BookPDF Available

The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc First Edition - table of contents

Authors:
The Desclergues
of la Villa Ducal de
Montblanc
A GENEALOGICAL, GENETIC AND HERALDIC JOURNEY THROUGH HISTORY
First Edition
Nico F. Declercq
Kortrijk, Belgium
This book was typeset using L
A
T
EX software.
Copyright ©2021 Nico F. Declercq
License: Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
1st Edition, published in 2021.
This manuscript is written in comprehensible English to accommodate the international community.
The author, Prof. Dr. Nico F. Declercq, is aliated with The Georgia Institute of Technology, G. W. Woodru
School of Mechanical Engineering, 801 Ferst Drive, NW, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405, USA. His professional research
on ultrasonics belongs to the International Research Laboratory IRL 2958 Georgia Tech - CNRS, George W.
Woodr u School of Mechanical Engineering, at Georgia Tech Europe1, 2 rue Marconi, 57070 Metz, France.
Historical research forms the Humanities part of the author'sresearchandisdoneoutsidetherealmofhis
Engineering and Physics Research activities as Georgia Tech Professor.
The family tree covered by this work is presented on MacFamilyTree®2, Geneanet®3and Ancestry®4
ISBN/EAN 9789083176901 (hardcover)
ISBN/EAN 9789083176918 (softcover)
ISBN/EAN 9789083176925 (e-book, pdf)
ISBN/EAN 9789083176932 (e-book, epub)
This publication is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licence, Copyright ©2021 Nico F. Declercq. Images
with pin the caption are licenced under CC0, and so are all the shown postcard images. It is registered under the
United States Copyright, case 1-11026040351, December 5, 2021, and with the United Kingdom Copyright Service
under registration number 284744191, December 5, 2021.
This work is best printed on, minimum, 210 mm x 397 mm paper, i.e. A4 format, at least 330 PPI, glossy, colour,
hardcover. The nature of this work is not for profit. As a result, the author grants permission to any instance to
print and distribute this work without changes, i.e. facsimile, gratuitous or at a reasonable cost reflecting the
charge for printing, if the product conforms to the indicated quality criterion. As such, the author shall not be
held accountable or liable for the printing or shipping of this book and shall not receive any form of financial
remuneration for this work. Likewise, the author grants permission to store and distribute unaltered digital
versions of this product and restricts file size reduction, either by page extraction or quality reduction, to lower
than the indicated resolution, without prior written consent.
1Georgia Tech Europe is also known as Georgia Tech Lorraine
2https://www.macfamilytree.com/NicoFDeclercq1975/ The password is DesclerguesMontblanc
3https://gw.geneanet.org/ndeclercq3
4https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/tree/178462636/
The author'smultidisciplinaryandinternationaljourneythroughhistoryisspeciallydedicatedtothetalented
student H. R. H. the Princess Leonor of Asturias and Gerona, the Duchess of Montblanc,
and is humbly extended to H.M. King Felipe IV and his charming family.
Figure 1: Sus Majestades los Reyes junto a Sus hijas Sus Altezas Reales la Princesa de Asturias y la Infanta Do˜na
Sof´ıa, ©Casa de S.M. el Rey. / Estella de Castro (with permission, July 1st, 2020, La Casa de S. M. El Rey, Palacio
de La Zarzuela, Madrid)
Il y a quelque chose de plus fort que la mort, c'est la pr´esence des absents, dans la m´emoire des vivants.
Jean d'Ormesson at the Acad´emie fran¸caise, on June 6, 1974.
As we look for new answers in the modern age, I for one prefer the tried and tested recipes, like speaking well of
each other and respecting dierent points of view; coming together to seek out the common ground; and never
losing sight of the bigger picture,Even with the most deeply held dierences, treating the other person with respect
and as a fellow human being is always a good first step towards greater understanding,
Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, January 24, 2019, and December 24 2018, respectively.
Hablo lat´ın con Dios, italiano con los m´usicos, castellano con las damas, franc´es en la corte, alem´an con los
lacayos e ingl´es con mis caballos,
Emperor Charles V.
Warning
Every person is responsible for his achievements, mistakes and blessings. Our ancestors should be respected and
understood. However, they should not be referred to as 'we',butas'they'because their achievements, mistakes and
blessings are theirs, not ours. Nevertheless, genetics and ancestry can tell us more about our inherited qualities.
We often act in such a way as our ancestors had they encountered the same situations as ours. We are all valuable
individuals, and we are blood-related to everyone on this planet. Even without a known ancestry, we all descend
from the earliest inhabitants. A person'svalueishisown. Weareallblessedwithonechancetoknowandto
become who we are. The chance is called 'life'. This book focuses, as much as possible, on individuals and facts,
not glory. If any of the descendants of individuals described in this book wants to harvest treasure, he should mow
his own, not his ancestor's. Likewise, the reader should not transfer blame nor glory from any person in this
manuscript to descendants.
Privacy notice
The practice of the highest care has been assumed to protect the privacy of living persons. For this reason, living
persons are not listed in this book, apart from exceptions under explicit or assumed consent, innocuously
mentioned where appropriate.
