strengthen
nurses' organizational commitment only by increasing the quality of work life, but if it is also
supported by increased job satisfaction, then the nurse's organizational commitment can be
even stronger. In line with previous studies by Mahmood et al., (2019); Ocen et al., (2017);
Yousef, (2002); Rekhi & Sharma, (2018) regarding job satisfaction become a mediating
variable in the relationship, including hr practice with organizational commitment, including
as a mediator in the quality of work life relationship. Previous research acknowledged that
quality of work life is associated with organizational commitment. The results of this study
indicate that in principle, quality of work life is a major determinant of the overall quality of
human experience at work and simply offering physical well-being can lead to increased
employee commitment. In addition, it is known that job satisfaction is based on an attitudinal
perspective approach, where this approach focuses on identifying events that contribute to the
development of organizational commitment. So that job satisfaction is a positive thing for
nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta which leads to job characteristics and working
conditions in increasing organizational commitment.
The results of data analysis showed that the results of the indirect path significance test
QWL→PE→OC showed a significant effect with a CR value of 5.135 (greater than 1.96) and
a significance value (p-value) of 0.000 (less than the real level of 5 %). Thus, the twelfth
hypothesis which states that quality of work life affects organizational commitment through
mediation of psychological empowerment in type B hospital nurses in DKI Jakarta, is
acceptable (H12 accepted). The nature of the mediator is known to be partially mediation,
meaning that it can actually strengthen nurses 'organizational commitment by increasing the
quality of work life, but if it is also supported by increased psychological empowerment, the
nurses' organizational commitment can be even stronger. In line with previous research by
Fong & Snape, (2015); Özarallı, (2015) regarding traces of psychological empowerment
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mediation. The results of this study indicate that psychological empowerment will be related
to the perceptions of nurses in the Type B Hospital in Jakarta regarding their strength to
overcome situations and problems which consist of sharing information, solving problems
upward, autonomy of tasks, forming attitudes, and self-management. able to serve as an
individual's experience of intrinsic motivation. That way, the nurses at the Type B Hospital in
Jakarta are able to improve the quality of service continuously and make them committed to
the organization because they want to achieve the main organizational and personal goals.
The results of data analysis showed that the results of the indirect path significance test
QWL→JS→JP showed insignificant influence with a CR value of 1.849 (less than 1.96) and a
significance value (p-value) of 0.065 (greater than the real level. 5%). Thus, the thirteenth
hypothesis which states that quality of work life affects job performance through mediation of
job satisfaction on nurses at type B hospital in DKI Jakarta, cannot be accepted (H13 is
rejected). Hence, it can be stated that when nurses at Type B Hospital in Jakarta improve job
performance, it can only depend on the quality of work life and cannot be strengthened by the
existence of job satisfaction. That way, when job satisfaction increases, the quality of work life
on organizational commitment produced by nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta has no
effect. This finding is not in line with previous studies by Gazioglu & Tansel, (2006); Basher
Rubel & Kee, (2014) regarding job satisfaction as an antecedent of quality of work life and job
performance as a result of the mediating effect of job satisfaction. The results of this study
indicate that job satisfaction is not able to make nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta make
quality of work life an antecedent that can improve their job performance. That way, it is known
that nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta are able to improve their job performance which
is influenced by other aspects. Nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta have been able to
improve job performance without first having to feel more satisfied.
The results of data analysis show that the results of the indirect path significance test
QWL→PE→JP show a significant effect with a CR value of 5.762 (greater than 1.96) and a
significance value (p-value) of 0.000 (less than the real level of 5 %). Thus, the fourteenth
hypothesis which states that quality of work life affects job performance through psychological
empowerment mediation in type B hospital nurses in DKI Jakarta is acceptable (H14 accepted).
The nature of the mediator is known to be fully mediation, meaning that improving the
performance of nurses cannot only rely on the quality of work life, but must also be supported
by increasing the psychological empowerment of the nurses, so that their performance can be
improved. In line with previous research Seibert et al., (2011); Gregory et al., (2010); Rostami
et al., (2016) regarding the role of psychological empowerment as a mediating variable,
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especially in designing structural models of quality work life and job performance. The results
of this study indicate that nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta with psychological
empowerment will feel the contribution of their work is meaningful and feel strong in the
nurse's ability to form a good organization or an appropriate quality work life. In addition,
nurses at the Type B Hospital in Jakarta will be more suited to the organization they are in,
which indicates that their working mechanism will have an impact on completing their duties
adequately in meeting the results of increasing job performance.
5. CONCLUSIONS
It can be concluded in this study that the direct effect of quality of work life on organizational
commitment, job satisfaction, and psychological empowerment showed significant results,
while the effect of quality of work life on job performance was not significant. Furthermore,
the direct relationship of job satisfaction on organizational commitment showed a significant
effect, but on job performance showed an insignificant result. The direct effect of psychological
empowerment on organizational commitment and job performance have been shown to be
significant. Organizational commitment also significantly affects job performance.
