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Abstract

Full comprehension of abstract concepts present in engineering education has been usually considered challenging. Engaging multimedia resources have proven to be useful pedagogical aids to increase students’ motivation. In fact, already existing dissemination videos might be suitable to fulfill this objective. This research aims to contribute assessing video implications in the enhancement of engineering education quality, through the evaluation of the current pedagogical use of a specific electrical engineering YouTube channel. To meet this objective, we characterize the use of such channel through a quantitative methodology based on a 5-point Likert scale survey (Cronbach’s alpha=0.76). Sample data was collected from 912 respondents, who assessed the channel content and format adequacy, users’ preferences, and their perceptions on video integration in educational contexts. Results show (3.98 over 5) that there is currently a far-reaching educational use of the channel, and a general perception that its contents and audiovisual format are adequate for such purpose. Most users agree (4.74 over 5) that this kind of pedagogical resource could enhance education quality. As limitations, an underrepresentation of teachers in the sample could be highlighted, though student community is well represented. Overall findings suggest that the format and cognitive load in scientific dissemination YouTube channels might be perceived as suitable for pedagogical use, as means to improve education experience. This complementary use unveils the need to implement technology integration models to facilitate their pedagogical insertion, which will be addressed as future works along with more evaluations of similar dissemination channels.
IEEE EDUCATION SOCIETY SECTION
Received November 22, 2021, accepted December 25, 2021, date of publication December 28, 2021,
date of current version January 26, 2022.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3139305
Assessing Users’ Perception on the Current and
Potential Educational Value of an Electrical
Engineering YouTube Channel
RUBEN LIJO 1,2, (Member, IEEE), EDUARDO QUEVEDO 3, (Member, IEEE),
JOSE JUAN CASTRO 4, AND RICARD HORTA 5
1Power Consulting, Hitachi Energy, 28037 Madrid, Spain
2Escuela de Doctorado y Estudios de Posgrado, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38200 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Spain
3Institute for Applied Microelectronics (IUMA), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
4Department of Psychology, Sociology and Social Works, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), 35001 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
5Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (Barcelona Tech), 08223 Terrassa, Spain
Corresponding author: Ruben Lijo (ruben.lijo@hitachienergy.com)
This work was supported by the University Foundation of Las Palmas (FULP), Training of Trainers through the e-Tutor Project under
Grant 240/088/1173.
ABSTRACT Full comprehension of abstract concepts present in engineering education has been usually
considered challenging. Engaging multimedia resources have proven to be useful pedagogical aids to
increase students’ motivation. In fact, already existing dissemination videos might be suitable to fulfill this
objective. This research aims to contribute assessing video implications in the enhancement of engineering
education quality through the evaluation of the current pedagogical use of a specific electrical engineering
YouTube channel. To meet this objective, we characterize the use of such channel through a quantitative
methodology based on a 5-point Likert scale survey (Cronbach’s alpha =0.76). Sample data were collected
from 912 respondents, evaluating users’ perception on the channel’s content and format adequacy, their
preferences, and their perceptions on video integration in educational contexts. Results show (3.98 over
5) that there is currently a far-reaching educational use of the channel, and a general perception that its
contents and audiovisual format are adequate for such purpose. Most users agree (4.74 over 5) that this
kind of pedagogical resource could enhance education quality. As limitations, an underrepresentation of
teachers in the sample could be highlighted, though student community is well represented. Overall findings
suggest that the format and cognitive load in scientific dissemination YouTube channels might be perceived
as suitable for pedagogical use, as means to improve education experience. This complementary use unveils
the need to implement technology integration models to facilitate their pedagogical insertion, which will be
addressed as future works along with more evaluations of similar dissemination channels.
INDEX TERMS Electrical engineering education, educational activities, videos, YouTube.
I. INTRODUCTION
During 2020, UNESCO reported that educative centers’ clo-
sure due to covid-19 pandemic affected an estimate of 1.5 bil-
lion students worldwide, which represents approximately
90% of global student population [1]. Several authors have
highlighted lockdown implications in education, agreeing
that technology unavailability and lack of previous experi-
ences with online learning were relevant aspects increasing
its impact [2]–[5]. In this situation, online learning had an
The associate editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and
approving it for publication was James Harland.
essential role in ensuring the continuity of academic activity,
but this new paradigm carries some challenges that might
affect education quality, such as non-universal technological
access or the possible lack of an adequate home environment,
both key aspects when online education is involved [4], [5].
The current context, as clearly evidenced during covid-19
pandemic, is unfortunate for all students, [4], [5], but it is
specially challenging in disciplines with wide presence of
abstract concepts such as Science, Technology, Engineering
and Mathematics (STEM) [6].
An additional challenge specifically found in engineering
students is the ability to properly understand the connections
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between subjects and being able to integrate them in the big
picture of the degree and its professional applications [7].
In those regards, the integration of Information and Commu-
nications Technologies (ICT) in distance education plays a
facilitating role that allows creating virtual communities that
boost learning through search and interaction among pairs.
Through the creation of these communities, students are
involved in social, cognitive and lecturer’s presence, which
are the three main constructs for a successful constructivist
interaction, as defined by the Community of Inquiry (CoI)
paradigm [8], [9].
Engineering education quality could be enhanced by the
improvement of abovementioned weaknesses, and the use
of audiovisual materials might be a complementary solu-
tion. Research in pedagogical use of video material pro-
vides numerous references of its enhancement of parameters
such as long-term retention of concepts [10], comprehen-
sion and deeper learning [11]. Descriptive images and ani-
mations, usually included in educational videos, are helpful
for complex and abstract concepts understanding, as they
provide complementary meaning to theoretical explanations,
and they can also be reproduced by students when incor-
porated as a new problem-solving strategy [12]. These
educational videos often focus on the creation of interest
and show examples of practical applications, which also
promote students’ engagement and develop their critical
thinking ability [13]. Such characteristics also make them
suitable for the teaching of soft skills in engineering educa-
tion [14], using them as key format in gamification strategies,
as well as supportive resources in learning environments
and content delivery resources in Massive Online Open
Courses (MOOC).
