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2022 Fitness Trends from Around the Globe

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From this article, the reader should be able to • Identify top 20 fitness trends for Australia, Brazil, China, Europe, Mexico, Spain, and the United States. • Recognize individual and unique fitness trends represented within Australia, Brazil, China, Europe, Mexico, Spain, and the United States.
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2022 Fitness Trends from Around the Globe
by Vanessa M. Kercher,Ph.D.,ACSM-EP, M.Ed.; Kyle Kercher, M.S., ACSM-EP, ACSM-CPT;
Trevor Bennion, D.H.Sc.; Paul Levy, MPH; Chris Alexander, ESSAM, AEP,AES;
Paulo Costa Amaral, Ph.D., MBA, M.Sc.; Yong-Ming Li, Ph.D.; Jia Han, Ph.D.;
Yang Liu, Ph.D.; Ran Wang, Ph.D.; Hai-Yan Huang, Ph.D.; Bing-Hong Gao, Ph.D.;
Alexios Batrakoulis, M.S., ACSM-EP, ACSM-CPT; Lino Francisco Jacobo Gómez Chávez, Ph.D.;
Jorge López Haro, B.Sc., M.Sc.; Adrián Ricardo Pelayo Zavalza, M.Sc.;
Luis Eduardo Aguirre Rodríguez, B.Sc.; Oscar L. Veiga, Ph.D., M.Sc.; Manel Valcarce-Torrente, Ph.D.;
and Alejandro Romero-Caballero, M.Sc.
Apply It!
From this article, the reader should
be able to
Identify top 20 fitness trends
for Australia, Brazil, China,
Europe, Mexico, Spain, and
the United States.
Recognize individual and unique
fitness trends represented within
Australia, Brazil, China, Europe,
Mexico,Spain,andtheUnited
States.
Key words: Regional, Commercial,
Corporate, Community, Trends
INTRODUCTION
During a time of global uncertainty, the value of the American College of
Sports Medicines (ACSMs) Worldwide Survey of Fitness Trends has
never been more essential to better understand consumer behavior as a
strategic approach into future fitness offerings that drive business growth.
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant influence on
the worldwide health and fitness industry, with certain aspects accelerating (use of wear-
able technology, outdoor activities) and others being challenged (boutique fitness studios,
low-cost and budget gyms). Public health professionals across the world recognize the
value in assessing health and fitness trends annually as one approach to guide future pro-
gramming efforts. For this reason, several countries and regions have independently
sought to use ACSMs worldwide survey to investigate fitness trends within their respective
regions (17). In this edition, the same seven regions from last years Fitness Trends article
(8) (Australia, Brazil, China, Europe, Mexico, Spain, and United States) contributed to the
survey results, providing a global representation of the health and fitness trends. Consis-
tent with past practice (810), the authors herein aim to support the individuality of each
region by providing evidence of popular health and fitness programming that is identifiable
Volume 26 | Number 1 www.acsm-healthfitness.org 21
Copyright © 2021 American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
TABLE 1: Global Fitness 2022 Trend Survey Methodology
Country Trend Additional Trends Survey Time
Response
Rate
Australia Total of 43 trends; 40
from worldwide survey,
4 unique to Australia;
survey deleted 4
potential trends from
worldwide survey.
1) Inclusive fitness services; 2)
quality accredited businesses; 3)
boxing, kickboxing, and mixed
martial arts training; 4) electrical
muscle stimulation (EMS) training
Electronic survey from June 21 to August 2,
2021 (6 weeks), sent to Fitness Australia
registered exercise professionals and
business members; a link also was shared
on Fitness Australias various social media
sites
N=478
(2.1%)
Brazil Total of 45 trends; 42
from worldwide survey;
3 unique to Brazil;
deleted 1 potential
trend from worldwide
survey
1) Low-cost gym; 2) boxing,
kickboxing, and mixed martial arts
(MMA); 3) electromagnetic muscle
stimulation (EMS)
Electronic survey from May 17 to July 25,
2021 (10 weeks); electronic survey was
disseminated to universities, physical
education professionals and students,
professors/teachers, health professionals,
area managers, and on social networks
N=942
(not
reported)
China Total of 30 trends; 25
from worldwide survey,
5 unique to China;
survey deleted 18
potential trends from
worldwide survey
1) Healthy diet; 2) certified
education for fitness and health
professionals; 3) exercise and
sport for children and adolescents;
4) aerobic fitness; 5) prevention
and rehabilitation of sport injuries
Electronic survey from July 1 to 31, 2021
(4 weeks), sent to 10,858 respondents; a
total of 80.5% of respondents were health
and fitness professionals
N=4,259
(39.2%)
Europe Total of 42 trends;
removed one (low-cost
and budget gyms)
None Electronic survey from June 14 to August 9
(8 weeks) to 19,778 people, including
7,122 ACSM members residing in Europe
and 12,656 European health and fitness
professionals, including gym owners/
managers, faculty members, graduate
students, and registered members onto the
European Register of Exercise Professionals
specializing in physical activity and fitness; a
link also was shared onvarious social media
sites
N=1,571
(7.9%)
Mexico Total of 45 trends; 11
trends of ACSM were
not considered and 5
trends not considered
by ACSM were added
1) Cardiometabolic rehabilitation;
2) professional fitness regulation;
3) fitness influencers; 4) fitness in
streaming; 5) sustainable gyms or
ecogyms
Electronic survey from May 3 to August 5,
2021 (13 weeks); distributed to 52,735
people (increased by 388% compared with
the previous year 13,589), subscribers
included in specialized Facebook groups
such as dream associations and gym
managers, fitness professionals and gym
chain communities, in all cases based in
Mexico; also, the community of managers,
teachers, and graduates of the AMISCF
(Mexican Association of University of
Physical Culture) was considered through
official Facebook accounts from different
partner universities. For this edition,
responses were obtained from 30 of the 33
states that make up the Mexican Republic
N=918
(1.7%)
(continues)
2022 FITNESS TRENDS FROM AROUND THE GLOBE
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Copyright © 2021 American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
to each region, and then providing comparisons with the other re-
gions. Through the process of distilling the survey results down
and gathering substantial insight from the regional representatives,
this article provides industry stakeholders with a strategic advantage
of looking into future fitness offerings which may drive economic
growth and programming opportunities within the industry.
For each region, the results of the fitness trend survey may
help fitness business operators, directors, owners, universities,
professors, digital influencers, health professionals (e.g.,physical
education professionals, physiotherapists, dieticians, and physi-
cians), manufacturers of fitness and wellness equipment and
products, and industry stakeholders enhance customer engage-
ment by offering experiences that are popular and safe and that
bring positive experiences to the end user.
THE SURVEYS
All surveys were conducted electronically using either SurveyMonkey
or Google forms. The survey was distributed to health and fit-
ness professionals through email and social media networks (see
Table 1), with the surveys being open for responses for a dura-
tion ranging from 4 to 13 weeks.
Each participating region used a critical mass of the 43 trends
within ACSMs worldwide survey (11) to create a base of trends;
however, each region also had the opportunity to modify the list
with respect to what seemed most logical regionally (see Table 1
for details). The Europe and Brazil surveys were the most com-
parable with ACSMs Worldwide Survey of Fitness Trends (11),
whereas the China survey had the most differences listed among
the trends (see Table 1).
All regions collected responses using a 10-point Likert scale
ranging from highest (10 = most popular trend) to lowest (1 = least
popular trend) for each potential trend option and sorted them to
identify the top 20 fitness trends (11). Participants did not have the
option to select not applicable.Attheendofthesurvey,anop-
portunity was provided for respondents to include possible
nonlisted fitness trends to be considered for future survey inclusion.
SURVEY RESULTS
Each regions representatives contributed to this article and pro-
vided insightful observations regarding their regional results.
Topics discussed included major takeaways and points to pon-
der from the top 20 trend results, unique country features, espe-
cially in comparison with the US results, and the primary chal-
lenges COVID-19 presented with regard to their respective re-
gions health and fitness industry. The top 20 most popular
fitness trends for all regions can be found in Table 2. Data also
were interpreted and compared in global, absolute rankings
where each region was weighted equally and then sorted into
the most frequently represented trends (see Figure).
Australia
Demographics information from Australia (N=478)canbe
found at http://links.lww.com/FIT/A194.