Furthermore, when measuring the indirect effect, organizational commitment and
psychological empowerment fully mediate the effect of quality of work life on job
performance, while job satisfaction and psychological empowerment partially mediate the
indirect effect of quality of work life on organizational commitment. Job satisfaction in fact
does not mediate the effect of quality of work life on job performance. In conclusion, paying
attention to the quality that supports the needs of nurses to work optimally and empowered,
can create a high level of performance and satisfaction, and can support the success of the
hospital. The purpose of the study is to examine factors in the work environment by taking
into account commitment, satisfaction, and psychological factors of employees in creating the
best quality of service for patients during this pandemic. Based on the findings, it has been
proven that the problems faced by nurses who work in stressful and unhealthy conditions
during this pandemic can be dealt properly through an appropriate quality of work life
approach, involving other variables, namely organizational commitment, job satisfaction and
psychological empowerment. It is hoped that the hospital will also continue to grow sustainably
beyond the challenging situations that may occur.
6. IMPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS
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6.1 Theoretical Implications
This study highlights the positive behavior of human resources that supports the research
framework which postulates that the quality of work life of nurses is able to improve
performance, especially in the Covid-19 pandemic situation. The findings of the data analysis
add to the existing literature in terms of variable development by demonstrating empirically
that nurses can improve their performance by improving their quality of work life, but this,
contrary to what previous research have found, should be done through mediating variables
such as organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and psychological empowerment.
Furthermore, how organizations implement various mentoring activities will result in positive
behavior and promote the social exchange theory by allowing nurses to believe that the
organization trusts them. According to this idea, nurses will tend to reward their organization
with activities that benefit both themselves and the organization. This behavior can be seen
when a nurse's performance is significant in accomplishing organizational goals, and it is
accompanied by numerous factors such as commitment to their work, satisfaction with their
work, and a sense that psychological empowerment has been effectively met. Therefore,
regardless of how they perceive their quality of work life to be well established, nurses may be
more involved in organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and psychological
empowerment which will lead to increased job performance.
6.2 Practical Implications
Based on the discussion and conclusions described in this study, this study can be used as a
recommendation for management in organizations in measuring the effect of quality of work
life on job performance in hospital nurses through the mediation of organizational commitment,
job satisfaction and psychological empowerment. This is known to create solutions to save
neglected environmental and human values, motivate employees to work harder and better,
increase their desire to stay with the organization, generate pleasant states of mind and positive
emotions in the workplace, and inspire employees to be more proactive, independent, and show
initiative. Furthermore, it can be a construct related with an individual's ability to attain
personal and organizational goals through meeting the organization's targets, work, and
standards. Based on the average result of job performance variable, nurse's understanding of
work procedures has a value of 3.82 indicating that it is an indicator with the smallest mean
value. Although the average result is in the high category, it shows the lowest category among
other indicators. Thus, nurses are expected to always pay attention to the work procedures
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established by the hospital in carrying out their work. Because this can affect the performance
results needed in creating good quality work.
6.3 Limitations
The study has a drawback in terms of the generalizability of findings. Because we used data
from a single profession, namely nurses, the validity of our findings may be hampered when
applied to other professional groups or sectors. When extending our findings to other
occupational groups or industries, future researchers should use caution. The second limitation
is that, due to the pandemic restriction, the surveys were only distributed once since we were
mindful of the participants' time constraints during the epidemic. Because all data was acquired
at the same time, causality arguments were limited (Antonakis, Bendahan, Jacquart, & Lalive,
2010). Furthermore, because our participants were mainly female, the interpretation of our
findings should be applied cautiously to other groups where the malefemale ratio is not
unbalanced.
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... According to Labrague et al. (2018a), organizational commitment can be determined by the following three factors: (1) employees' emotional connection with the organization (Affective Commitment), (2) the cost that they perceive they will receive in the event of organizational exit (Continuance) and (3) their moral duty toward organizational stay (Normative Commitment). Previous studies have elaborated on the relationship between Organizational Commitment and nurses' outcomes, and Job Engagement and Work Effectiveness seem to be directly linked with the Organizational Commitment of nurses (Diana et al., 2022;Labrague et al., 2018bLabrague et al., , 2021. ...
... Nurses' quality of care has been fairly studied, as well as its relationship with job satisfaction, organizational constraints, unit type, procedural justice, better nurse-physician relations (Stimpfel et al., 2019), nurse turnover (Antwi and Bowblis, 2018), positive work environment and burnout . However, studies looking at the relationship between quality of care and organizational commitment, while showing a positive relationship between the two variables, are very limited (Diana et al., 2022;L opez-Ibort et al., 2021;McNeese-Smith, 2001;Naghneh et al., 2017). Basing on these considerations, the following hypothesis has been formulated: ...
... This is because organizations are now trying to improve the commitment of their workers and staff, having realized how important this is in achieving organizational goals that lead the organization toward long-term stability (Timalsina et al., 2018). Previously, organizational commitment has been studied with various predictors, antecedents and other organizational characteristics, or work-related factors that could have direct or indirect relationships with this variable (Diana et al., 2022;Klein et al., 2009;Gutierrez et al., 2012;Rodwell and Ellershaw, 2016). ...