Additionally, when referring to affective deficiencies,
videos are also proven to be an effective support on stu-
dents’ motivation and on reducing academic stress, as well
as anxiety levels [15], [16]. These aspects are highly related
to dropout rates, which are specifically elevated in engi-
neering disciplines [17]. Videos not only can be accessed
anywhere and anytime, but also students are in control of their
pace. Moreover, new free time in synchronous classes due
to video integration, that would otherwise be used for topics
introduction and the resolution of basic initial questions,
can now be dedicated to other activities that promote active
learning from those educational videos [18]. An example of
such activities could be the implementation of problem based
learning methodologies, as studied in previous research with
positive results for teaching-learning processes [19]. Another
successful example would be the use of instructional videos
in engineering flipped classrooms, where they have proven to
have an overall positive effect on student awareness of real-
life applications [20]. Authors such as Shoufan [21] specif-
ically highlight YouTube videos as key backup material in
active learning strategies, highlighting its success in students’
engagement and perception for purposes such as step-by-step
learning procedures, as well as descriptive and conceptual
explanations.
The development of such practical activities is crucial in
online learning environments, as they are able to enhance
online participation. As previously stated, CoI paradigm
acknowledges this active component as vital to develop a
successful and sustainable online learning experience [8].
Other models such as Technological Pedagogical Content
Knowledge (TPACK) [22], [23], also describe the continuous
knowledge improvement of lecturers as essential to design
useful constructivist educational environments, through a
successful integration of current technology.
Trying to continue studying the implications that audiovi-
sual material might have in the described context, this article
focuses on currently online available engineering communi-
cation videos, and the role they might play in higher engi-
neering education environments. Our case study is based on
Sígueme la Corriente, a Spanish channel specialized in elec-
trical engineering [24]. This study is focused on the assess-
ment of the channel’s user preferences towards its educational
integration. Therefore, the following research questions have
been established: are YouTube dissemination videos being
integrated in electrical engineering education? In that case,
what are their most valued features for such pedagogical use?
Consequently, three specific objectives have been defined
for this study:
(1) Detect if such channel, created with the purpose of
entertaining the general public through technological
dissemination, can be having a side use as educational
resource.
(2) Evaluate the perception of its audience on key aspects
for video adequacy to be integrated in educational envi-
ronments (format and content adequacy).
(3) Evaluate the opinion of its audience on the integration
of pedagogical videos in education.
Aligned with the aims of the study, results have shown an
important pedagogical use of the channel mainly from pre-
university teachers, university students and junior electrical
engineers. Format and contents are highly rated as adequate
for its integration in educational contexts. Additionally, the
channel’s users show a remarkable tendency to consider
videos as a successful resource to enhance education quality.
Overall, the findings of this study provide useful insight about
the potential suitability of the channel for the creation of
future sections specifically designed to be used as educational
aid, in service of the needs detected in different Electrical
Engineering degrees.
The paper is organized as follows: the currently available
literature related to our research is presented in section II. The
sample considered and the survey developed to characterize
the audience is detailed in section III. Section IV introduces
the main results, discussed in section V. Conclusions are
highlighted in section VI.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
This study aims to contribute to the integration of audiovisual
resources as means of improving online learning of STEM
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disciplines and dynamize constructive learning strategies.
These resources might constitute a helpful pedagogical aid
when used within the context of CoI model [8], enhancing
the educational experience by the improvement of param-
eters such as content engagement, interaction with pairs
through video-related activities, and self-regulated learn-
ing. The proactive use of video resources might create
a self-motivational environment able to promote students’
engagement and goal setting [16]. Furthermore, ICT-TPACK
model is based on constructs that could also be benefited
by the integration of videos as pedagogical aid [25], [26].
The ultimate goal of this educational model is the creation
of new scenarios that could improve teaching-learning pro-
cesses using ICT, through the analysis and enhancement of
the interactions between technology with contents and ped-
agogical methods. Both CoI and TPACK models can bene-
fit from each other fostering a constructivist perspective of
knowledge, focused on the student [27].
Our research takes over the existing literature on social
network and video integration in educational contexts. Audio-
visual resources, and particularly those currently available in
YouTube as the most used platform [28], [29], are showing
several benefits as a pedagogical complementary tool, that
we intend to explore in this section. Negativity towards new
processes is acknowledged by Zachos et al. [30] when refer-
ring to online social networks integration in higher education,
though they also provide wide evidence on their positive
contributions as didactic complementary tools [31].
However, results from previous research [32] show that
teachers did not present resistance when incorporating ICT
into their lectures. A 5-point Likert scale survey was devel-
oped in this study, where teachers from Universidad de Las
Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC) expressed their opinion on
ICT tools as supporting resource for attendance-based teach-
ing, showing how parameters such as materials accessibil-
ity and communication were importantly enhanced. Increase
of motivation and engagement are also key benefits from
integrating ICT in higher education, as exposed by several
authors [11], [21], [29], [33].
As pointed out by Lee and Lehto [34], YouTube didactic
value might not be easily recognized by both students and
teachers due to its focus towards entertainment instead of
education. Yet, despite this is an extrinsic task goal for the
platform, research driven by Černá and Borkovcová [35] also
show that there is clear prevalence from YouTube when refer-
ring to video application in educational contexts. Moreover,
Gil-Quintana et al. [33] studied some of the characteristics
of the communicative model widely used by youtubers. Fur-
thermore, they also considered the interaction with follow-
ers and high engagement rates. They concluded that these
parameters might turn youtubers in a preferred academic
reference for students. The connective nature of YouTube
also makes it an interesting candidate to be increasingly
integrated in educative contexts, as it contributes to incre-
ment social-skill building in students through interaction and
discussions [31], [36].
All abovementioned benefits could merge in a resulting
student performance increase. D’Aquila et al. [37] developed
a case study confirming the improvement of the academic
performance in a sample of 246 individuals assessed through
a Likert scale questionnaire and analyzed by a multivariate
regression test. These findings are also coherent with results
from Expósito et al. [38], whose research show how instruc-
tional video integration in teaching activities resulted in a
significant reduction of the probability of achieving low test
scores.