Legal notice
All the information provided in this book is solemn, was collected according to the highest possible scientific
standards and is accurate to the best of the author'sknowledge. Errors,ifany,must,therefore,beconsidered
involuntary and may be due to mistakes in the consulted sources or syntax in the programming code used to
produce the manuscript. Liability claims regarding damage caused by the use of any information provided,
including any incomplete or incorrect information, will, therefore, be rejected by the author or anybody mentioned
in this work.
Political notice
The author has attempted to describe history without judgment. Therefore, names have been used to identify and
describe territories and peoples, which must neither be interpreted as opinions nor political statements. Examples
are Spain, Belgium, France, Flanders, Catalonia, Castile, Aragon, Languedoc, North Catalonia, Wallonia, .. . and
related peoples'names. The author rejects any responsibility for any interpretation or contextual extraction by the
reader.
Der Wahrheit zu Theil ward, der nur ein kurzes Siegesfest beschieden ist, zwischen den beiden langen Zeitr¨aumen,
wo sie als paradox verdammt und als trivial geringgesch¨atzt wird.,
Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung - Arthur Schopenhauer (Gdansk 1788 - Frankfurt 1860).
iii
Figure 2: The Coat of Arms of Nico F. Declercq and his descendants. Artwork by Bj¨orn Frid´en, Swedish Heraldic Artist. (Nico
F. Declercq, ©2020, all rights reserved)
The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc ©2021 Nico F. Declercq
iv
©2021 Nico F. Declercq The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc
Foreword
0.1 About this manuscript
An executive summary is provided in Part VIII on page 1201.
This book is the result of years of curiosity. Many would label
genealogy as a hobby, but it is never experienced that way for
the author. Natural curiosity and the passionate search for truth
and understanding reality is not a hobby but a way of life. The
pursuit ended when sucient insight was gained. Now, time can
be made for other spare-time activities. The author'ssearchfor
the true nature of the past and the dierent family lines that ul-
timately led to his birth was fiercely fueled after the arrival of his
children. It is instructive for them to learn who their ancestors
were. Beautiful trees have deep roots, and the author hopes that
this book will contribute to the making of lovely people. How-
ever, knowing their ancestors is not enough. In life, one has to
work hard to become who one can potentially become. A tree
can only become beautiful and mature after many years of devel-
opment. Therefore, it is appropriate always to hold the necessary
modesty because no matter how special the path travelled, the
road ahead is consistently steep and challenging. The realiza-
tion of this book has only been possible through the temporary
discard of hobbies and other private activities close to the au-
thor's heart. However, it was necessary to complete this work.
Thanks to this work, the author hopes that his children and his
later descendants will be supported in searching for their iden-
tity. The age at which they will read this work will depend on
the circumstances and their interests. But, whether it be in their
youth or old age, they will appreciate it one day. The author
wishes them, and anyone who takes the trouble to read the book,
a warm welcome and invites them to embark on this long journey
through time. It is essential always to remember that this is a
book about people. Every ancestor is equally crucial. If one of
them had never been born, we wouldn'thavebeenhere. Geneal-
ogy sometimes gives the impression that human life is limited to
birth, marriage, having children and death. That'sbecausewe
don'talwayshaveenoughresourcestoreconstructtheirlives. It
is appropriate always to remember that every person in this book
has walked a life path of happiness and misfortune, with success
and adversity, joy and sorrow, in dark and happy times.
0.2 A few words about the author
The author'sprofessionalachievementsaresummarizedin
chapter 66, at the end of this book. He is married with three
children, born between 1999 and 2011. His roots are primar-
ily Belgian, from the Flemish region, with a paternal bloodline
originating in Spain, mainly in the Catalonia region, with an-
cient roots in France's Brittany region. His wife'srootsareSri
Lankan, with partial origins in Goa in India and Iberia. It'sthe
author'sbeliefthatitwouldbeinappropriatetogainmoneyfor
a description of ancestors who have made their eternal journey
a long time ago. Their life stories are theirs, and if anything we
can do to remunerated them, it'smerelybypayingrespectonly.
0.3 The Author's Academic Background
None of this work has been sponsored, and none is of such na-
ture that it is patentable and neither does it contain any material
subject to export control. The work connects openly available
knowledge, mainly in the public domain. For this reason, the
contents of this work are made available free of charge, although
the manuscript itself is subject to copyright and Authors'rights.
The work was done in the author's free time, primarily in the
weekend, but also late evenings as a convenient and interesting
way to spend time after a hard day'sworkinhardscience. The
author is a professor in Mechanical Engineering at the Georgia
Institute of Technology and has an academic background in Engi-
neering Physics, General Physics and Astrophysics. Before going
to college, he received a firm education in Belgium on many sub-
jects, including history. Self-education followed for many years
and continues. His Catholic University of Leuven Master'sthesis
in astrophysics contained several historical passages which he has
investigated. During his Ghent University PhD, the author, who
was working on ultrasonics for the nondestructive testing of fibre-
reinforced composite materials, decided to combine his private
interest in history with archaeo-acoustics as a part of his work.
Hence, he solved the mystery of sound interaction with the El
Castillo pyramid'sstaircaseinChichenItzainMexico. Later,as
a Georgia Tech faculty, he combined his interest in Greek history
with the acoustics of the theatre of Epidaurus and explained how
the arrangement of the seat rows was the ultimate cause of the
splendid acoustics of the construction. Meanwhile, as a hobbyist,
the author investigated the history of Europe and, in particular,
researched his family's past. When the author decided to bun-
dle his reports to be preserved for his descendants, he decided to
attempt scientific research that he had never tried before: ultravi-
olet fluorescence and infrared thermography. Therefore, without
anticipation, his hobby became again entangled with his profes-
sion. To his surprise, science revealed the signature of his ances-
tor Antoni Desclergue on art made around 1639 AD. The work
is found in chapter 59. Interest in art, religion, history, philos-
ophy and science form merely facets of one inseparable person.