Chris Alexander, ESSAM, AEP, AES, reported three major
takeaways for the 2022 fitness trends in Australia that include
the following:
Functional fitness training (no. 1) has often been a massive
hit with Australians. With less access to fitness facilities,
TABLE 1: Global Fitness 2022 Trend Survey Methodology, Continued
Country Trend Additional Trends Survey Time
Response
Rate
Spain Total of 48 trends; 3
ACSM trends removed;
9 unique trends added
1) Multidisciplinary work teams
(doctors, physiotherapists,
nutritionists, and physical
trainers); 2) fitness and nutrition
(healthy diet); 3) injury prevention/
functional rehabilitation; 4)
seeking new market niches;
5) exercise programs for children
and adolescents against obesity;
6) postural correction (postural
fitness); 7) medical derivation;
8) inclusive fitness services;
9) fitness influencers/youtubers/
bloggers
Electronic survey from June 6 to July 5
(approximately 4 weeks); initially sent to
6,764 people (8.5% increase from last
years record of 6,230) primarily fitness
professionals in Spanish (rest were former
professionals, graduated or ungraduated
students of sport sciences and others).
Responses from all Spanish regions were
collected, including Spanish autonomous
cities in Africa (Ceuta and Melilla). A link
also was shared via social networking
sites Facebook, Twitter, Instagram,
and LinkedIn
N=520
(7.9%)
United
States
Total of 43 trends
identical to the
worldwide survey
None Electronic survey from June 7 to August 3,
2021 (8 weeks), sent to 123,615 ACSM
health and fitness professionals through
email, associated Web sites, and social
media (see details in worldwide survey)
N=3,589
(3.9%)
Each country and region used similar and/or different survey methodology and procedures compared with the worldwide survey.
Volume 26 | Number 1 www.acsm-healthfitness.org 23
Copyright © 2021 American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
activities to improve balance, coordination, strength, and
endurance via functional fitness training to benefit daily
living are anticipated to maintain their popularity.
Strength training with free weights (no. 2) has remained a
very hot trend. As the restrictions associated with the pan-
demic continue to disrupt access to fitness facilities, con-
sumers are opting for the use of at-home strength equip-
ment (e.g., barbells, dumbbells, and kettlebells) to improve
or maintain muscular fitness. In addition, exercise profes-
sionals are commonly opting to use this type of equipment
as part of their mobile business.
Group exercise training, both in large(no.4)andsmalltrain-
ing groups (no. 10), has improved in the Australian trends
ranking compared with the previous year. This may be
due to the appeal of training in groups compared with per-
sonal training in terms of both financial and social well-
being, which have been exacerbated during the pandemic.
All fitness businesses across Australia have experienced lock-
downs, some states more than others. This has caused a number
of businesses to permanently shut their doors, despite federal
and state financial assistance. Until vaccination rates are significantly
higher, each state is likely to continue to experience short snap
lockdowns, which will continue to cause significant burdens to
fitness business operators and employees.
When comparing trends between Australia and the United
States, there appears to be a stronger trend toward strength train-
ing in Australia. Functional fitness, strength training with free
weights, and fitness programs for older adults rank no. 1, no. 2,
and no. 3, respectively, signaling that fitness professionals may be
well served to include components of strength training in their
2022 offerings. Exercise for weight loss was ranked much lower
in Australia (no. 15) than the United States and other regions.
However, employing registered exercise professionals ranked
higher in Australia than in any other region; this is a promising sign
for Australian fitness professionals looking to enhance their market-
ability by earning recognized fitness credentials. Of the top 20
trends in Australia, 15 also were trends in the United States.
Brazil
Demographics information from Brazil (N= 942) can be found
at http://links.lww.com/FIT/A195.
Paulo Costa Amaral, Ph.D., M.B.A., M.Sc., reported three
major takeaways for the 2022 fitness trends survey in Brazil that
include the following:
Personal training (no. 1) movedupthreespotsfromlastyears
survey when it was no. 4. This may have been due to the pan-
demic where personal trainers continue to guide customers in
physical training, even if it is online personal training (no. 3).
In Brazil, the practice of exercising to lose weight remains
one of the top trends (no. 2).
Post-COVID recovery programs are highlighted at no. 4,
which is a higher ranking than any other region. This spe-
cialization of professionals is essential to serve the popula-
tion that was infected by COVID and the corresponding
need for rehabilitation.
The main challenge for professionals and the fitness industry
in Brazil was the adaptation to online services. Culturally,
Brazilians prefer face-to-face service, and most professionals
2022 FITNESS TRENDS FROM AROUND THE GLOBE
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TABLE 2: Top 20 Global Trends for 2022
Australia Brazil China Europe Mexico Spain United States
1 Functional fitness
training
Personal training Exercise for weight loss Home exercise gyms Exercise for weight
loss
Employing
certified
professionals
Wearable technology
2 Strength training
with free weights
Exercise for weight loss Healthy diet Exercise is medicine Functional fitness
training
Functional fitness
training
Home exercise gyms
3 Fitness programs
for older adults
Online personal training Exercise and sport for
children and
adolescents
Personal training Personal training Small group
personal training
Outdoor activities
4 Group exercise
training
Post-COVID recovery
programs
Aerobic fitness Wearable technology Strength training Personal training Strength training with
free weights
5Employing
registered exercise
professionals
Body weight training Boutique fitness
studios
Body weight training Body weight training Exercise and
weight loss
Exercise for weight
loss
6 Body weight training Fitness programs for
older adults
Core training High intensity inter val
training
Multidisciplinary
teams
Outdoor activities High intensity interval
training
7 Personal training Lifestyle medicine Group exercise training Online live and
on-demand exercise
classes
Outdoor activities Licensure for
fitness
professionals
Online live and
on-demand exercise
classes
8 High intensity
interval training
Outdoor activities Functional fitness
training
Exercise for weight
loss
Specific training for
a sport
Multidisciplinary
work teams
Personal training
9 Wearable
technology
Functional fitness
training
Strength training with
free weights
Outdoor activities Circuit training Fitness and
nutrition (healthy
diet)
Body weight training
10 Small group
personal training
Home exercise gyms Outcome
measurements
Functional fitness
training
Prevention/
functional
rehabilitation of
injuries
Fitness programs
for older adults
Health/wellness
coaching
11 Inclusive fitness
services
Post rehabilitation
classes
Exercise is medicine Online personal
training
Licensure for
fitness
professionals
Outcome
measurement
Fitness programs for
older adults
12 Outdoor activities Health/wellness
coaching
Mobility/myofascial
devices
Resistance band
training
New activities/
adaptation of
postpandemic
services by
COVID-19
High intensity
interval training
Mobile exercise apps
13 Exercise is
medicine
Small group personal
training
Mobile exercise apps Fitness programs for
older adults
High intensity
interval training
Postrehabilitation
Classes
Yoga
(continues)
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TABLE 2: Top 20 Global Trends for 2022, Continued
Australia Brazil China Europe Mexico Spain United States
14 Core training High intensity interval
training
Prevention and
rehabilitation of sport
injuries
Licensure for fitness
professionals
Strength training
with free weights
Mobile exercise
apps
Employing certified
fitness professionals
15 Exercise for weight
loss
Strength training with
free weights
Licensure for fitness
professionals
Health/wellness
coaching
Wearable
technology
Injury prevention/
functional
rehabilitation
Functional fitness
training
16 Home exercise
gyms
Mobility/myofascial
devices/rollers
Employing certified
fitness professionals
Employing certified
fitness professionals
Worksite health
promotion and
workplace
well-being programs
Core training Exercise is medicine
17 Pilates Wearable technology Personal training Post-COVID recovery
programs
Monitoring of
training results
Body weight
training
Online personal
training
18 Post rehabilitation
classes
Clinical integration/
medical fitness
Outdoor activities Clinical integration/
medical fitness
Group training Strength training
with free weights
Group exercise
training
19 Online live and
on-demand
exercise classes
Walking/running/
jogging/cycling clubs
Body weight training Walking/running/
jogging/cycling clubs
CORE training Seeking new
market niches
Licensure for fitness
professionals
20 Health/wellness
coaching
Online live and
on-demand exercise
classes
Certified education for
fitness and health
professionals
Boutique fitness
studios
Home training with
personalized
accompaniment of
professionals
Wearable
technology
Lifestyle medicine
2022 FITNESS TRENDS FROM AROUND THE GLOBE
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Copyright © 2021 American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
were not prepared to provide online services. Consequently, the
development of training methodologies was a decisive factor for
people to feel motivated in the practice of activity at home. The
majority of companies that were able to remain open were those
that used social networks to advertise their services. At the be-
ginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was considerable re-
sistance from most professionals and practitioners to the use of
technology in the supervision and practice of physical activity.
As the pandemic progressed, Brazilians were adapting. For
2022, it is necessary that all professionals have their own modern
methodologies and that they invest in digital marketing to at-
tract clients to their services and motivate people to remain
more active, regardless of the training environment.
Online care is growing in Brazil and has now become a more
common part of many Brazilianslives as a way to promote the
practice of physical activity, especially those who do not want to
go to a gym or training center. Unlike the United States, the hir-
ing of certified fitness professionals and the licensure for fitness
professionals are not trends in Brazil potentially because both
are part of a complementary training process that requires a
bachelors degree in Physical Education to work as a profes-
sional in the Brazilian fitness industry. Overall, of the top 20
trends in Brazil, 14 also were trends in the United States.