As previously exposed, YouTube might constitute an ideal
complementary tool for educational contents. However, the
issue of pedagogical video integration in university STEM
education is far to be completely solved. Several authors have
pointed out the role of teachers as content facilitators more
than content creators, acknowledging the real challenge of
selecting adequate channels and videos [35], [39]. Therefore,
the challenge focuses on teachers being able to select videos
whose format and cognitive load is appropriate for students
and course needs, which is not straightforward due to the
excess of information and unregulated contents, that results
in the appearance of the decision paradox.
Some strategies have proven to be significantly useful.
Brame’s research [18] suggests that it is crucial to correctly
measure the cognitive load of recommended didactic videos,
boosting active learning linked to those resources and maxi-
mizing student engagement by selecting easy-to-follow video
formats. Tadbier and Shoufan [39] acknowledge the chal-
lenges associated with adequate channel and videos selection,
and suggest the creation of trustworthy rankings that could be
useful to aggregate didactic YouTube channels. Additionally,
other authors [34], [40], [41] suggest the use of rubrics as
guidelines for adequate video selection, highlighting aspects
such as accessibility, production quality, explanation rhythm,
accuracy and completeness, narrator confidence and engag-
ing communication style. In consonance with these parame-
ters, Romero-Tena et al. [42] propose the use of a Likert scale
questionnaire that helps identifying video suitability in terms
of lecturer’s perception on abovementioned metrics.
As a further contribution to these challenges and propos-
als, this article focuses on exploring the perception on the
educational value of an electrical engineering dissemination
YouTube channel applying the most representative metrics
extracted from literature, as exposed in the Methodology
section. This analysis is also intended to explore a potential
full educational development of the channel, unveiling the
benefits of implementing such educational videos in Electri-
cal Engineering degrees with the main purpose of easing the
motivation and understanding of complex abstract ideas and
wicked problems surrounding engineering challenges as per
the energy perspective [43].
III. METHODOLOGY
A. CASE STUDY
This paper presents an analysis of the current and poten-
tial pedagogical use of Sígueme la Corriente through a
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TABLE 1. Questionnaire.
characterization of its audience and an evaluation of its
users’ preferences. Sígueme la Corriente was created in
2017 with the aim to contribute to Spanish-speaking public
with more engineering dissemination contents. It has increas-
ingly reached an audience particularly interested in energy,
electricity and sustainability topics.
The channel was not created with an educational purpose;
however, comments and views sources suggest that the chan-
nel might be having a side use as a pedagogical resource.
Hence, this study aims to confirm whether the channel is
already being used for such applications, and what are its
audience perception on key parameters that would make it
adequate for educational use, in consonance with metrics
highlighted in Literature Review. Additionally, this study
evaluates the perception of the channel’s audience on the
implications of didactic videos integration in education. For
those purposes, a questionnaire has been developed as data
acquisition instrument.
B. DATA COLLECTION
The designed questionnaire has considered a quantitative
research methodology. A descriptive study is provided using
a five-point Likert scale, where scores correspond to the fol-
lowing perceptions: 1 as ‘strongly disagree’, 2 as ‘disagree’,
3 as ‘neutral’, 4 as ‘agree’, and 5 as ‘strongly agree’. The
descriptors adopted for the questionnaire have been selected
as per the main metrics defined in Morain and Swarts’s
rubric [40], which are also in consonance with the Tech-
nology Acceptance Model (TAM) as implemented by Lee
and Lehto for YouTube procedural learning user acceptance
analysis [34]. Table 1 shows the designed questionnaire.
This instrument mainly focuses on characterizing Sígueme
la Corriente users, to be able to determine if there is an
existing pedagogical use of its contents. Additionally, a set
of questions has been designed to evaluate the audience
perception on key metrics related to contents and format
adequacy, considering the main parameters mentioned in Lit-
erature Review. Finally, a last set of questions is included to
assess the audience perception on didactic videos integration
in education.
The developed questionnaire was provided to Sígueme la
Corriente subscribers on July 14th, 2020, and answers were
collected for 18 days, until July 31st. The population consid-
ered in this study has been 69,829 users, as it was the total
amount of subscribers when the survey was closed.
The minimum representative sample is calculated through
the Cochran equation [44] with finite population correction
(1). It describes the sample size (n) given a targeted confi-
dence level (which provides a score value (Z)), margin of
error (ε), population proportion (p), and population size (N).
For a confidence value of 95% (1.96 score), a margin of error
of 5% and an assumed population proportion of 50%, the
minimum sample needed to be representative would be of
383 participants.
n=
Z2·p(1p)
ε2
1+z2p(1p)
ε2N
(1)
The questionnaire developed for this study was shared
with the channel’s audience, achieving a maximum sample of
912 individuals, which exceeds by 529 the minimum required
(383) for a 95% confidence level. Though not all questions
were answered by the totality of the sample, the minimum
sample size has been 849, which is still above the minimum
sample size for 95% confidence level.
The collected information is available online through IEEE
DataPort [45].
C. DATA ANALYSIS
As means to characterize the sample, and the total audience,
demographic questions were included as part of the survey.
On the other hand, population data were extracted from
YouTube statistics for the period from December 28th, 2016
(when the channel was opened) to July 31st, 2020 (when
the survey was closed to the public). Table 2 represents a
comparison between the sample and the whole population.
In terms of sex distribution, it is noteworthy that only
a 3.9% of the population are women. As per the sample
proportion, it seems that women were more willing to answer
the proposed survey, since there was a women participation
of 7.6%. Moreover, according to Fig. 1, it is clear that the
majority of women are in the group between 18-24 years,
whereas men age distribution is wider. This is in consonance
with the demographic statistics.
Referring to age proportions, it is remarkable that the group
between 25 and 34 years old is not correctly represented
according to the defined confidence interval. However, the
group between 18-24 years (most of them university stu-
dents as can be seen in Fig. 2) is almost half of the sam-
ple (48.68 %), exceeding the upper limit of the confidence
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TABLE 2. Comparison between Population and sample information.
FIGURE 1. Sex vs age boxplot (N =912).
interval, which means that this group was clearly willing
to participate. It is also interesting to highlight that most
electrical engineers are within their early professional life.