For this reason, the author decided to publish this entire work
without leaving out the scientific discoveries so that scientists,
students, his friends and family and anyone interested in the de-
scribed topics, can enjoy. The author equally uses the book to
Figure 3: The author. The picture was taken at the Travellers Club, 25 Av. des
Champs- ´
Elys´ees, Paris, France, in 2016.
The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc ©2021 Nico F. Declercq
vi chapter 0
Figure 4: When Georgia Tech had just hired the author in July 2006,
he brought back some Yellow Jackets items for his children, a tradi-
tion which he has always respected upon each visit. (Declercq de Silva
Archive)
Figure 5: Trees must have roots. To American students and foreigners
studying in America, it's essential to understand the country'shistory
in all its aspects. This picture was taken at Pigeon Forge in Tennessee,
in 2006. (Declercq de Silva Archive)
express his profound appreciation for his fabulous students and
will continue to open their minds and horizons by teaching them
science and technology framed in a historical and global context.
Creating future engineers is a real honour, and a contribution to
their holistic personality is a pleasure.
The ideals of The Georgia Institute of Technology, and those of
the United Nations, agree with the book'sscope. Indeed,sus-
tainability begins with an appreciation of what is and what has
been. To preserve our planet, we must also protect and appreciate
our history, diversity and culture. As a global institute, Georgia
Tech stands for a community of intelligent, global-minded scien-
tists and engineers who strive for integrity in a sustainable world.
Therefore, apart from oering the best technical education glob-
ally, the Institute also oers international programs that focus
on typical engineering and culture, language, history, and the
world'sgeography.
Whether they take acoustics classes, thermodynamics, fluid me-
chanics, or signal analysis, the author's students frequently ex-
press appreciation for the historical anecdotes that appear from
time to time during lessons.
We, therefore, believe that apart from some scientific content in
this book and apart from some very specific micro-history re-
lated to the author'sancestors,thereaderwillappreciatethe
global historical contents as well and may use this work as yet
another angle from which history can be observed and studied.
It should enrich not only the minds of the author's children but
of anyone reading this work.
Few investigators work simultaneously on science as a job and his-
tory as a hobby. Even fewer ever combine both. One exception
is the first person who, in modern times, investigated the Descle-
rgues from Montblanc. Indeed, Prof. Jos´e S´anchez Real was a
professor in Chemistry and became well-known as an Archaeolo-
gist too. The author was utterly surprised when he learned about
it from his curriculum in 2020. Indeed, it feels good to know that
we are not alone.
The decision to publish this work fits into Georgia Tech's 2040
goals for deliberate innovation and lifetime education, particu-
larly 'Whole-Person Education','A Distributed Worldwide Pres-
ence','Bridging Organizational Silos', to name a few. The con-
tents of this work also agree with Georgia Tech'scorevalues
such as 'Celebrate an Inclusive, Diverse Community and Cul-
ture'and commitments, such as 'The Georgia Tech Commitment
to a Lifetime Education','A Distributed Worldwide Presence',
while striving for 'skilled individuals who can think and mas-
ter complexities of a changing socio-economic climate and future
workplace demands for future skills'. The deliberate innovation
lifetime education report in April 2018 also makes the definitive
statement that 'Future Georgia Tech learners will be much more
heterogeneous. Cookie-cutter templates will be harder to come
by as students mix and match course content, credentials, and
brand value to prepare themselves for jobs in industries that do
not necessarily align well with stable disciplinary boundaries or
recognizable curricula'.Ofthe'whole person education quali-
ties'identified by Georgia Tech, we can mention, in the context of
this book, critical thinking, reasoning/argumentation, interpre-
tation, integrity, appreciation for diversity, intellectual interest
and curiosity, continuous learning, artistic and cultural apprecia-
tion, self-direction, communication, citizenship, self-preservation,
collaboration, and teamwork.
Regarding Georgia Tech'sStrategicPlan2020-2030,thishighly
multidisciplinary work fits into the Impact Amplification section,
in particular, the commitment to Infuse STEM disciplines with
arts, humanities, and social sciences; strengthen the curriculum
in areas that support the United Nations Sustainable Develop-
ment Goals, and create new multidisciplinary curricular path-
ways. Simultaneously, it also fits into the Global Connection
strategy, in particular in the eort to strengthen our role as a con-
vener of worldwide collaboration and build a global learning net-
work to expand our reach and amplify our impact, and the inten-
tion of Preparing all Georgia Tech students to be cross-culturally
competent, globally-minded leaders by embedding cross-cultural
and global learning opportunities in all programs. We believe
that all these excellent intentions begin with each individual
member and will then further develop across our community.
This book is not a mainstream standard textbook that can be ap-
preciated using the same weights and measures as other works.