China
Demographics information from China (N= 4259) can be
found at http://links.lww.com/FIT/A196.
Yong-Ming Li, Ph.D., highlighted three important takeaways
for the 2022 fitness trends for China that include the following:
Weight loss (no. 1) leads the ranking for the third consec-
utive year in China.
Highly ranked China-specific trends such as healthy diet
(no. 2), exercise and sport for children and adolescents
(no. 3), and aerobic fitness (no. 4) support the necessity
to incorporate some items that are specific to each region.
Volume 26 | Number 1 www.acsm-healthfitness.org 27
Copyright © 2021 American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
ThefullinfluenceoftheCOVID-19pandemicinthefitness
industry in China could not be reflected in the rankings.
In an interesting contrast, the shutdown of some clubs decreased
job availability for fitness professionals across China, yet at the same
time, there was a call for more fitness professionals nationwide as the
awareness of exercise for health and fitness arose due to COVID-19.
Home-based trends are not ranked in the top 20 in the China
Fitness Trends, which is unlike the United States survey results
(nos. 2, 7, and 17). With regard to special populations, the fitness
trends in China emphasize children and adolescents (no. 3),
whereas in the United States, trends focus more on older adults
(no. 11). Of the top 20 trends in China, only 11 also were trends
in the United States.
Europe
Demographics information from Europe (N= 1571) can be
found at http://links.lww.com/FIT/A197.
Alexios Batrakoulis, M.S., ACSM-EP, ACSM-CPT, conducted
the fitness trends survey in Europe, which took a pan-European
approach that included more than just the 27 European Union
member states. Some of the major takeaways from this years
survey include the following:
Figure. Absolute data from all regions were ranked and sorted into the top 8 global health and fitness trends for 2022. The
eight most frequently represented trends from all regions include the following: 1) Exercise for weight loss (no. 2 in Brazil,
no. 1 in China, no. 8 in Europe, no. 1 in Mexico, no. 5 in Spain, and no. 5 in the United States), accounting for 20.5% of the top
8 popularity. 2) Personal training (no. 7 in Australia, no. 1 in Brazil, no. 3 in Europe, no. 3 in Mexico, no. 4 in Spain, and no. 8
in the United States), accounting for 18.4% of the top 8 popularity. 3) Functional fitness (no. 1 in Australia, no. 9 in Brazil, no.
8 in China, no. 10 in Europe, no. 2 in Mexico, and no. 2 in Spain), accounting for 15.1% of the top 8 popularity. 4) Body
weight exercises (no. 6 in Australia, no. 5 in Brazil, no. 5 in Europe, no. 5 in Mexico, and no. 9 in the United States),
accounting for 10.8% of the top 8 popularity. 5) Outdoor activities (no. 8 in Brazil, no. 9 in Europe, no. 7 in Mexico, no. 6 in
Spain, and no. 3 in the United States), accounting for 9.2% of the top 8 popularity. 6) Home exercise training (no. 10 in Brazil,
no. 1 in Europe,and no. 2 in the United States), accounting for9.2% of the top 8 popularity. 7) Wearable technology (no. 9 in
Australia,no. 4 in Europe, and no.1 in the United States), accounting for 8.6% of the top 8 popularity. 8) Strength training with
free weights (no. 2 in Australia, no. 9 in China, and no. 4 in the United States), accounting for 8.1% of the top 8 popularity.
2022 FITNESS TRENDS FROM AROUND THE GLOBE
28 ACSMsHealth & Fitness Journal
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Copyright © 2021 American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
In Europe, technology-oriented trends as well as fitness
activities that take place outside the traditional gym setting
(e.g., home and outdoors) appear to be the most attractive
among industry stakeholders.
Health-oriented trends, particularly exercise for health and spe-
cial populations, are popular, comprising six of the top 20 trends.
Mindbody modalities such as Pilates (no. 31, down from
no. 24 last year), yoga (no. 32, down from no. 26 last year),
and mindbody movement (no. 36, down from no. 35 last
year) showed reduced popularity, although boutique
fitness studios (no. 20, down from no. 16 last year) remain
relatively popular as a work setting in Europe.
The present findings point to the significant effect of the
COVID-19 pandemic on the European health and fitness indus-
try. The rapid need of hybrid fitness services is now a reality and
may be the most challenging issue for those practitioners who
Volume 26 | Number 1 www.acsm-healthfitness.org 29
Copyright © 2021 American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
typically offered training sessions and programs in the traditional
in-person modality. The digital transformation in the fitness in-
dustry could, however, be an excellent new path for evolution,
innovation, and progress not only for industry stakeholders but
also for consumers.
When comparing trends between Europe and the United States,
there are a number of overlapping themes that rise to the sur-
face. In both regions, trends influenced by the COVID-19 pan-
demic such as digital services and technology-oriented trends, as
well as home and outdoor fitness activities, seem to be substan-
tially popular. Exercise for health emerges as a hot area for the
majority of industry stakeholders in both regions and underpins
the need for high-quality services in several untapped markets.
Lastly, mindbody modalities such as Pilates, yoga, and tai chi
are not considered very popular among the masses in either re-
gion, suggesting that fitness professionals may need to consider
offering more adapted programs for inexperienced and special
populations. A total of 13 of the top 20 trends were shared
among the two regions.
For both Europeans and Americans, the regulation of the fit-
ness profession, as well as the rationale for certified practitioners
aiming to protect public health and offering high-quality fitness
services, appear to be attractive trends.
Mexico
Demographics information from Mexico (N=918)canbefound
at http://links.lww.com/FIT/A198.
Lino Francisco Jacobo Gomez Chavez, Ph.D., and his col-
leagues reported some of the major takeaways from this years
survey in Mexico that include the following:
Exercise for weight loss (no. 1) remains the primary fitness
trend in Mexico for the second consecutive year.
The top four trends in Mexico are in the same order as last
years survey, exercise for weight loss (no. 1), functional fit-
ness training (no. 2), personal training (no. 3), and strength
training (no. 4).
Unlike other regions, technology-focused trends such as
mobile exercise apps and online/on-demand classes were
not in the top 20 trends in Mexico.
COVID-19 has rocked the world, and the fitness sector has
not been an exception. In Mexico, the fitness industry faces
new challenges such as the recovery of users, spaces, jobs, sala-
ries, services, and protocols for the safe development of activities
in gyms and training centers. On the other hand, challenges con-
tinue that historically have not been solved, such as professional
2022 FITNESS TRENDS FROM AROUND THE GLOBE
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Copyright © 2021 American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
fitness regulation, the improvement of working conditions for
professionals in the sector, and the recognition of fitness activities
as part of the national public health strategy.
COVID-19 has rocked the world and the fitness
sector has not been an exception.
In general, there are a few differences among the five main
fitness trends between the United States and Mexico. The
United Statesrepeats two of its main trends, whereas Mexico re-
peats four, with only new activities/adaptation of postpandemic
services by COVID-19 as the newcomer. A total of 10 of the top
20 trends overall were shared among the two.
Spain
Demographics information from Spain (N= 520) can be found
at http://links.lww.com/FIT/A199.
Oscar L. Veiga, Ph.D., and his colleagues conducted the 2022
fitness trends in Spain. Some of the major takeaways include the
following:
Results from the 2022 Spanish survey are very similar to
the 2021 survey, with only two new trends emerging in
the top 20, plus all the trends were ranked in similar posi-
tions, indicating less change overall from the previous year.
The phenomena of outdoor activities continues to surface
as a potential consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Trends related to technology (wearables and mobile apps)
were ranked in a very low position in Spain in comparison
with the other surveys, demonstrating that technological
trends are not as prevalent in Spain.
The challenges posed by the pandemic as a result of COVID-19
focus on meeting the new needs of customers, adapting to their
way of consuming, and guaranteeing safe training that allows in-
dividuals to improve their health. In Spain, the health crisis has
caused a high rate of sedentary behavior because of restrictions
and confinement. The fitness sector has the challenge of being
able to offer an active return to normalcy, educating clients in
healthy habits, and putting the focus on society through profes-
sional and safe services. The use oftechnology or online training
can be used to complement services but may not be as effective
as a substitute for fitness centers.
Volume 26 | Number 1 www.acsm-healthfitness.org 31
Copyright © 2021 American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
One of the most surprising results within the Spanish survey is
that online fitness classes do not appear within the top 20 rank-
ing, which seems to suggest that its emergence inside the top 20
list in 2021 may have just been a transitory phenomenon from
the COVID pandemic and government mobility restrictions.