Finally, considering individuals geo-location, most sam-
ple proportions are inside the defined confidence intervals
excepting Spain, which is overrepresented, and Mexico,
which is underrepresented. The reason for this could be that,
when the survey was conducted, the channel was temporarily
more devoted to the Spanish public considering the whole
group of subscribers due to specific strategies to integrate new
videos in Spanish universities. In any case, when a heat map
of survey participants’ geo-location is presented, as in Fig. 3,
it is clear that the channel public is mainly Latin American.
FIGURE 2. Profession vs age boxplot (N =912). 0: Pre-university
students; 1: University students; 2: Pre-university teachers; 3: University
teachers; 4: Professionals rlectrical engineering sector; 5: Professionals in
other engineering sector (non-electrical); 6: Others.
FIGURE 3. Heat map of survey participants’ geo-location.
Statistical analysis shown in the Results section has been
performed using the software Jamovi [46], considering a
confidence level of 95% in all cases. To evaluate potential
correlations between qualitative variables, chi-square tests
have been used.
D. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY
In order to validate the reliability of this questionnaire as a
suitable data collecting instrument, Cronbach’s alpha method
was implemented obtaining a coefficient of 0.76. This score
is considered as adequate according to authors such as Nun-
nally [47], who states that, for early stages of a research,
a value of 0.5 or 0.6 would be sufficient. Other authors,
such as Huh et al. [48] consider that reliability value in
an exploratory research should be equal or higher than 0.6.
Therefore, the survey used as instrument in this article counts
on a high reliability rate.
After conducting and validating the questionnaire as our
data acquisition instrument, Bartlett’s test of sphericity and
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy
were studied to allow the posterior performance of an
exploratory factorial analysis. Results showed a χ2(153) =
2315.3 (p <0.001), and a KMO measure of 0.850, confirming
the adequacy of our questionnaire for the performance of a
factorial analysis.
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Five factors have been identified to explain at least 50% of
variance. Accordingly, questions are organized in those five
main categories, presented hereafter sorted by their contribu-
tion to the objectives of this study:
1) Assessment on channel use preferences.
Channel use for non-educative purpose (Q4, Q5,
Q10 and Q12).
Fan phenomena (immediacy) (Q1).
2) Assessment on channel contents and format adequacy.
Content adequacy to solve problems or satisfy top-
ics of interest (Q2, Q3, Q6, Q9 and Q11).
Audiovisual format adequacy and communicative
style (Q7, Q8, Q13, Q14 and Q15).
3) Perception on educational video integration (Q16, Q17
and Q18).
E. CONFIDENTIALITY
All the answers to the questionnaire were completely anony-
mous. Additionally, all respondents gave informed consent
for the scientific use of the data gathered.
IV. RESULTS
This section presents the results obtained through the con-
ducted survey, organized by subsections as per the objectives
of this study. A quantitative analysis of Likert scale in each
question of the survey has been performed. Results can be
found at Table 3. Additionally, comparative analyses have
been performed through chi-square tests, unveiling useful
information about the descriptors defined in the question-
naire. Results from chi-squared evaluations can be found at
Table 4.
A. ASSESSMENT ON CHANNEL USE PREFERENCES
As presented in Table 3, descriptors for channel use in
non-educative purposes (Q4, Q5, Q10 and Q12) show a high
frequency of ‘agree’ and ‘strongly agree’ answers. The use
related to stay updated in news on the sector has suffered
of more ‘neutral’ answers than the other questions. On the
other hand, the entertainment use of the channel shows a
remarkable 87.2% positive answers, leading to a mean score
of 4.46 within the Likert scale.
Though pedagogical use of the channel seems to be less
frequent than entertainment use, a high tendency to use the
channel for educational purposes can still be found, as shown
by the 72.7% positive answers. This finding confirms that
the channel is also widely implemented with educational pur-
pose, in consonance with our research question. When com-
paring users’ profession with the frequency of educational
use (ID6), chi-squared tests show significant correlation for a
95% confidence level (p =0.046), though evidence backing
up this correlation is not as strong as the ones found in
previous descriptors comparisons shown in Table 4. The use
of the channel in educative contexts is more associated with
pre-university teachers, where 80.8% answered positively.
Moreover, university students and professionals in electrical
TABLE 3. Questionnaire identifiers (ID), sample (N), and Likert scale
frequencies (%), mean scores and standard deviations (SD).
TABLE 4. Comparative χ2tests between key descriptors of the
questionnaire.
engineering sector tend to use the channel for learning pur-
poses with respective values of 73.3% and 78.9%.
After chi-squared evaluations, shown in Table 4, no sig-
nificant correlation (p =0.087) has been found between
educational use of the channel and the opinion on rigor
parameter (ID1). However, a strong correlation (p <0.001)
is found for entertainment use and rigor (ID2). Regarding
videos currentness, results show a significant correlation (p <
0.001) with both educational (ID3) and entertainment use
(ID4).
Another interesting behavior of non-educational use of the
channel is the fan phenomena, which in certain sense could
be evaluated through the immediacy of users’ reaction to
new contents on the channel (Q1). Most students reported
watching both recently published videos (Q1) and old chan-
nel’s videos (Q2). However, there are more quantity of users
that tend to watch old videos with higher frequency than
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those published at the same week, with respective ‘strongly
agree’ frequencies of 45.8% for old videos and 27.7% for
new ones. These indicators might unveil the idea that Sígueme
la Corriente covers more a utility need rather than a fan-
based use, which may be also in consonance with educational
applications.
B. ASSESSMENT ON CHANNEL CONTENTS AND FORMAT
ADEQUACY
When evaluating content adequacy to solve problems or inter-
ests (Q2, Q3, Q6, Q9 and Q11), results show interesting infor-
mation. As shown in Table 3, there is a high quantity of users
that resort to old videos, with a 77.5% of positive answers.
Comparative results in Table 4 show that there is strong evi-
dence suggesting significant correlation (p <0.001) between
entertainment use of the channel and a predominant use of
old published videos (ID5), as means to satisfy specific topics
that the user is searching for.
As per the capability of Sígueme la Corriente to gen-
erate interest in its audience, almost all participants agree
that the selection of topics matches their interests, with an
82.4% of positive answers frequency. Additionally, almost
all users (91.6%) believe that the technical level is adequate
to ensure good concept comprehension, concluding with a
mean 4.58 score that the channel’s contents are helpful to
understand concepts the audience is interested in.