It forms a unique combination of insights and disciplines coag-
ulated around one theme. The multidisciplinarity of this work,
in an eort to establish a complete history of the Desclergues
of Montblanc, is therefore a consequence of a balanced combi-
nation of the following disciplines, with the book's title as the
main storyline: Engineering, Palaeography, Genealogy, Belgian
History, Spanish History, History of Education, French History,
History of the Americas, Portuguese History, History of India,
Metallurgy, Agriculture, Textile, Local History, Religion, Archi-
tecture, Art, Acoustics, Optics, Thermodynamics, Military His-
tory, Astronomy, Chemistry, Archival Research, Austrian His-
tory, Hungarian History, Spanish literature, French literature,
Dutch literature, English literature, Latin literature, Portuguese
literature, Colonialism, Sinhalese literature, Sri Lankan History,
History of Navigation, Italian History, Genetics, Medicine, Chem-
istry, Maya script, Old French French, Modern French, Flem-
ish, Dutch, old Latin, Ecclesiastic Latin, English, Old Castilian,
Modern Spanish, Old Portuguese, Catalan, History of the arts,
Economic History, Political History, History of Science, Women's
History, World History, Medieval History, Modern History, Geog-
raphy, Mineralogy, Ethnicity, Study of Law, Legal history, Fluid
Mechanics, Oceanography, Heraldry, Taxation, Politics, Gover-
nance, Mathematics, Standards, Biology.
©2021 Nico F. Declercq The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc
section 0.4 vii
Figure 6: 2009, the author's children Anna-Laura and Benjamin at
Georgia Tech. (Declercq de Silva Archive)
Figure 7: In the Spring of 2003, on this terrace, in Mack and Lou
Breazeale's garden, Oxford MS, USA, the author expressed his desire
to become a professor in the United States. Atlanta, the most promi-
nent city nearby, was a natural choice, although there was also interest
elsewhere. Lou insisted on Oxford because she thought of her beautiful
town as the centre of the Universe. In the summer of 2006, he was
hired by the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta. The author
took the nostalgic picture in 2012 at the end of Lou'slifeandthree
years after Mack had died. They considered themselves as the author's
American grandparents, a mutual feeling. (Declercq de Silva Archive)
0.4 Pr`oleg
La fam´ılia Desclergue ´es una dinastia de notaris de Barcelona
i Montblanc. Aquest llibre tracta dels 'Desclergues'de Montblanc
que van ser els responsables de la construcci´o de la famosa casa a
la pla¸ca Major de Montblanc i que porta el seu nom. Hem trobat
proves rellevants, incloses les investigacions gen`etiques, que aque-
sta branca de la fam´ılia Desclergue ´es descendent de Bertrand
Du Guesclin (Beltran Claquin). Mereixen una especial atenci´o
els tres fills de la fam´ılia Desclergue que van marxar a Flandes
(B`elgica) cap a l'any 1600 com a soldats de l'ex`ercit espanyol de
Flandes. L'autor ´es descendent d'un d'aquests fills, Jeroni De-
sclergue. El seu fill Antoni Desclergue va ser el responsable de la
construcci´o d'una capella a Deerlijk, on encara es pot trobar una
imatge de la pla¸ca Major de Montblanc. A m´es de les nombroses
refer`encies a la literatura i en documents hist`orics, aquest llibre
tamb´e presta atenci´o a la investigaci´o de l'ADN. Els resultats
d'aquesta investigaci´o s´on coherents amb la resta de proves. El
llibre li d´ona molta rellev`ancia al context hist`oric en qu`e van vi-
ure els Desclergues. Tamb´e mostra com aquesta fam´ılia catalana,
juntament amb ciutadans espanyols d'altres regions, van partic-
ipar en l'expansi´o per la resta del m´on de l'imperi espanyol, es-
pecialment al sud dels Pa¨ısos Baixos. El lector del llibre tamb´e
fa un ampli recorregut per la hist`oria de Flandes i B`elgica. Hi
descriu tota l'evoluci´o des dels Pa¨ısos Baixos de Borgonya fins a
la Segona Guerra Mundial. L'autor es va sentir particularment
honrat quan se li va permetre signar el llibre d'or de la vila, a
l'Ajuntament de Montblanc. Uns 430 anys despr´es que Jeroni
Desclergue, avantpassat de l'autor, abandon´es la Vila, aquesta
acollida cordial va ser especialment reconfortant. L'autor se sent
molt proper a les seves arrels montblanquines.