This is notable because most experts believed the delivery of on-
line services would continue post-COVID in all sectors, includ-
ing fitness, although this appears to have not been the case.
Thus, it is surprising that fitness professionals in Spain do not
feel that online services will continue as a trend. Additionally,
it is quite interesting that technology trends (wearables and apps)
have not gained relevance in Spanish either, remaining different
from what is seen in the United States. Lastly, although it cannot
be observed within the top 20, the trend of exercise is medi-
cinerose 11 positions and for the first time is on the verge of en-
tering the ranking at the 21st position. Overall, 11 of the top 20
fitness trends were shared with the United States.
United States
Inclusion criteria were that respondents must reside in the
United States, resulting in N= 3589 qualified candidates from
the original N= 4549. Demographic information from the
United States can be found here at http://links.lww.com/
FIT/A200.
A few trends to highlight in the 2022 top 20 fitness trends for
the United States include the following:
Wearable technology (no. 1), home exercise gyms (no. 2),
outdoor activities (no. 3), and strength training with free
weights (no. 4) may reveal the effects of the pandemic, as
people are doing more activities outside of a traditional
gym setting supported by new forms of technology. Exer-
cise for weight loss (no. 5, up from no. 16 last year) and
strength training with free weights (no. 4 this year, up from
no. 7 last year) increased this year, whereas body weight
training (no. 9, down from no. 3 last year) decreased.
These results may be related to 2020 and early 2021
shutdown-related inactivity, weight gain, or people
finding ways to workout with new free weight fitness
equipment.
Online live and on-demand exercise is the no. 7 trend. Al-
though the trend is a modification and slightly different
from last years no. 1 trend, online training,its lower
ranking compared with last years may be related to facil-
ities reopening.
2022 FITNESS TRENDS FROM AROUND THE GLOBE
32 ACSMsHealth & Fitness Journal
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January/February 2022
Copyright © 2021 American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
The effects of the pandemic have influenced
the fitness industry dramatically prompting
people to find creative ways to stay fit in their
home gym or outdoors while tracking their
progress with their wearable tech.
TOP 4 TAKEAWAYS
After reviewing the results across all the different regions of the
world that were surveyed, four of the most interesting findings
are highlighted below:
Pandemic audible for all
Interpreting the 2022 global fitness trends through the lens of
COVID-19 is a critical way to sift through the complexity of
emerging fitness patterns. Although each region does not tell
the same story, the overall rise of technology-based trends and
outdoor activities is likely a direct factor of the pandemic.
Regions such as Europe and Mexico even highlighted
COVID-19-specific recovery programs as a prevailing theme
throughout the year. Although not consistently found ineach re-
gion, these novel COVID-specific programs, in tandem with
online, digital, and remote technology trends, reflect a major
shift in fitness norms over the past year. Although the specific
effects of the pandemic cannot be isolated in this study, readers
are encouraged to maintain this contextual understanding
throughout their review.
The overall rise of technological based trends
and outdoor activities cannot be explained
without factoring in the pandemicseffect.
Living in a tech-driven world
Although wearable tech has been dominating the fitness indus-
try for some time now, it is no surprise that it is also increasingly
finding a place within peoples fitness routines. Wearable
technology ranked within the top 20 trends for the United
States (no. 1), Europe (no. 4), Australia (no. 9), Mexico (no. 15),
Brazil (no. 17), and Spain (no. 20). Although China is the only
region that does not have wearable technologywithin their
top 20 trends, it did move up to no. 22, from no. 36 last year.
Consumers have many options on how to accomplish their fit-
ness and wellness goals; therefore, health and fitness profes-
sionals and gyms will likely have many options to consider as
they look toward future implementation of tech in their respec-
tive fitness spaces.
Consumers have many options on how to
accomplish their fitness and wellness goals;
therefore, health and fitness professionals and
gyms may need to think through how to make
relevant changes to allow for these advances.
Move it and lose it?
Over the years, exercise for weight loss has consistently been
ranked among the top health and fitness trends in many regions.
Compared with last years rankings, exercise for weight loss re-
mained similar across most regions, except for a notable in-
crease in importance in the United States (no. 16 in 2021, no.
5 in 2022). Although it surprised many to see it ranked so low
last year in the United States, especially compared with other re-
gions, the outlook among United States-based health and fitness
professionals seems to have returned to a more globally impor-
tant trend in 2022. The one outlier region for this trend in 2022
is Australia, where exercise for weight loss comes in at no. 15.
Clever combos
A recurring regional dynamic that could not be ignored was
complimentary trends items that may be working together
to highlight broader themes. For example, the broader theme
of strength training may be seen in the presence of functional fit-
ness, strength training with free weights, and body weight train-
ing. These popular trends were found in many regions, such as
Australia, where all three were in the top 10. At least one of
these three complementary trends and up to all three were in
the top 10 for each region (1 in Europe and Spain; 2 in Brazil,
China, Europe and the United States; 3 in Australia and Mexico).
This trend is similar to the synergistic combinations seen with
other popular trends, such as wearable technology paired with
home gyms or outdoor activities combined with body weight
training. Readers are encouraged to look at trends within their
region as to what can be coupled together to efficiently meet
the various needs of their clients.
POINTS TO PONDER
This years trends bring to light an opportunity for discussion
around some compelling supportive and potentially divergent
trends. For example, in review of the top 20 trends, are there
complimentary or opposing themes both within and across re-
gions that would benefit from a more granular analysis? Because
none of these trends exist in a vacuum, a challenge for practi-
tioners becomes how to package or deliver various combina-
tions of trends. Rather than having all the answers, a few
thought-provoking questions will be raised in the following
Volume 26 | Number 1 www.acsm-healthfitness.org 33
Copyright © 2021 American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
section for health and fitness professionals to ponder while they
read these lists.
At-home fitness essentials
New to the trends this year, home gyms emerged as very pop-
ular in Europe (no. 1), the United States (no. 2), Brazil (no.
10), and Australia (no. 16). For many of the regions, home
gyms appeared alongside established trends like wearable
technology and outdoor activity. The effects of the pandemic
have influenced the fitness industry dramatically, prompting
people to find creative ways to stay fit in their home gym or
outdoors while tracking their progress with wearable tech.
Given the heightened risk of spending time indoors, especially
around others, it is no surprise that people are gravitating to-
ward outdoor workouts and/or taking the time to invest in a
personal home gym space. Maybe a bigger question is
whether fitness enthusiasts will want to go back to the gym,
and if so, when? With the shutdown of gyms, people around
theworldarelookingforalternative means of getting daily
exercise. Some segments of the industry are reaping the ben-
efits of this; as demand for at-home fitness equipment ex-
plodes, the industry is experiencing massive growth. Will the
skyrocketing demand for fitness equipment, manufacturing,
shipping delays, and price increases further prompt gym
goers to focus on more body weight training outdoors because
of necessity or access?
It is no surprise that people are gravitating
toward the great outdoors and/or taking the
time to invest in a personal home gym space as
many people navigate fitness facilities closing
for long periods of time or remain unsure of
when it is safe to go back.
Will the skyrocketing demand for fitness
equipment continue to prompt gym goers to
focus on more body weight training outdoors
because of necessity or access?
Certified fitness professionals versus independent
fitness enthusiasts
Could certified fitness coaches be more important than initially
thought, or is online remote-based technology phasing out these
professionals? Despite the increase in tech-driven fitness trends
and autonomous self-directed exercises, most regions also
witnessed an equally strong acknowledgement of the impor-
tance of registered or certified fitness professionals. Although
these seem in contrast to one another, findings may suggest that
despite limited access to hands-on professionals during the
COVID pandemic, a premium is still placed on tapping the insight
of these certified professionals. The available data support the idea
that in most regions, people value some sort of professionalor
coachto help guide individualsfitness journeys. Future analyses
of this international survey data may be well served to examine
whether this particular group diverges from tech-based fitness
trends, or if professionals are actually complementing and aug-
menting these efforts. For example, are those who engage in
wearable technology and online classes more likely to seek pro-
fessionally certified instructors to help monitor and track their
progress or are individuals who hirethese coaches more likely
to seek alternative trends?
HIIT me with your best shot
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has historically been one
of the most popular fitness trends, remaining the no. 1 trend in
the worldwide survey from 2014 to 2018. However, there has
been a slow but steady drop in its ranking since, as HIIT now sits
at no. 6 in the United States (no. 5 in 2021) and Europe (no.2 in
2021). HIIT does still remain high across the board in every re-
gion, though, between no. 6 and no. 14 everywhere except
China (no. 26), but it is not quite as popular as it was while dom-
inating the rankings in the mid to late 2010s. At the same time,
exercise for weight loss rose from no. 16 last year in the United
States to no. 5 this year, and the trend maintained its strong pop-
ularity in other regions. Thus, although HIIT has the potential
toward impactful weight loss, does the downward shift of HIIT
coupled with the continued popularity of exercise for weight loss
signal that people are moving away from HIIT as a strategy for
weight loss?