Comparative analysis proves the dependance of didactic
use of the channel with respect to the perception that the
videos have a proper technical level (ID7), with significant
results (p <0.001). Finally, there is also significant corre-
lation (p <0.001) among the educative use of the channel
and the opinion that the channels’ contents are helpful to
understand interesting topics for each individual (ID8).
As explained in Literature Review, audiovisual format ade-
quacy and communicative style (Q7, Q8, Q13, Q14 and Q15)
are also relevant descriptors when analyzing the suitability of
videos for educational purposes. Referring to those descrip-
tors, parameters such as engaging explanations, rhythm,
video duration, and audiovisual resources used for the video
creation, are of particular importance.
Results show general agreement in the perception that the
presenter communication abilities are able to make contents
both attractive and interesting, with a frequency of 95.6% of
positive responses to the Likert scale. Additionally, there is
a 92.5% positive response to the belief that the rhythm of
videos is adequate to ensure good concept understanding.
Concerning format adequacy, video’s duration is considered
adequate by most participants, with 88.4% positive responses,
as well as the selection of images and animations to help
concept comprehension, achieving 91.7% positive feedback.
Chi-squared tests ID9, ID10 and ID11 in Table 4 also
show significant correlation (p <0.001) between the suc-
cessful educational use of videos and format aspects such as
expressive abilities, technical level, and the artistic expression
(defined in terms of audiovisual resources adequacy). These
findings are in direct connection with our research ques-
tion regarding the features that make Sígueme la Corrientes
videos to be perceived as suitable for educational use.
Because of users’ perception on abovementioned descrip-
tors, there is an extended belief that didactic videos could
be useful to enhance education quality, with 96.5% positive
responses and a mean score of 4.74. Additionally, compara-
tive chi-squared test shows significant correlation (p <0.001)
between those who use the channel for educational purpose
and the perception that didactic videos could enhance educa-
tion quality (ID12).
C. PERCEPTION ON VIDEOS INTEGRATION IN AN
EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT
As per user opinion on the integration of videos as educational
tool (Q16, Q17 and Q18), most users think that it would be
useful to provide teachers with competences for the creation
of their own videos, with 85.2% positive response. However,
less users consider that classrooms are well equipped for the
projection of videos, with 26% responses remaining neutral.
On the other hand, most answers remain negative or neutral
in the perception that didactic videos could fully substi-
tute assistance-based education. Chi-squared analysis shows
correlation for a 95% confidence level (p =0.025) when
considering if profession is significant on the perception
that didactic videos could be a possible substitute for pres-
ence in education (ID13). On one hand, university students
showed tendency to disagree with the affirmation, with 50.3%
answering ‘disagree’ or ‘strongly disagree’ versus the 24.3%
that answered ‘agree’ or ‘strongly agree’. On the other hand,
results show that university teachers seem to think otherwise,
as 60% answered ‘agree’ versus a 30% that answered ‘dis-
agree’ or ‘strongly disagree’. However, this finding might be
affected by a small sample of university teachers, as stated in
‘Limitations’ subsection.
V. DISCUSSION, LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE WORKS
A. CHANNEL POTENTIAL EDUCATIONAL USE THROUGH
ITS AUDIENCE CHARACTERIZATION
Findings support the initial hypothesis that a YouTube infor-
mal dissemination channel such as Sígueme la Corriente,
which was created and developed for entertainment purposes,
is also having a side use as an educational aid. Audience
perception is very positive towards its educational value and
adequacy.
The main channel use preferences are entertainment and
education, with respective 87.2% and 72.7% positive use
frequency. When evaluating profession distribution among
users, the main groups that count on the channel for edu-
cational purposes are pre-university teachers, university stu-
dents and junior electrical engineers.
Though didactic use of the channel was highly rated in
questionnaire results, it is still under entertainment use (as
shown in results), which can be explained by the fact that
the channel’s contents has not been developed to consider
such pedagogical use. The fact that YouTube is mainly
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R. Lijo et al.: Assessing Users’ Perception on Current and Potential Educational Value of Electrical Engineering YouTube Channel
an entertainment platform was acknowledged by Lee and
Lehto [34], addressing it as a challenge for a widely recog-
nition of the educational value of the platform. However,
educational use of Sígueme la Corriente can still be seen
as high for a YouTube informal dissemination channel origi-
nated without the aim of covering didactic uses.
Regarding the perception on channel’s contents rigorous-
ness, a strong correlation has been detected between enter-
tainment use and the perception of rigor as an important
parameter. These results lead us to infer that, for the chan-
nel’s audience, rigor is not as characteristic from the utility
perspective as from the entertainment perspective. This is also
coherent with results from the factorial analysis, exposed in
‘Methodology’ section.
Referring to channel users’ characteristics, it is also inter-
esting to remark the fact that, though gender distribution
of the channel’s user is remarkably asymmetrical, women
are mostly young (as shown in Fig. 1). This appreciation is
consistent with results shown by Saurabh and Gautam [49],
in whose analysis of an information technology YouTube
channel there were 20-30% women users, and they were
mainly distributed through 13 and 24 years old. These
data might back up the hypothesis that young women are
becoming increasingly more interested in engineering and
technology.
Besides channel use tendencies, there are also several
aspects worth highlighting related to content and format
adequacy. When evaluating the audience perception on such
descriptors, a remarkably positive perception can be found
from survey participants on production quality, video length,
explanation rhythm, accuracy and completeness, narrator
confidence, and engaging communication style. These are
the main characteristics of evaluation rubrics suggested by
several authors [40]–[42] to evaluate the suitability of certain
videos as teaching aid for specific concepts that might need
visual reinforcement. Those descriptors are also in conso-
nance with the Lee and Lehto’s proposal of extended TAM
for user acceptance of YouTube procedural learning [34].
Additionally, results show correlation between those who
use the channel for educational purposes and the percep-
tion that its technical level is adequate for their needs,
which can be associated with the conclusion that the chan-
nel’s contents are perceived as adequate for pedagogical
integration.
When evaluating videos usefulness to satisfy the under-
standing of topics of interest, we found a remarkably pos-
itive reaction with a 4.58 score (in a scale from 1 to 5).