0.5 Pr´ologo
Este libro es el resultado de d´ecadas de investigaci´on hist´orica
ygeneal´ogicasobrelafamiliaDesclergue,procedentedeMont-
blanc (provincia de Tarragona), la cual se ha visto recientemente
enriquecida gracias a los estudios de ADN. El foco principal del
an´alisis son los tres hijos de Bonaventura Desclergue, notario de
la ciudad, quienes en torno al a˜no 1600 partieron hacia Belgica
con el ejercito Espa˜nola de Flandes. En este libro se describen
tanto sus paraderos en Flandes y las batallas en las que lucharon,
como sus descendientes hasta la actualidad. Varios registros par-
roquiales y civiles muestran claramente c´omo el apellido 'Descle-
rgue'evolucion´o a 'Declercq'en pocas generaciones. Se convirti´o
as´ı en una familia flamenca, en un pa´ıs donde el apellido De-
clercq lo llevan varios clanes no relacionados entre s´ı. El autor,
descendiente directo de Jeroni Desclergue, hijo de Bonaventura,
describe en detalle c´omo la familia se mezcl´o con varios linajes
locales de inter´es, tales como el de Charles Philippe de Patin,
autor del libro Mare Liberum, en el cual se reclama el derecho
austro-belga de acceso a alta mar en 1726. El libro tambi´en in-
cluye testimonios hist´oricos y cient´ıficos que prueban el hecho
de que Antoni Desclergue, hijo de Jeroni, construy´o hacia 1639
una capilla espa˜nola en Deerlijk - un peque˜no pueblo en Flandes
Occidental, en B´elgica - con el objetivo de honorar a su padre,
muerto en 1604 al final del Asedio de Oostende. Hoy en d´ıa to-
dav´ıa se puede admirar en dicha capilla una escultura barroca en
madera que representa la hermosa Plaza Mayor de Montblanc,
en la cual se ven la c´elebre 'Casa Desclergue'y, al fondo, la igle-
sia de San Miguel. Entremezclados con la historia de B´elgica y
acompa˜nados de numerosas ilustraciones, se describen las alian-
zas de la familia, sus profesiones, contactos con escritores locales
y mucho m´as. Esta historia demuestra los estrechos lazos entre
la gente de Espa˜na y B´elgica, los cuales siempre hab´ıan existido
por motivos comerciales. Estos lazos se oficializaron en 1496 con
el matrimonio de Felipe de Habsburgo, (llamado el Hermoso),
Duque de Borgo˜na y nacido en Brujas; y Juana de Castilla, de
la familia Trast´amara. Varios cap´ıtulos de este libro se centran
en la historia de la familia 'de Silva', a la que pertenece la esposa
del autor, cuyo padre descend´ıa de colonos hispanos asentados
en Sri Lanka. Estos llegaron a la isla a trav´es de Goa en India y
establecieron el pueblo fortificado conocido como Uduwara, en el
r´ıo Kalu Ganga, cerca de Kalutara. Investigaciones arqueol´ogicas
realizadas en Sri Lanka y Goa, junto a an´alisis de ADN, revelaron
los or´ıgenes de esta familia, ilustrando as´ı la presencia global de
espa˜noles y portugueses a lo largo y ancho del globo. El texto
original se ha escrito en ingl´es, con el objetivo de alcanzar a un
ublico lo m´as amplio e internacional posible. Este trabajo, pro-
ducido sin ´animo de lucro, describe un muy interesante pasado
que se ofrece como regalo a j´ovenes y futuras generaciones.
0.6 Voorwoord
Het 'Nederlands College Heraldiek'schreef, bij de registratie
van het familiewapen van Nico F. Declercq en na onderzoek van
de geleverde stamreeks: Hij stamt af van Don Jeroni Desclergue
y Cort´es, geboren in Montblanc in Spanje en overleden te Oos-
tende in 1604, zoon van Don Bonaventura Desclergue y Cort´es.
Hij kwam als militair naar de Nederlanden in 1587. Hij huwde
The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc ©2021 Nico F. Declercq
viii chapter 0
Figure 8: Patent Letter, 'Wapenbrief Nederlands College Heraldiek'(NRF 2020-311),
Amsterdam, 31 januari 2020. (Declercq de Silva Archive)
Do˜na Felipa de Montoya die stierf in Deerlijk in 1628. (Amster-
dam, 31 januari 2020. Eveneens verschenen tijdens de winter van
2020-2021 in Heraldisch Tijdschrift, Periodiek van de Afdeling
Heraldiek, Nederlandse Genealogische Vereniging, Jaargang 25,
nr 4).
Dit boek heeft als doel het resultaat van decennialang geneal-
ogisch onderzoek, te presenteren binnen een historische context.
Het spreekt voor zich dat enkel de nakomelingen en nauwe bloed-
verwanten van de auteur ge¨ınteresseerd zullen zijn in de genealo-
gie op zich, maar voor anderen kan de historische context eve-
neens boeiend zijn. De auteur stamt in mannelijke lijn af van de
familie Desclergue uit Montblanc in Spanje. Deze familie stamt
dan weer in mannelijke lijn af van Bertrand Du Guesclin. De
familie Desclergues kwam in Deerlijk terecht rond het jaar 1600,
dankzij Jeroni Desclergue die een militair was in het Spaanse
leger van Vlaanderen. Zijn zoon Antoni Desclergue is de feit-
elijke persoon achter de bouw van de Kapel-ter-Ruste in Deerlijk
rond het jaar 1639, samen met de lokaal begoede burger Mar-
guerite Kelduwier. Een groot deel van dit boek handelt over
deze stamlijn. Langs een vrouwelijke nakomelinge van Antoni
Desclergue, stamt de auteur, langs de kant van zijn moeder, een
tweede keer af van de Desclergues. De naam Desclergues is in
feite niets anders dan de Spaanse of Catalaanse versie van De-
clercq. Het spreekt dan ook voor zich dat de naam relatief snel
aangepast werd tot de lokale vorm 'Declercq'. Er waren in die
tijd in Deerlijk en omstreken trouwens meerdere ongerelateerde
clans die deze Nederlandstalige naam droegen. De schrijfwijze
lag, zoals met alle namen in die tijd, niet vast.