With the shutdown of gyms, so many people
around the world are slowly working on building
their home gym, whereas others are taking
advantage of outdoor activity spaces to get
their blood pumping.
For the Children? Fitness Programs for Older Adults
versus Children and Adolescents
Some regions place a greater emphasis on older adultsfitness
compared with childrens fitness than others. This finding is
2022 FITNESS TRENDS FROM AROUND THE GLOBE
34 ACSMsHealth & Fitness Journal
®
January/February 2022
Copyright © 2021 American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
demonstrated by fitness programs for older adults being found
within the top 20 trends for Australia (no. 3), Brazil (no. 6),
Spain (no. 10), the United States (no. 11), Europe (no. 13), and
Mexico (no. 24), although it was not an available trend created
within the survey for China. The authors for China, on the other
hand, created a trend called exercise and sport for children and
adolescents,which scored very high (no. 3 in China). Con-
versely, long-term youth development (no. 35 in Australia and
the United States; no. 27 in Brazil; no. 34 in Europe), children
and exercise (no. 24 in Australia; no. 25 in Europe and Brazil;
no. 32 in the United States; no. 37 in Spain), and exercise pro-
grams for children and adolescents with obesity (no. 25 in Spain)
scored very low relative to the youth emphasis in China. The
question to ponder here is, why are children and youth fitness-
related trends ranked so low outside of China?
LIMITATIONS
As rich as the data are from each region, there are several survey
limitations to note. First, readers should use caution in assuming
that trends in one region are representative of other regions.
Please refer to Table 1, which highlights several differences and
similaritiesrepresentedwithineachregion.Additionally,because
most regions identified at least some trends unique to them, these
trends were unable to be explored in a true region by region com-
parison for this year and previous years. Because the number of
potential trends we explored ranged from 30 to 48 this year,
the time it took to complete the survey may have affected the
overall quality of the responses. Lastly and most importantly, this
survey is sent to health and fitness professionals within the indus-
try across different regions, rather than the general population.
Therefore, it is essential that the readers of this article understand
that respondents represent fitness trends that are supported by
practitioners within the field, not consumers.
SUMMARY
The authors of this paper are extremely thankful to work with
each region toprovide a global representation of ACSMs fitness
trends. We encourage other regions to participate in this annual
survey as a means to gain a more accurate representation of the
top 20 fitness trends around the world. We hope to continue to
expand this global partnership to make yearly improvements
and progress on the survey design, methodology, and imple-
mentation. ACSM and our international contributors have a
tremendous opportunity to continue leading the way in this
evolving international collaboration, which is well positioned
to have a continuously positive effect on the worldwide health
fitness industry.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to express a big thank you to Managing
Editor Lori Tish for providing all materials needed to complete
this article and for her endless support throughout the entire
process associated with ACSMs Worldwide Survey of Fitness
Trends. Without Lori this article would not be possible. A big
thankstoEditor-in-ChiefBradA.Roy,Ph.D.,FACSMand
Associate Editor-in-Chief Gary Liguori, Ph.D., FACSM,
and ACSMs Past President Walter R. Thompson, Ph.D.,
FACSM, for encouraging a global partnership to recognize
and compare fitness trends with our international collabora-
tors. A very special thanks to the authors and team members
who contributed to this global trends article that we continue
to strive to improve.
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Apunts Educacio Fisica I Esports. 2017;128(2):10825.
8. Kercher VM, Kercher KK, Bennion T, et al. Fitness trends from around the globe.
ACSMs Health Fit J. 2021;25(1):2031.
9. Kercher VM. International comparisons: ACSMs worldwide survey of fitness
trends. ACSM s Healt h Fit J. 2018;22(6):249.
10. Kercher VM, Feito Y, Yates B. Regional comparisons: the worldwide survey of fitness
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11. Thompson WR. Worldwide survey of fitness trends for 2022. ACSMs Health Fitness
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Disclosure:The authors declare no conflict of interest and do
not have any financial disclosures.
VanessaM.Kercher,Ph.D.,ACSM-
EP, M.Ed., is a clinical assistant profes-
sor in the Kinesiology Department, School
of Public Health, Indiana University.
Dr. Kerchers research passion focuses on
helping individuals optimize their physi-
cal activity experiences through the utiliza-
tion of behavioral strategies to promote sus-
tainable, positive health behaviors.
Kyle Kercher, M.S., ACSM-EP, ACSM-
CPT, is a Ph.D. candidate, an NIH R01
research coordinator, and an associate in-
structor at Indiana University (IU). He
is studying health behavior in the IU
School of Public Health, and his research
focuses on the intersection of public health
and youth sport participation.
Volume 26 | Number 1 www.acsm-healthfitness.org 35
Copyright © 2021 American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
Trevor Bennion, D.H.Sc., is the foun-
der of fitnphys.com and an instructor in
ATSUs graduate kinesiology program.
Dr. Bennions research involvement in-
cludes substrate oxidation and metabolic
flexibility, with specific focus on the in-
fluence from sprint interval training.
Paul Levy, MPH, is an environmental
health researcher specializing in partici-
patory action research that integrates
community voice and cocreation. He
has explored this topic through the lens
of urban transformation, public health
infrastructure, and environmental justice.
His work integrates stakeholders across
systems, including international collaborations to enhance Bogotas
public transport system to EPA grassroots water safety efforts
across the United States.
Chris Alexander, ESSAM, AEP, AES,
has been working in the fitness industry
for more than 20 years. He is currently
a general manager for Standards and
Development at the not-for-profit associ-
ation Fitness Australia; a director for
International Confederation of Regis-
tered Exercise Professionals; a secretary
to Australian Fitness Industry Stan-
dards Council; and a practicing accredited exercise physiologist.
For the second consecutive year, he has led the investigation of the
fitness trends in Australia.
Paulo Costa Amaral, Ph.D., MBA,
M.Sc., is a coordinator and professor in
graduate and postgraduate courses of Phys-
ical Education and Administration. He
also serves as a health/wellness coach and
a speaker in fitness, wellness, and gym man-
agement. For the third consecutive year, he
has led the fitness trends survey in Brazil.
Yong-Ming Li, Ph.D., is a professor in
the School of Physical Education and
Sport Training at the Shanghai Univer-
sity of Sport. He is also a distinguished
research fellow at the China Institute of
Sport Science. He is a researcher on ener-
getics in exercise and sports and a con-
sultant to the fitness industry in China.
He is currently serving the International Relations Committee
of the American College of Sports Medicine. Yong-Ming Li
and his colleagues have led the investigation of the fitness trends
in China for the fourth consecutive year.
Jia Han, Ph.D., is a professor in the
Physiotherapy and Sport Rehabilitation
Department at the Shanghai University
of Sport. He also holds adjunct research
positions at the University of Canberra
and the Swinburne University of Tech-
nology, Australia. He serves as the vice
president of the China Sport Rehabilitation
and Physiotherapy Committee and the associate editor of the
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport.
Yang Liu, Ph.D., is a professor in the
School of Physical Education and Sport
Training at the Shanghai University of
Sport. He is also a researcher at the
Shanghai Research Center for Physical
Fitness and Health of Children and Ad-
olescents. He is currently serving as the
coleader of Active Healthy Kids China.
Ran Wang, Ph.D., is a professor at the
School of Physical Education and Sport
Training at the Shanghai University of
Sport. He received a bachelorsanda
masters degree in kinesiology from Beijing
Sport University and completed his doc-
toral training at the University of Central
Florida. His research interests include the
development of performance testing meth-
odologies, the analysis of physical and physiological profiles,
and the assessment of adaptations to different training stimulus
in varying populations.
Hai-Yan Huang, Ph.D., is a professor
at the School of Economics and Man-
agement at the Shanghai University of
Sport. He serves as the vice president of
Sciences Academy in Shanghai University
of Sport, the deputy director of Shanghai
Collaborative Innovation Center of Sports
and Health Industry, the deputy secretary-
general of Sports Industry Association in YRD area, and the
executive member of Sport Industry Committee of Shanghai
Sport Science Society.
Bing-Hong Gao, Ph.D., is a professor
and the dean of the School of Physical
Education and Sport Training at the
Shanghai University of Sport. He serves
as a member of the Expert Board of Sci-
ence and Technology, and Training Su-
pervision for Tokyo Olympic Games at
the General Administration of Sport of
China. He is also a consultant of Shanghai Citizen Community
Fitness and an editor in China Sport Science and Tech-
nology and Journal of Shanghai University of Sport.