This result is in consonance with the 4.15 score obtained
by D’Aquila et al. [37] for the same question asked in
accounting video-aided lessons. Also Wells et al. [15] asked
their students about video tutorials usefulness to help learning
their unit material, obtaining frequencies of 46% and 45%
to ‘always’ and ‘often’, respectively. These results serve as
practical demonstrations of video potential to facilitate com-
prehension of abstract complex concepts characteristically
found in STEM education.
Furthermore, the perception on engagement as evaluating
parameter for the presenter communication style is highly
rated by participants, with a score of 4.61. This idea has
also been highlighted by Gil-Quintana et al. [33], with
results showing youtubers as the preferred academic refer-
ence for students due to their communicative skills. More-
over, Shoufan findings [21] also show that the main feedback
from students when integrating videos as part of the learning
experience are focused on an increase of interest and motiva-
tion, which directly results in an engagement enhancement.
Results collected by Jackman and Roberts [11] also high-
lights illustrations, explanations, and examples as the main
areas of recall when referring to long-term learning and better
retention, metrics of which Sígueme la Corriente users tend
to show a very positive perception (as reflected in answers to
Q7, Q11 and Q14).
Additionally, drawings and animations are frequently
used in the channels’ videos to illustrate engineering con-
cepts. These features might also be used by students when
approaching such concepts. Aligned with this Wu et al. [12]
described how drawing prompts, both driven by classes and
video, might constitute a useful tool to increase students’
use of drawing as a problem-solving strategy. This prac-
tice, as quantified in their study case, can enhance cognitive
engagement and performance in an engineering active learn-
ing environment.
Our results have also shown strong correlation in users’
perception between video format aspects (defined by com-
municative abilities, technical level, and artistic integration to
illustrate technical concepts) and pedagogical aspects. These
findings confirm results from Romero-Tena et al. [42], where
significant correlation was exposed for the same descriptors.
The implication of this correlation is also consistent with pre-
viously detailed results, as it also describes how the content
and format adequacy of videos is a relevant aspect for user’s
perception of their educational value.
Finally, when evaluating the audience opinion on the
effects of pedagogical video integration in education, most
users think that teachers should be provided with more com-
petences on video creation for their lectures. This belief is
also clearly related to UN’s education quality Sustainable
Development Goal (SDG) indicator 4.4.1, which goal is to
substantially increase the number of young and adults with
relevant ICT skills. The overall initiative in which Sígueme
la Corriente is immersed aims to contribute to this goal
by developing specific educational contents framed in tech-
nology integration models such as CoI and ICT-TPACK.
Additionally, SDG 4.7.1. goal is implicitly included as part
of our project contribution, as it relies on ensuring that all
learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote
sustainable development. Sígueme la Corriente specifically
addresses such sustainable development promotion in all its
videos, as it is a channel particularly specialized in energy
and sustainability.
In relation to possible future implementation of educa-
tional videos, there is no agreement regarding the idea that
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R. Lijo et al.: Assessing Users’ Perception on Current and Potential Educational Value of Electrical Engineering YouTube Channel
didactic videos could completely substitute assistance-based
education. Instead, whereas there is only a 25.7% of posi-
tive answers, a frequency of 50.1% answered negatively to
this descriptor. The remaining 24.2% maintained a neutral
perspective. Results for university student perception show a
divided opinion where 50.3% were inclined to reject this idea
of fully substituting classroom teaching by media resources.
It is a percentage accurately backing up previous findings by
D’Aquila [37] where 54.14% of students prefer live classes
than video format as complete substitution. These findings
are also consistent with research from Muthuprasad et al. [4],
where more than 70% of students answered negatively or
neutrally to each one of the following statements: (1) Online
courses were preferable than classroom learning, (2) Online
classes were more helpful to comprehend course materials,
and (3) Online environment makes communication with the
instructor easier.
As shown by results from Gupta and Sengupta [50],
students find desirable to integrate YouTube webinars as
substitution of some presential lessons due to its greater
accessibility and the option to attend from any location. How-
ever, factors such as technology availability or the need from
face-to-face interaction are still valued.
This partial rejection to video format as full replacement on
traditional assistance-based education, together with overall
previous evaluation on user perception of videos benefits,
suggests students’ recognition and preference for videos as
a complementary educational tool, which could not only
help understanding exposed knowledge from specific sub-
jects but also encourage an increase of motivation and interest
in its contents. Previous research driven by Castro-Sánchez
and Chirino-Alemán [32] also shows evidence that teach-
ers consider ICT tools as helpful supporting resources for
attendance-based lectures, instead of substitutes that would
acquire the main role in the whole pedagogical process.
As found by Pattier [29], three out of four teachers are
satisfied with the use of video material as pedagogical aid,
also stating that most of those that sowed rejection were
based on the lack of appropriate technological resources in
their educational centers. Research driven by Lo & Hew [20]
show how the use of this kind of instructional videos in
flipped classroom strategies has demonstrated to have a pos-
itive effect over traditional lecture-based learning, enabling
students’ self-paced learning and awareness of the practical
applications of the studied concepts. On the other hand, Wells
et al. [15] research has shown video tutorials as the most
helpful resource for students, with a punctuation of 84%, over
other resources such as lecture slides, assignments or even
lectures themselves, suggesting that their students might not
be opposed to the idea of video material use as substitute
of classroom lectures. More research should be performed
aiming to confirm the significance of these differences.
To conclude, there is an overall positive evaluation on the
perception of Sígueme la Corriente users on its adequacy
as an educational tool. Results show how the vast majority
of the channel’s users believe that didactic videos such as
presented ones could help enhancing the quality of educa-
tion, with 96.5% positive responses. Exposed findings back
up the idea that informal scientific dissemination audiovi-
sual resources might be serving both entertainment and edu-
cational purposes, and this conclusion unveils the need to
implement on such dissemination channels formal strategies
to successfully develop educational contents. This kind of
resources could also contribute creating connections between
technical subjects in electrical engineering that would oth-
erwise be perceived as individual and unrelated, as pointed
out by Maciejewski et al. [7]. Videos as the ones provided
by Sígueme la Corriente could also be useful to provide
pre-university students with more information about elec-
trical engineering, as well as first-hand prospects about the
professional application of the degree and job stability and
promotion. Therefore, as described by Tayebi et al. [17], such
use of the channel would be directly influencing some of
the main parameters affecting dropout rates in engineering
studies.