Naast deze bloedlijn spitst de auteur zich ook toe op andere stam-
lijnen waar hij uit afstamt, zoals bijvoorbeeld 'de Patin'. Deze
laatste familie vindt haar oorsprong in Cambrai, maar kan men
generatie na generatie terugvinden in Geluwe, Ypres en Lange-
mark. Uit deze familie is Charles Philippe de Patin waarschijn-
lijk het bekendste personage, daar deze tijdens de periode van de
Oostenrijkse Nederlanden bijzondere bijdragen heeft geleverd tot
het handhaven van de vrede met Frankrijk en het bekomen van
toegang tot de wereldzee¨en. Het Mare Liberum van de Patin kan
dan ook beschouwd worden als een moreel bijgeschaafde versie
van het b ekende Ma re L ib erum van Grotius ee n ee uw vro eg er.
Het werk vormt nog steeds het fundament van het Moderne
Zeerecht. Behalve de voorouders van de auteur zelf, gaat ook
veel aandacht naar de voorouders van zijn echtgenote. Het inter-
essante hier is dat een stuk wereldgeschiedenis kan belicht worden
waarin de nadruk in het bijzonder ligt op de Ib erische expansie
naar het Oosten, meer bepaald naar Goa in India en naar Kotte in
Sri Lanka. Tezelfdertijd wordt een klein dorpje, Uduwara, langs
de 'Kalu Ganga'rivier, geplaatst in het licht van deze bijzondere
geschiedenis.
De auteur maakte de laatste jaren ook gebruik van DNA-
onderzoek als controlemiddel. Dit onderzoek bevestigt het ge-
nealogisch onderzoek.
Beknopt overzicht van de Declercq stamreeks, voorouders van de
auteur in mannelijke lijn:
M. Richer de Guarplic (geboren rond 1040 AD) (DG01).
M. Clamaroch de Guarplic (DG02) en Marie de Dinan.
M. Bertrand I de Guarplic (DG03) en Florida de Landal.
M. Georoy de Guarplic (DG04).
M. Bertrand II du Guesclin (DG05).
M. Pierre du Guesclin (DG06).
M. Bertrand III du Guesclin (DG07) en Mahaut de Dol.
M. Bertrand IV du Guesclin (DG08) en Jeanne de Broons.
M. Guillaume du Guesclin (DG09) en Alix de Dinan ofwel Juli-
enne de Beaumont de Guitte.
M. Robert II du Guesclin (DG10) en Jeanne de Malemains.
Don Bertrand du Guesclin / Beltr`an Claquin (DG11) en Dame
de Soria.
Don Gu´erech de Tours (Gu´erech de Torres / Grau de Torres
/ Guerau de Torres / Geraldo de Torres) (DT01) uit Soria (in
Castile) (geboren tussen 1366 en 1370).
Don Carlos Diaz de Torres (DT02), leefde in Barcelona en huwde
een Desclergue uit een dynastie van notarissen.
Don Pere de Torres y Desclergue I (DC01), werd geboren in
Barcelona en woonde in Montblanc, in Spanje. Hij was bour-
geois van Manresa en was van adel. Op basis van de geschiedenis
van Mont bl anc en kenm er ken op het oude familie wape n van D e-
sclergue, blijkt dat hij een afstammeling was van Bertrand Du
Guesclin uit een relatie met een dame uit Soria (Dugesclin was in
Spanje tijdens zijn leven beter gekend als Beltran Deglaquin of
de Claquin, koning van Granada; hij leefde van 1320 tot 1380).
Recent DNA-onderzoek bevestigde dit. Pere Desclergue (I) was
gehuwd met iemand uit Barcelona. Hij zette de naam Desclergue
verder omdat hij notaris was en het dus opportuun was om onder
deze naam van zijn moeder de stamreeks verder te zetten.
Don Berenguer Desclergue (DC02) stierf na 1503. Hij komt in
de periode 1438-1440 voor in de archieven als notaris van Mont-
blanc in Spanje. Hij huwde een zekere Do˜na Prunera uit Tarrega
in Spanje.
Don Bonaventura Desclergue (I) (DC03) werd geboren in Mont-
blanc in Spanje en hij stierf er na 1579. Hij komt voor in de
archieven als notaris van Montblanc in 1546. Hij huwde, in
tweede huwelijk, Do˜na Ana (I) Cort´es.
Don Bonaventura Desclergue (II) y Cort´es (DC04) werd geboren
©2021 Nico F. Declercq The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc
section 0.7 ix
Figure 9: From the files of notary Passchier Pissens
at Vilvoorde, between records 6 and 7 September 1687.
The transcription is 'Reyst heel de wereld door en soeckt:
waer dat ghij meught u Loopen oock; vindt ghij die wel
thuys wilt Loopen soo met minne, al wisselt ghij van
Locht. Ghij houdt u eyghen zinne Leert. 1686'.Itmeans
that even if you search everywhere on this planet, you wil l
only find happiness at home; and even if you move, you
will always stay who you are. 1686. In modern Dutch:
'Waar je ook zoekt, het geluk vind je thuis; en zelfs als
je verhuist, je blijft altijd wie je bent'
Figure 10: February 2020, l'opital de Mercy, Metz, Lorraine,
France, shortly before the Covid-19 outbreak in France and Belgium.