2022 FITNESS TRENDS FROM AROUND THE GLOBE
36 ACSMsHealth & Fitness Journal
®
January/February 2022
Copyright © 2021 American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
Alexios Batrakoulis, M.S., ACSM-
EP, ACSM-CPT, is a teaching assistant
in the Department of Physical Education
and Sport Science at the University of
Thessaly in Trikala, Greece. He was
named the 2018 IDEA Personal Trainer
of the Year, 2019 IDEA China Fitness
Innovator, 2020 NSCA Personal Trainer
of the Year, and 2021 PFP Trainer of the Year, and he was also a
finalist for the 2021 ACSM Certified Professional of the Year. He
is also the founder of the International Obesity Exercise Training In-
stitute. For the third consecutive year, he has led the fitness trends sur-
vey in Europe.
Lino Francisco Jacobo Gómez Chávez,
Ph.D., is a research professor from the Uni-
versity Center of the Coast of the University
of Guadalajara, Mexico. He is a member
of the academic research group UDG-
CA-1076-Determinants of Health. In re-
cent years, he has developed an application
of healthy lifestyles knowledge. Dr. Chávez
and his colleagues have led the fitness trends survey in Mexico for
the third consecutive year.
Jorge López Haro, B.Sc., M.Sc., is a
professor in Physical Culture and Sports
at the University Center of the Coast from
University of Guadalajara, México. He
has earned a Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.)
degree in physical activity and sports from
the University of Seville, Spain, and a
Master of Science (M.Sc.) degree in inno-
vationandresearchinphysicalactivity science and sport from the
University of León, Spain.
Adrián Ricardo Pelayo Zavalza, M.Sc.,
is a professor at the University Center of the
Coast of the University of Guadalajara.
He has earned a bachelors degree in
physical culture and sports and a mas-
ters degree in science for development,
sustainability, and tourism. In recent
years, he has developed an application
of healthy lifestyles knowledge.
Luis Eduardo Aguirre Rodríguez, B.Sc.,
has a degree in Physical Culture and Sports
from the University of Guadalajara. He
has a Master of Sciences from the Univer-
sity of Guadalajara. He is a member of
the academic research group UDG-CA-
1076-Determinants of Health. He has earned a diploma in scien-
tific research and evaluation in high-performance sports by the
Autonomous University of Nuevo León and a Certificate in critical
library science, search processes, selection, and communication of
scientific information from the University of Scheffield.
Oscar L. Veiga, Ph.D., M.Sc., is se-
nior lecturer and researcher in physical
activity and sport sciences at Autonomus
University of Madrid (Spain) where his
research focuses on physical activity and
fitness for health in several populations.
He also teaches about new trends in
physical activity in bachelor studies and
is the current director of the Spanish Survey on Fitness Trends.
Dr. Veiga and his colleagues led the investigation of the fitness
trends in Spain for the second consecutive year.
Manel Valcarce-Torrente, Ph.D., is a
professor in Sport Sciences at the Univer-
sity of Lleida (Spain) and CEO of
Valgo Sport Consulting, an enterprise fo-
cused on company consulting and human
resources training for fitness business in
Spain. He is also a professor hired by
the Valencian International University
and participates in numerous masters degrees and postgraduate
courses related to sports management and marketing.
Alejandro Romero-Caballero, M.Sc.,
is a sports science predoctoral researcher
at Autonomous University of Madrid
(Spain) where his research focuses on
sports performance and physical activity
for health. He is also a coach and physi-
cal trainer in soccer.
BRIDGING THE GAP
The results from ACSMs Worldwide Survey of Fitness
Trends guide the health and fitness industry in making
critical programming, resource, and investment
decisions. These results are not only applicable to
commercial, clinical, corporate, and community fitness
programs worldwide but also provide unique regional
preferences. Although the prediction of future trends for
each region is difficult, the data captured in these
surveys provide health and fitness professionals
information to track and compare the trajectory of trends
in the field all over the world.
Volume 26 | Number 1 www.acsm-healthfitness.org 37
Copyright © 2021 American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
... Notably, Pilates training, as a physical exercise method, has differentiated in order to align with recent scientific evidence, aiming to serve various populations in sports, fitness, and clinical settings [42]. Thus, it is considered a widely used therapeutic or preventive exercise intervention, although it is not currently included in top health and fitness trends worldwide according to the latest regional [43][44][45][46] and global reports [47]. Recently published data on the effects of such an alternative type of exercise on body composition in overweight and obese individuals showed remarkable improvements [35]. ...
... Diseases 2022, 10, x 3 of 15 tings [42]. Thus, it is considered a widely used therapeutic or preventive exercise intervention, although it is not currently included in top health and fitness trends worldwide according to the latest regional [43][44][45][46] and global reports [47]. Recently published data on the effects of such an alternative type of exercise on body composition in overweight and obese individuals showed remarkable improvements [35]. ...
Full-text available
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The prevalence of overweightness and obesity has been documented as a major public health issue since it has increased at an alarming rate worldwide. Structured physical exercise programs have been reported as an essential strategy for preventing, managing, and treating obesity, inducing critical improvements in various physiological and psychological markers. However, it is unclear whether Pilates training can elicit positive changes in body composition, physical fitness, cardiometabolic health, and well-being among overweight and obese populations. The purpose of this topical review was to catalog studies investigating the physiological and psychological adaptations to Pilates training in order to identify what outcomes have been assessed, the research methods used, and the results. The inclusion/exclusion criteria were met by 14 published articles involving 582 participants (83% female) who were overweight or obese. The present topical review on Pilates training-induced adaptations shows that this widely used exercise type can significantly improve the majority of the selected indicators. These beneficial changes are frequently focused on anthropometric parameters, body composition, glucose, and lipid metabolism, as well as blood pressure in sedentary overweight or obese women. Specialized equipment-based Pilates interventions and trials investigating various mental health indices were limited. Further research is warranted in this area, emphasizing the Pilates training configuration and potential mechanisms behind positive alterations in several psychophysiological markers through large-scale randomized controlled trials with superior methodological quality, implementing long-term interventions in various populations that are overweight and obese.
... The 2020 WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behavior describe a recommendation supported by moderate-certainty evidence regarding the additional health benefits on health outcomes through participation in muscle-strengthening activities at moderate or greater intensity on two or more days a week beyond aerobic exercises [3]. In addition, various forms of resistance training have been included as the top 20 Global Trends for 2022, according to the latest report by the American College of Sports Medicine [23], indicating their great popularity around the globe. Among the possible muscle-strengthening activities, water-based resistance training can be highlighted as an established training method for a wide range of individuals and, when adequately prescribed, can lead to significant gains in muscle strength [24]. ...
Full-text available
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Considering that water immersion may acutely reduce blood pressure (BP) and that exercise may elicit positive post-exercise hypotension (PEH) responses, we aimed to analyze the presence of PEH in normotensive individuals and compare its magnitude between two resistance training sessions performed in aquatic or land environments. Ten physically active men (23.2 ± 3.1 years) performed the two training protocols in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. BP measurements were performed for 30 min (at 5 min intervals) both prior to (resting) and after each of the protocols. No differences were observed between protocols at baseline (p > 0.05). Only the water-based resistance training protocol resulted in a systolic BP reduction from 10 to 20 min post-exercise (all p < 0.05) compared to baseline. Compared to the land-based session, systolic BP was lower in the water-based protocol from 10 to 25 min post-exercise (all p < 0.05). On the other hand, diastolic BP showed a similar PEH effect between water and land-based protocols for the entire 30 min post-session period (all p < 0.001). Our results suggest that water-based resistance training holds the potential as a nonpharmacological strategy to lower BP levels following exercise.
... As a pivotal therapeutic strategy to improve physical and mental health, exercise training (ET), including aerobic, strength, stretching, and balance exercises ameliorates QoL in the general population 13 , being consistently ranked among the top health and fitness trends 14,15 . Similar health benefits from ET are usually observed among overweight and obese adults, facilitating weight loss and improving lipid profile and glucose metabolism 16 ; however, its impact on the QoL of obese individuals is still controversial, with some studies demonstrating positive results 17,18 and others showing null effects [19][20][21] . ...
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Purpose: Exercise has been documented as a critical strategy for improving physical and mental health. However, the impact of exercise training (ET) on quality of life (QoL) among obese is controversial. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of a 20-week ET program in women with obesity and the influence of baseline weight status on QoL responses to the ET program. Methods: This secondary analysis from a quasi-experimental study included 40 obese women (BMI >30 kg/m2) aged between 18 and 65 years old (20 interventions and 20 controls). The intervention group participated in a moderate-to-vigorous intensity ET thrice a week, nutritional guidance, and psychological support. The control group received the same activities of nutritional guidance and psychological support but did not perform the ET. Measurements of QoL (WHOQOL-Bref) were performed at baseline and after 20- week follow-up. Results: No significant impact of 20-week ET on QoL among obese women was observed. However, greater improvements in physical health, psychological, social relationship, and environment domains were observed for every increase in 1 unit of baseline BMI, except for the overall QoL score. Conclusions/Recommendation: We can speculate that the better QoL responses to ET among those with higher BMI at baseline may be explained by the fact that individuals with more severe obesity are more impacted by functional limitations, stigmatization, discrimination, and social isolation; therefore, presenting worse QoL.