However, more research is still needed on real case stu-
dios for the implementation of successful methodologies that
could serve as guidelines for both creators and lecturers
on how to integrate such audiovisual resources in educative
contexts. This aspect is also highlighted by Pattier [29], con-
cluding teachers difficulties on finding videos that adapt to
their academic needs. Fyfield work [51] also concludes that
the use of videos in classroom does not necessarily imply
a change for traditional classroom interactions, as they are
often used to replace the teacher’s direct instruction or as
static source like textbooks. In this sense, more innovative
video integration strategies could potentially be developed for
a more successful use of YouTube videos as pedagogical aid.
Such integration strategies should be based on technology
integration models in educational environments such as pre-
viously mentioned CoI or ICT-TPACK. ‘Future Works’ sub-
section states the proposed objectives to continue developing
this research line addressing those needs.
B. LIMITATIONS
There are several limitations in this study that should be
highlighted. Though the channel audience is fairly well rep-
resented, there are certain groups that are not perfectly char-
acterized (as exposed in ‘Methodology’ section), such as
group age between 25 and 34. It is also noticeable the under-
representation of university and pre-university teachers (as
mentioned in ‘Sample Description’ subsection). Finally, the
fact that this study is focused in a specific channel could affect
extrapolating conclusions to the overall fitness of scientific
dissemination YouTube channels. May this study serve as a
first step to develop further evaluations in collaboration with
other content creators from similar dissemination channels.
C. FUTURE WORKS
This study represents the beginning of a research line
intended to contribute to the current literature in video inte-
gration as an educational aid in STEM disciplines, and how
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R. Lijo et al.: Assessing Users’ Perception on Current and Potential Educational Value of Electrical Engineering YouTube Channel
available scientific dissemination resources might be ade-
quate for those means.
After analyzing the adequacy of Sígueme la Corriente to be
used as a teaching aid resource, a new section will be devel-
oped in the channel where specific needs of Electrical Engi-
neering degrees could be addressed. Concept maps [52], [53]
are deemed as a potentially useful tool to detect those key
areas that would need to be reinforced and, thus, they will
be further developed. This approach would be designed with
the objective of reinforcing conceptual connections between
subjects which, according to Maciejewski et al. [7], is a
current need in electrical engineering. Practical case studies
should be performed to evaluate the effects of those videos’
integration in a real classroom environment. Pursuing both
objectives, CoI and ICT-TPACK models could serve as con-
ceptual framework.
Additionally, in an attempt to overcome one of the main
limitations of this study, more evaluations will be performed
in similar dissemination channels of other disciplines in order
to further confirm the findings of this article and extrapolate
them to other fields of study.
VI. CONCLUSION
Two main research questions have served as central guide
for this study: are YouTube dissemination videos being inte-
grated in electrical engineering education? In that case, what
are their most valued features for such pedagogical use?
Sígueme la Corriente channel has been used as case study,
and the following objectives have been set as methodology to
answer the previous questions:
(1) To identify whether Sígueme la Corriente might
be having a side-educational use (as inferred from
received comments and source views statistics).
(2) To evaluate its audience perception on metrics consid-
ered in literature as essential for educational videos
(format and content adequacy).
(3) To receive hints about the audience’s perception on the
effects of educational video integration as pedagogical
aids.
As developed in ‘Literature Review’ section, there are
several benefits from the use of videos as complementary
pedagogical aids in higher education, though it is not always
easy for lecturers to find time, knowledge, and resources to
elaborate their own videos in an adequate format. For this pur-
pose, YouTube can be a valuable source considering the high
number of available videos on many specialized topics. The
key challenge lies on lecturers being able to identify content
and format adequacy of those videos. Additionally, from the
creator’s perspective, YouTube dissemination channels gen-
erally lack of specific pedagogical strategies backing up their
content creation, and this might arise doubts on their actual
educational suitability. If such unintentional educational use
is correctly identified, it could serve as trigger for the imple-
mentation of educational models that could successfully lead
the development strategy of subsequent videos.
Results obtained in our case study show how this is the
case for Sígueme la Corriente, which already has a high rate
of educational use that confirms our first research question.
The main groups using the channel for this purpose are
pre-university teachers, university students and junior elec-
trical engineers. We detect slight differences with Lee and
Lehto [34] perception that the educational value of YouTube
is not appreciated due to its wide social recognition as an
entertainment site. In this regard, Sígueme la Corriente users
claim to take profit of the channel for educational purposes
with a positive frequency of 72.7% even though this is not
one of the objectives to which its contents were conceived.
Audiovisual format used in this channel, together with its
contents, are remarkably rated as positive by its audience.
Users perceive that the channels’ videos are useful for under-
standing topics of interest, as shown by a 93.6% frequency
on positive responses. This is in consonance with results from
both D’Aquila et al. [37] and Wells et al. [15]. In this regard,
there is significant correlation between that belief and the
educational use of the channel. Additionally, the presenter’s
communicative style is rated as attractive and interesting,
which contributes to overall channel engagement rates. Our
results for these parameters are aligned with the ones obtained
Gil Quintana et al. [33]. Therefore, as a response to our
second research question, the most valued features for the
educational use of the channel are its engaging explanations,
the rhythm and duration of its videos, their technical level,
and their artistic expression.
Results suggest students’ preference for videos as a com-
plementary resource to enhance understanding of topics stud-
ied in lectures. In consonance with D’Aquila et al. [37] and
Muthuprasad et al. [4], we find no clear tendency, among
those who use the channel for didactic purpose, to believe
that videos could be a potential full substitute for assistance-
based education. We appreciate differences in this regard with
Wells et al. [15], whose results show that video resources are
perceived by their students as more helpful than lectures.
However, Sígueme la Corriente users recognize videos
as a successful resource to enhance their overall education
experience, that could be potentially considered as an ade-
quate complementary tool both for distance and face to face
education.
To sum up, the implications of previous findings are
positive when considering the potential educational use of
an existing YouTube dissemination channel. Such resources
might also derive in a significant raise of students’ interest in
engineering jobs, as reported by Colston et al. [16]. Sígueme
la Corriente directly approaches that objective, providing
teachers and students with easy-to-follow engineering expla-
nations from a professional in the electrical engineering field.