Scanning Acoustic Microscopy is an example of a multidisciplinary field
where physics, technology, biology and medicine find one another in a
place with a long and exciting history. Metz was along the free Span-
ish passage in the 16-17th centuries, although as with Besan¸con, the
Iberians were likely not permitted to enter the city. (Declercq de Silva
Archive)
in Barcelona of in Montblanc in Spanje en hij stierf in Montblanc.
Hij was doctor in de rechten. Hij huwde eerst Maria Anna De-
sclergue, een nicht in tweede rang, en later Do˜na Anna Ratera.
Met Do˜na Anna Desclergue had hij een zoon Jeroni, hieronder
verder beschreven. Do˜na Anna Ratera was Jeroni'sstiefmoeder.
Don Jeroni Desclergue y Cort´es (DC05) werd geboren in Mont-
blanc in Spanje en hij stierf in Oostende in 1604. Hij kwam als
militair naar de Nederlanden in 1587. Hij huwde Do˜na Felipa de
Montoya die stierf in Deerlijk in 1628. Beiden komen voor op
doopakten als ouders of als doopheers in Kortrijk en Tournai.
Don Antoni Desclergue (II) (DC06) werd geboren in Barcelona en
naar alle waarschijnlijkheid enkele weken later gedoopt in Tour-
nai op 26 juni in 1602. Hij werd militair in het Spaanse leger rond
1618 en werd gerecruteerd door Don Carlos Coloma, een vriend
van zijn vader Jeroni. Hij had een woonplaats in Deerlijk vanaf
1632. Hij huwde Beatrice de Clercq voor 1624. Zij stierf in 1651.
Don Antoni Declerque (III) (DC07) was zijn zoon en huwde Mar-
tina de la Cruz in Deerlijk op 3 oktober in 1656. Zij werd gedoopt
in Dudzele op 5 december in 1624 en was een dochter van Pedro
Ximenes de la Cruz en Maria Sope˜na.
Don Pere Declercgz (II) (DC08) werd gedoopt in Deerlijk op 26
maart in 1673. Hij huwde Marie Prienne in Harelbeke op 29 april
in 1703. Zij was gedoopt in Harelbeke op 13 maart in 1678 als
dochter van Pierre Prienne en Antonia de Poortere.
Dhr. Joan Declercq (II) (DC09) werd geboren in Deerlijk 16 ok-
tober in 1706 en werd begraven in Kuurne op 12 november in
1772. Hij huwde Marie Montaigne in Kuurne op 3 mei in 1734.
Zij werd geboren in Kuurne in 1711 en stierf er op 21 oktober
in 1775. Ze was de dochter van Fran¸cois Montaigne en Maria
Blomme.
Dhr. Renier Declercq (DC10) werd gedoopt in Kuurne op 17
september in 1740 en hij stierf er op 1 april in 1808. Hij huwde
Marie Anne Th´er`ese Lombaerde in Kuurne op 24 april in 1770.
Zij werd gedoopt in Hulste op 25 december in 1749 en stief in
Lendelede op 10 september in 1812. Ze was een dochter van
Pierre Fran¸cois Lombaerde en Marie Anne Brigitte Samein.
Dhr. Pierre Joseph Declercq (DC11) werd gedoopt in Izegem op
31 mei in 1771 en hij stierf in Kuurne op 13 oktober in 1844. Hij
huwde Barbara Th´er`ese d'Hont in Izegem op 12 februari in 1794.
Zij werd geboren in Izegem op 12 november in 1773 en stierf in
Kuurne op 3 augustus in 1854. Ze was een dochter van Petrus
Joseph d'Hont en Maria Deryckere.
Dhr. Leo Bernard Declercq (DC12) werd geboren in Kuurne op
28 februari in 1808 en hij stierf in Wielsbeke op 16 september in
1876. Hij huwde Th´er`ese Loncke in Wielsbeke op 2 oktober in
1840. Zij werd geboren in Wielsbeke op 1 december in 1797 en
stierf er op 2 december in 1868. Ze was een dochter van Jean
Fran¸cois Loncke en Marie Magdalena Desplenter.
Dhr. Ivo Declercq (DC13) werd geboren in Wielsbeke op 25
september in 1845 en hij stierf in Kuurne op 12 oktober in 1909.
Hij huwde Mathilde Van den Broucke in Wielsbeke op 31 maart
in 1869. Zij werd geboren in Wielsbeke op 31 juli in 1848 en
was een dochter van Jean-Baptiste Van den Broucke en Victoria
Verlinde.
Dhr. Ernest Constant Declercq (DC14) werd geboren in Wiels-
beke op 28 juli in 1872 en hij stierf in Olsene op 26 januari in
1947. Hij huwde Marie Elodie Devenyn in Wielsbeke op 3 mei in
1901. Zij werd geboren in Wielsbeke op 11 december in 1876 en
stierf in Waregem op 25 januari in 1965. Ze was de dochter van
Leopold Devenyn en Ursula Vereecke.
Dhr. Michel Achiel Renatus Declercq (DC15) werd geboren in
Wielsbeke op 14 maart in 1906 en hij stierf in Deerlijk op 2 au-
gustus in 1963. Hij huwde Irma Helena Lesage in Beselare op 6
april in 1932. Zij werd geboren in Moorslede op 20 februari in
1905 en stierf in Kortrijk op 7 juni in 1953. Ze was een dochter
van Emiel Theophile Lesage en Eudoxie Romanie Lammens.