... Portugal (Franco et al., 2021), Grecia (Batrakoulis et al., 2021) y Colombia (Valcarce et al., 2021. Esto ha permitido estructurar la compilación de esos resultados, generando la comparación de los mismos, (Kercher et al., 2021(Kercher et al., -2022 El equipo de trabajo en Colombia inició la realización de la encuesta de tendencias fitness, recolectando datos en el 2018 para generar las tendencias del 2019, situación que se repitió en el 2020 y en el 2021 se logra la primera publicación de las tendencias predominantes en el sector fitness en Colombia, el formato de la encuesta se basó en la metodología propuesta por el ACSM (Thompson, 2006(Thompson, -2022 claramente generando la adaptación al contexto nacional colombiano. En la encuesta del año 2021 (Valcarce et al., 2021) los resultados del top 20, se compararon con el ranking de la encuesta nacional española y la encuesta internacional (Thompson, 2021), para el 2022 se replicó la propuesta tanto en aplicación como MENTOR Revista de Investigación Educativa y Deportiva Septiembre-Diciembre 2022; 1(3), 283-308 MENTOR Revista de Investigación Educativa y Deportiva Septiembre-Diciembre 2022; 1(3), 283-308 ...
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Para la presente investigación se planteó como objetivo conocer y confrontar las principales tendencias del sector fitness para el año 2023 en Colombia. En esta quinta edición los resultados fueron obtenidos mediante la aplicación de un cuestionario en modalidad online en personal vinculado al sector fitness, tomando como base la metodología desarrollada por el Colegio Americano de Medicina del Deporte (ACSM), en la encuesta internacional sobre tendencias en el fitness. El cuestionario fue compartido con 2500 profesionales del sector en diferentes regiones y departamentos de Colombia, se obtiene un 34.29% de participación para un total de 1200 respuestas (39.9% mujeres, 54.2% hombres, 6.7% intersexual). Dentro de los resultados se destaca en el top 5 de tendencias fitness en Colombia, entrenamiento personal, programas de ejercicio para niños/as y adolescentes, entrenamiento interválico de alta intensidad (HIIT), regulación, ejercicio de los profesionales del fitness y entrenamiento funcional. Se establece una coincidencia de 15 tendencias con relación a la encuesta del año 2022 en Colombia, teniendo una notoria fluctuación en las posiciones, se incorporan 5 nuevas tendencias para el presente año. Se destaca que los resultados obtenidos se direccionan a la salud, equipos multidisciplinares, personal certificado y trabajo con autocarga.
... levels even after a short-term (2 weeks), low-volume (20 min/session), highintensity (.80% VȮ 2 peak) exercise intervention (34). Traditional, singlecomponent HIIT (i.e., walking, running, cycling, stair climbing, or rowing) may be a valuable exercise mode for cardiometabolic health prevention (10,11,21,29,67) and has been reported as a popular (28) and efficient strategy for improving glycemic control, redox status, body composition, visceral fat, and physical fitness in this population (20,26,34,37,56). Recently, functional HIIT-type protocols seem to be effective exercise approaches for lowering insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors (19,43). ...
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Exercise is an effective tool for managing and treating type II diabetes and may be a useful component of a diabetes management program. Both short- or long-term exercise interventions can improve physical fitness, metabolic health, and cardiovascular function in individuals with poor glycemic control. Incorporating aerobic and resistance exercise as part of a comprehensive diabetes management plan can play a vital role in the fight against this chronic metabolic disease. Progression and individualized exercise programming are critical for an effective and enjoyable exercise experience in a gym setting. With respect to safety, exercise professionals should be aware of special considerations and potential complications persons with T2DM can experience when exercising.
... 4 Exercise for weight loss and health promotion is one of the top health and fitness trends worldwide. 5,6 According to the current guidelines for the management of obesity in adults, regular multimodal exercise is fundamental for enhancing cardiometabolic health, even in the absence of weight loss. 7,8 Specifically, continuous endurance training (CET) is primarily recommended (≥250 min·wk -1 ), supplemented by 2 to 3 bouts of resistance training (RT; >13 metabolic equivalent of task-h·wk -1 ) is required for clinically meaningful weight loss aiming to improve numerous cardiometabolic health indicators. ...
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Background: Although regular exercise is recommended for preventing and treating overweight/obesity, the most effective exercise type for improving cardiometabolic health in individuals with overweight/obesity remains largely undecided. This network meta-analysis aimed to evaluate and rank the comparative efficacy of 5 exercise modalities on cardiometabolic health measures in individuals with overweight/obesity. Methods: A database search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science from inception up to September 2020. The review focused on randomized controlled trials involving exercise interventions consisting of continuous endurance training, interval training, resistance training, combined aerobic and resistance training (combined training), and hybrid-type training. Exercise interventions aimed to improve somatometric variables, body composition, lipid metabolism, glucose control, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular strength. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to evaluate eligible studies. A random-effects network meta-analysis was performed within a frequentist framework. The intervention ranking was carried out using a Bayesian model where mean and SD were equal to the respective frequentist estimates. Results: A total of 4331 participants (59% female; mean age: 38.7±12.3 years) from 81 studies were included. Combined training was the most effective modality and hybrid-type training the second most effective in improving cardiometabolic health-related outcomes in these populations suggesting a higher efficacy for multicomponent exercise interventions compared to single-component modalities, that is, continuous endurance training, interval training, and resistance training. A subgroup analysis revealed that the effects from different exercise types were mediated by gender. Conclusions: These findings corroborate the latest guidelines on exercise for individuals with overweight/obesity highlighting the importance of a multicomponent exercise approach to improve cardiometabolic health. Physicians and healthcare professionals should consider prescribing multicomponent exercise interventions to adults with overweight/obesity to maximize clinical outcomes. Registration: URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/; Unique identifier: CRD42020202647.
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Physical activity has been documented as a foundational approach for weight management and obesity, improving several cardiometabolic and mental health indices. However, it is not clear whether yoga practice can induce beneficial improvements in anthropometric and body composition parameters, performance, metabolic health, and well-being among overweight/obese people. The aim of this topical review was to catalog training studies examining the psychophysiological responses to yoga interventions in order to detect which outcomes have been investigated, the research methods applied, and the conclusions. The inclusion/exclusion criteria were met by 22 published articles involving 1178 (56% female) overweight/obese participants. This brief review on yoga-induced adaptations demonstrates that this widely used meditative movement activity can meaningfully improve the vast majority of the selected markers. These beneficial alterations are focused mostly on various anthropometric and body composition variables, cardiovascular disease risk factors, physical fitness parameters, quality of life, and stress in previously inactive overweight/obese individuals. Instead, yoga-based physical exercise interventions investigating anxiety, depression, mood state, exercise enjoyment, affect valence, and adherence were limited. Further research should focus on the yoga intervention configuration and potential mechanisms behind favorable changes in various psychophysiological indices through large-scale, rigorously designed randomized controlled trials implementing long-term interventions in overweight/obese individuals.
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Since 2020 there has been an increase in demand for home workouts. Therefore, different ways of delivering distance training have been proposed to promote “stay active at home.” This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three different training programs consisting of a total of 15 workouts (three sessions perweek): supervised livestreaming (LS), unsupervised following a video recording (VR), and unsupervised following a written program (WP). Changes in anthropometric and cardiovascular variables, muscle fitness, and physical activity levels were evaluated. To provide a meaningful analysis for significant comparisons between small groups, mean differences (D), 95% confidence interval (95% C.I.), and Cohen’s effect sizes (E.S.) were also calculated. The three training modalities increased physical activity levels, with an adherence rate of LS = 93.3%, VR = 86%, and WP = 74%. Although there was no reduction in body weight, waist circumference decreased by 1.3 cm (95% C.I. = 􀀀2.1, 􀀀0.5; E.S. = 0.170; p < 0.004). Furthermore, where LS, VR, and WP resulted in improvements in muscle fitness, only LS showed changes in cardiovascular variables, such as resting heart rate (D = 􀀀7.3 bpm; 95% C.I. = 􀀀11.9, 􀀀2.7; E.S. = 1.296; p < 0.001) and Ruffier’s index (D = 􀀀2.1bpm; 95% C.I. = 􀀀3.5, 􀀀0.8; E.S. 1.099; p < 0.001). Remote online training proved its effectiveness over a short period of time. However, supervised training proved to be the most effective, highlighting the importance of an experienced trainer.