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... Furthermore, several studies have proven that job satisfaction affects employee performance (Ahakwa et al ., 2021;Sapta et al., 2021;Hastuti et al., 2021;Deng, 2020 ;Badrianto & Ekhsan, 2020;Omar et al., 2020 ;Riyadi, 2019;Mira et al., 2019;Ahmad et al., 2019;and Shaju & Subhashini, 2017). While several studies have proven that job satisfaction does not affect employee performance (Gilli et al., 2022;Diana et al., 2022;Goetz & Wald, 2022 ;Purwadi et al., 2020;and Widyastuti et al., 2021). ...
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... otection, adequate income, providing support, and creating pleasure in the workplace (Cascio, 2010). The quality of work life has a positive impact on employee performance, which means that a good quality work environment is able to create profitable employee work performance (Arif et al., 2020). However, Asharini, Hardyasturi, & Irham. (2018) and Diana, Eliyana, Mukhtadi, & Anwar. (2022) refute this statement because their research result did not find any positive impact on the quality of work life on employee work performance. It means that the quality of work life does not take any part in employee performance. ...
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Aims: The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of workplace violence among nurses in China and its association with demographic characteristics, quality of work life, and coping styles. The secondary objective was to explore how nurses deal with workplace violence and the emotional/psychological impact of workplace violence on nurses. Background: Workplace violence is a common occupational hazard that causes physical and psychological harm to nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 2769 nurses from China. A demographic information questionnaire, hospital workplace violence questionnaire, Chinese version of the work-related quality of life scale, and coping style scale were used in this study. The Chi-squared test, Mann-Whitney U test, and binary logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, quality of work life, and coping styles on nurses' workplace violence. Results:
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and indirect effects of demographic factors on employee compensation, job satisfaction and organizational commitment in private higher educational institutes in Bangladesh. Specifically, how do compensation structure and job satisfaction mediate in the link between demographic factors and organizational commitment? To answer this question, a theoretical framework using the theory of employee retention provided by Martin and Kaufman, as its basis was established. Design/methodology/approach Data ( n = 515) were collected from faculty members of the private universities in Bangladesh. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. Findings Findings indicate that though demographic factors have no direct impact on organizational commitment, they have indirect impacts on organizational commitment through the mediation of compensation structure and faculty job satisfaction. Besides, compensation structure also has a significant mediating role in the link between demographic structure and faculty job satisfaction. Research limitations/implications One possible drawback is the number of private universities from which the data were collected. In the sample used here, only 20 private universities were selected to conduct the survey. Besides, the study could not include public universities that are also a significant part and parcel of higher education in the country. So, if more private and public universities were taken into consideration to collect the data, the results might be improved. Thus, the usual cautions about overgeneralizing findings from this sample, to populations for which it is not strictly representative, apply. Practical implications From a practical perspective, as a cumulative body of work on organizational commitment, we will be better able to advise policymakers and educators on the elements they need to address to increase the longer engagement of the faculty members in their institutes. In this study, the one area of findings that may help policymakers and educators the most concerns compensation package that affects job satisfaction and organizational commitment. We found that demographic factors and compensation packages are the most important factors for the faculty members to impact on organizational commitment in this study. Social implications The social implication is that policymakers of the private universities can focus on fair justice in terms of demographic factors and compensation package for job satisfaction, motivation and organizational commitment of the faculty members in their universities. Originality/value The findings of the study are important for the policymakers of the higher education institutes.
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In Malaysian, the education sector has become very significant in transforming Malaysia into a high-income country. Therefore, the emphasis on the higher institutions has increased while the jobs of academics have become increasingly demanding and challenging. The jobs of Malaysian academics are increasingly challenging because of the requirement of attaining the key performance indicators (KPI) and the constant demands from universities and from stakeholders to produce excellent and employable graduates in the country. Because of the aforementioned challenges in today's workplace, high commitment is required from the public universities academics. Thus, it is important for employers to understand the quality of work life (QWL) of their employees if they are concerned about improving the employees' organizational commitment and job performance. Accordingly, the purpose of this research is to close the gap that presently exists in the quality of work life (QWL) study by determining the factors that improve or impede the relationship between QWL and job performance (JP) with the mediating effect of organizational commitment (OC) among academics in the Malaysian public universities.
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The right for right place can make a big difference for the growth of organization human resource playing a significant role. To further strengthen the organization, the tasks are being assigned on merit basis to those employees who possess relevant knowledge and competence. The competitive strength and effectiveness of organization is the skilled human force. The object of this study is to examine relationship person job fit, person organization fit and employee job performance. To determine efficiency and effectiveness of employees; the job performance is an important source in organization. Logically better a person ‘fit’ may take less time to adjust the way; he shall have to do (Roberts and Robins, 2004). The sample of 381 government employees, working in health sector of Sindh was selected for this study. The random sampling technique was used from known population.The data was analyzed by using AMOS v.22 software. It has been found that there is a positive relationship between PJF (Person Job Fit) POF (Person Organization Fit) and EJP (Employee Job Performance). Keywords: Person Job Fit (PJF) Person Organization Fit (POF) and Employee Job Performance (EJP)