However, though parameters such as audiovisual format,
communicative style, and technical level seem to be perceived
as adequate, there is still need to continue developing tools
that may serve as guidelines to enhance video integration
as educational tool from the perspective of content creators,
lecturers, and students. Those strategies should be backed up
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R. Lijo et al.: Assessing Users’ Perception on Current and Potential Educational Value of Electrical Engineering YouTube Channel
by state-of-the-art educational models such as CoI and ICT-
TPACK, as previously cited in this article. Our future research
will integrate specifically developed educational videos in
a particular electrical engineering subject, to evaluate the
perception of university students when such contents are
presented as part of their study material.
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RUBEN LIJO (Member, IEEE) received the B.S.
degree in electrical engineering and the M.S.
degree in industrial technologies from the Univer-
sity of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, in 2015 and
in 2017, respectively. He is currently pursuing the
Ph.D. degree in education with the University of
La Laguna (ULL).
He has worked as an Electrical Substations
Engineer at Ayesa, from 2018 to2019, and IDOM,
from 2019 to 2020. Since 2020, he has been work-
ing as a Power Systems Consultant at Hitachi Energy, where he also provides
assistance to the Hitachi Grid Academy. Since 2011, in combination with
his technical work, he is devoted to scientific and technical dissemination
activities, through the creation of audiovisual material, conferences, round
tables and articles, as well as participating in radio and television programs
and offering consultancy services to various research and development insti-
tutions. Combining both branches of his professional background, his current
main research interest focuses on engineering education.
EDUARDO QUEVEDO (Member, IEEE) received
the bachelor’s degree in telecommunication engi-
neering, the master’s degree in electronics engi-
neering, and the Ph.D. degree from the University
of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), Spain,
in 2007, 2009, and 2015, respectively.
He worked for four years as a Technical Project
Manager at Indra, from 2007 to 2011. From
March 2011 to December 2015, he was a Project
Manager at the Oceanic Platform of the Canary
Islands (PLOCAN) and Anova IT Consulting. Since 2015, he has been a
Professor at ULPGC, where he is currently an Educational Innovation and
the Teacher Training Director. He has combined his professional career
among private sector, public sector, and the university. He has written more
than 60 publications in national and international journals and conferences.
He has participated in seven research projects funded by the European
Commission, the Spanish Government, and international private industries.
His main research interests include image and video processing together with
innovation in education. He was awarded the Outstanding Doctoral Thesis
Award for his Ph.D. degree, in 2016.
JOSE JUAN CASTRO received the B.S., M.S., and
Ph.D. degrees in psychology from the University
of La Laguna (ULL), in 1985 and 1996.
He is currently the Director of the Department
of Psychology, Sociology and Social Works, Uni-
versity of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC),
and the Departmental Research Service of Psy-
chosocial Investigation, University Foundation of
Las Palmas (FULP). Since 1997, he has been a
full-time Professor at ULPGC, and assumed dif-
ferent management roles, such as the Vice Dean of the Faculty of Teacher
Training, the Director of the Department of Psychology and Sociology,
the Director of the Institutional Evaluation Office, the Distance Education
Director, and the Vice-Rector for Planning and Quality. At an academic and
research level, he has been the Director of the Doctoral Program, such as
a Teacher Training, a Coordinator of the Online Psychopedagogy degree,
a Quality Coordinator of the Faculty of Teacher Training, the Director
of the Interuniversity Journal of Educational Psychology, Evaluation and
Psychoeducational Intervention, and the Director of the research group, such
as Distance Education. He has published more than ten books, including
teaching manuals and research books. He has also published numerous
scientific publications in prestigious journals, and directed a total of 27 Ph.D.
theses, most of them related to quality in higher education and the use of ICT
for teaching and learning at the university.
RICARD HORTA received the B.S. degree in elec-
trical engineering, the M.S. degree in industrial
organization, and the Ph.D. degree in machines
and thermal engines from the School of Indus-
trial, Aeronautical and Audiovisual Engineering,
Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (Barcelona
Tech), Terrassa, Spain, in 1995, 2000, and 2014,
respectively.
Since 1996, he has been a full-time Professor
with the Department of Electrical Engineering,
BarcelonaTech. His research interests include high voltage and power plants,
allometric scaling, and complexity in power networks.
VOLUME 10, 2022 8959
... These modules were provided as out-of-class supplementary videos for students in a "Statics and Dynamics" course. Finally, Lijo et al. [42] assessed the pedagogical utility of an electrical engineering YouTube channel to enhance the education equality of engineering students through a 5-point Likert scale survey of the channel's audience. These studies have established that supplementary materials that promote self-paced learning significantly improve the learning outcomes of engineering students, with one study [42] specifically mentioning cognitive load. ...
... Finally, Lijo et al. [42] assessed the pedagogical utility of an electrical engineering YouTube channel to enhance the education equality of engineering students through a 5-point Likert scale survey of the channel's audience. These studies have established that supplementary materials that promote self-paced learning significantly improve the learning outcomes of engineering students, with one study [42] specifically mentioning cognitive load. ...
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Background The use of novel didactic approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics (STEAM) academic programs is a relevant topic in current educational research. In this context, Project‐Based learning is shown as a promising didactic tool for improving the motivation of engineering students. Objective To propose an adapted project‐based approach for lecturing on Power Electronics. The main objective of the project‐based approach is to enhance the attention and motivation of the students in the practical lessons, increasing their knowledge about the subject and, hence, improving results in the theoretical part of the subject. Methods First, we propose a project which combines all the theoretical aspects related to the subject Power Electronics, namely. “Power, Control, Monitoring and Supervision System of an Electric Motor.” Second, each subsystem of the final project is analyzed during each practical lesson, and simulation environments and real circuit manipulations are used for introducing complex Power Electronics concepts to undergraduate students. Results This project‐based methodology has been compared with the demonstration method followed in the previous course by using the validated Students' Evaluations of Educational Quality survey (SEEQ). Conclusions The results show that the adopted methodology has clearly improved the SEEQ results with respect to the demonstration method.