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The gut microbiome is an important factor in human health and disease. While preliminary studies have found some evidence that physical activity is associated with gut microbiome richness, diversity, and composition, this relationship is not fully understood and has not been previously characterized in a large, population-based cohort. In this study, we estimated the association between several measures of physical activity and the gut microbiota in a cohort of 720 Wisconsin residents. Our sample had a mean age of 55 years (range: 18, 94), was 42% male, and 83% of participants self-identified as White. Gut microbial composition was assessed using gene sequencing of the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA extracted from stool. We found that an increase of one standard deviation in weekly minutes spent in active transportation was associated with an increase in alpha diversity, particularly in Chao1’s richness (7.57, 95% CI: 2.55, 12.59) and Shannon’s diversity (0.04, 95% CI: 0.0008, 0.09). We identified interactions in the association between Inverse Simpson’s diversity and physical activity, wherein active transportation for individuals living in a rural environment was associated with additional increases in diversity (4.69, 95% CI: 1.64, 7.73). We also conducted several permutational ANOVAs (PERMANOVA) and negative binomial regression analyses to estimate the relationship between physical activity and microbiome composition. We found that being physically active and increased physical activity time were associated with increased abundance of bacteria in the family Erysipelotrichaceae. Active transportation was associated with increased abundance of bacteria in the genus Phascolarctobacterium , and decreased abundance of Clostridium . Minutes in active transportation was associated with a decreased abundance of the family Clostridiaceae.
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Self-selected workloads are shown to be more enjoyable than researcher-selected workloads. In addition, it is unclear if sedentary adults find aerobic interval or continuous exercise more pleasant. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two acute bouts (interval vs. continuous) of self-selected moderate-intensity treadmill exercises on perceived enjoyment and self-efficacy towards exercise in a sedentary cohort. Methods: Sixteen sedentary adults completed two 30 min bouts of moderate-intensity treadmill activity, one interval and one continuous. Participants blindly (could not see speed, grade, and heart rate) selected their own treadmill workload with guidance from the Borg RPE 6–20 scale. Post-exercise self-efficacy and perceived enjoyment were assessed using the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale and the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale, respectively. Exercise workloads using treadmill speed and grade and exercise heart rate were compared between trials. Results: No significant differences were found between conditions for self-selected workloads (p = 0.62), self-efficacy (p = 0.58), perceived enjoyment (p = 0.41), and heart rate (p = 0.12). Discussion: Sedentary individuals reported no difference in self-efficacy or perceived exercise enjoyment. Participants were, however, adequate in self-selecting their own intensities with RPE guidance as there were no differences in the workloads across conditions. These results suggest that when able to self-select moderate-intensity exercise workloads, sedentary individuals equally enjoy both interval and continuous exercise.
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The year 2020 is the most memorable in many of our lives, especially those of us in the fitness industry.The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic changed everything. Even as you read this, health clubs are closing, or at the very best restructuring their services. For that reason, this 15th annual survey of fitness trends will have the most impact it has ever had on the industry. For example, new to this year’s survey was the inclusion of potential new trends such as online training and virtual training. From the 2020 survey, virtual/online training was redefined as the more specific online training (and was the no. 1 trend for 2021). Virtual training became a defined trend on its own (and was the no. 6 trend for 2021). The results of this annual survey will help the health and fitness industry make some critical business decisions for future growth and development. These investments can be based on emerging trends that have been identified by health fitness professionals all over the world and not on the latest exercise innovation marketed during late night infomercials on television or the next hottest celebrity endorsing a product.
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International awareness of the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM's) Worldwide Survey of Fitness Trends has exponentially increased since its inception 15 years ago. Practitioners across the world recognize the value in assessing health and fitness trends annually as one approach to guide future programming efforts. For this reason, several countries and regions have independently sought to utilize ACSM’s worldwide survey to investigate their own fitness trends. In this edition, Australia and Mexico contribute survey results for the first time, alongside well-established relationships in Brazil, China, Europe, and Spain, which provide a more global representation of health and fitness trends. For the third consecutive year, we intend to support the individuality of each country and region by providing evidence of popular health and fitness programming that is identifiable to each region and then make some comparisons. We believe that by distilling the survey results down and gathering substantial insight from representatives in those regions, we are providing industry stakeholders with a strategic advantage into future fitness offerings which may drive growth in their business. Practitioners across the world recognize the value in assessing health and fitness trends annually as one approach to guide future programming efforts. During this time of global uncertainty, clinical and commercial health and fitness programs should recommit themselves to understanding consumer behavior and create a multifaceted strategy. Distilling the survey results down and gathering substantial insight from representatives in various global regions provides industry stakeholders with a strategic advantage into future fitness offerings which may drive business growth. ACSM’s 2021 Worldwide Survey of Fitness Trends, and regional comparisons, will be vital in the health and fitness industry for the year ahead and maybe beyond. The global COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated health and fitness consumer activity (e.g., the home market) in some respects, yet slowed it down in others (e.g., commercial health clubs).
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The aims of the first-ever European survey on fitness trends were to i) identify the top 20 trends for Europe based on input from survey respondents, ii) use the most popular trends in the European health and fitness industry to support the fight against inactivity epidemic, and iii) explore demographic relationships among fitness trend survey respondents in Europe. Personal training, high-intensity interval training, body weight training, functional fitness, and small group personal training were identified as the top 5 trends, respectively. Interestingly, health-oriented fitness trends are very attractive demonstrating that 7 out of 20 top trends are associated with exercise for health and special populations. Technology-oriented fitness trends are not yet very popular, whereas boutique fitness studios seem to be an emergent work setting in Europe. The European survey of fitness trends was conducted for the first time aiming to support all involved stakeholders and to recognize the current status of the industry regarding the most popular exercise modes and programs. Moreover, it may assist both practitioners and entrepreneurs to enhance customer engagement and experience through applicable strategies within the health and fitness industry.
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The sphere of fitness develops dynamically and is one of the most profitable in the world and, as a result, investment attractive. Nevertheless, the competitive ability of a fitness club depends on the speed with which the new directions are introduced in it and what range of services they provide to clients. That is why it is important to be able to foresee the most popular trends and the ways of their adaptation to a concept of a particular fitness club. The objective-comparison of world and national trends and an attempt to evaluate tendencies of fitness industry development in Ukraine. Methods. The research is based on the analysis of sources of literature as well as thoughts of experts concerning perspectives of fitness development in Ukraine. Results. The comparison of the world and national (the USA, China, Spain) trends of 2018 has allowed to discover that world trends reflect the USA trends by 95% and only by a half-trends of the other represented countries. It is connected with the fact that in the research for revealing of the world trends out of representatives of 41 countries-91,3 % respondents are from the USA. The author does not highlight this in the original article. The present fact proves the necessity of research of national trends specifically and not to focus on the «world» tendencies, as they reflect development prospects mostly in one country (USA). This statement is true and for the trends of 2019, because the study of this issue in Spain coincides with the results of the world rating only by 60 %. Conclusions. Such researches have not been conducted in Ukraine, but specialists stress the growth in the popularity of such directions in the future: child fitness, fitness for older adults, experienced and educated fitness professionals, exercise and weight loss, securing safety and quality of fitness services, nutrition guidance (trends are presented in no particular order). In general, fitness professionals consider the necessity of forming fitness culture among the population of various cities and villages of all the regions in Ukraine to be an overriding necessity for the development of the fitness sphere.
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Every year for the past 10 years, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) has administered a global survey on fitness trends. This study has reproduced the methodology used by the ACSM surveys with the goal of identifying trends in the fitness sector in Spain. The opinion of 672 professionals in the fitness sector about 40 potential trends in the sector for 2017 were gathered via an online questionnaire. The results are compared and discussed with the results of the international surveys administered by the ACSM from 2007 to 2016. The results show that the trends in the fitness sector in Spain for 2017 largely dovetail with those found in the ACSM’s last international survey for 2016. Thus, 14 of the trends within the Top 20 are identical in both studies, with the top positions being “body weight training”, “high-intensity interval training” and “certified, experienced trained staff”. On the other hand, 4 trends in Spain’s Top 20 were specific to our country. Likewise, 12 of the identified trends match the Top 20 ranked trends in the past decade (2007-2016) devised based on the results of the ACSM’s international surveys.
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From this article, the reader should understand the following concepts: • the difference between a fad and a trend • worldwide trends in the commercial, corporate, clinical (including medical fitness), and community health fitness industry • expert opinions about identified fitness trends for 2014
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Statement Through the translation and utilization of the ACSM fitness trend survey, both China and Spain were able to investigate similarities and differences as well as identify local fitness industry trends. We encourage Spain, China, and other countries to continue to study the ACSM fitness trends annually and look forward to learning about trends in years to come.