Dhr. Maurice Alois Declercq (DC16) werd geboren in Deerlijk
op 11 mei in 1941 en hij stierf in Gent op 23 juni in 2015. Hij
huwde Nelly Maria Vangheluwe in Deerlijk op 28 januari in 1966.
Zij werd geboren in Deerlijk op 26 mei in 1945 en is een dochter
van Ren´e Vangheluwe en Anna Den Dauw.
Nico Felicien Declercq (DC17) werd geboren in Kortrijk op 27
december 1975. Hij huwde in Kalutara in Sri Lanka op 6 juni
1997 met Shirani Olupathage de Silva. Zij werd geboren in Ho-
rana in Sri Lanka op 25 februari 1978. Ze is de dochter van Belin
O. de Silva en Pia Wetty O. de Silva uit Uduwara. Shirani is
een kleindochter van Don Perez O. de Silva en Do˜na Sia Doris
Hami, enerzijds, en van Don Domis O. de Silva en Do˜na Sara
Neris Jeeth Demuni Hami, anderzijds.
Hun kinderen (DC18) zijn Benjamin Jonathan Howard Declercq
(geboren in Kortrijk op 21 oktober 1999), Anna-Laura Florence
Marion Declercq (geboren in Kortrijk op 26 januari 2005) en
Lambert Leander Declercq (geboren in Kortrijk op 21 septem-
ber 2011).
Dit boek is niet enkel een reis door de tijd, maar ook door de
wereld. In dat opzicht is het leuk om de spreuk in Figuur 9
steeds in gedachten te houden.
0.7 Pr´eface
Quand on parle de nations tr`es anciennes, on ne peut que men-
tionner la France. Cependant, la plupart des faits et ´ev´enements
dans ce livre se d´eroulent en Belgique, en Espagne, au Portu-
gal, en Inde et au Sri Lanka. Le rˆole de la France doit ˆetre
qualifi´e de secondaire, sauf pour certains faits sp´ecifiques. En
particulier Bertrand DuGuesclin, dont les Desclergues de Mont-
The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc ©2021 Nico F. Declercq
x chapter 0
Figure 11: The author's children Anna-Laura, Lambert and Ben-
jamin, at the museum of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in 2012. (Declercq de
Silva Archive)
Figure 12: Oak Ridge, Tennesse, USA, July 2006. We can see pic-
tures of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Joseph Thomson,
Ernest Rutherford, and others behind the author. We al l know these
persons from their Physics achievements, but some even become more
interesting when we look beyond their profession'slimits. Indeed,a
holistic consideration is, in many cases, telling. (Declercq de Silva
Archive)
blanc sont descendus et qui est donc notre ancˆetre. Nos ancˆetres
Jeroni Desclergue et Antoni Desclergue ont ´egalement pass´e une
grande partie de leur vie en Flandre, dans l'extrˆeme nord de la
France. Il serait superflu d'expliquer au lecteur fran¸cais l'histoire
de Bertrand DuGuesclin. L'accent est donc mis dans ce livre
sur le rˆole que Bertrand Du Guesclin a jou´e en Espagne et, bien
ur, sur les descendants qu'il y a engendr´es. La famille de Patin,
dont l'auteur est ´egalement issu, trouve son origine `a Cambrai
dans le Nord de la France au 14`eme si`ecle. C'est ´egalement dans
cette r´egion, jusqu'`a la fronti`ere sud de la Belgique moderne, que
des arontements se sont multipli´es entre les troupes espagnoles
et fran¸caises au XVIIe si`ecle. Certaines de ces confrontations
sont discut´ees dans ce livre. Dans une p´eriode ult´erieure, le plus
grand g´en´eral depuis Jules C´esar, Napol´eon Bonaparte, est ap-
paru. Puisque les Pays-Bas lui appartenaient `a cette ´epoque,
certains de nos ancˆetres ont ´et´e enrˆol´es comme soldats et ont
particip´e `a des batailles qui captivent encore appel `a l'imaginaire
fran¸cais. Enfin, nous tenons `a souligner l'hospitalit´e des Fran¸cais
pendant la Premi`ere Guerre mondiale. L'arri`ere-grand-m`ere de
l'auteur, Eudoxie Lammens, a ´et´e autoris´ee `a rester avec ses en-
fants mineurs `a Oudezele, en France, sud d'Ypres. La chaleur
que la famille y a re¸cue fait toujours partie de nos souvenirs de
famille.
0.8 Preface
This manuscript is the result of several years of historical and
genealogical research. The author'sfascinationtodedicatehis
free time to this matter rather than to other hobbies is merely
out of curiosity and a desire to understand and honour his ances-
tors. He decided to summarise this work in a readable text some
twelve years ago in an attempt to spare his descendants from
a lack of knowledge in the decades to come. In 2015, after the
sudden passing away of his father, he chose to transform draft
chapters and reports into a book so that it could be published
and would form an eternal token of respect for his ancestors,
even after his death. Although the core of this manuscript is the
author's ancestry, an attempt is made to include contextual in-
formation while making a journey through a thousand years of
history. Out of respect for his parents-in-law, chapters also de-
scribe his wife'sancestry,withrootsinSriLankaandearlierin
India and Portugal. Therefore, the book touches on the history of
France, Spain, Portugal, and India and goes relatively deep into
that of Belgium and Sri Lanka. Structuring a book that covers
ten centuries is not an obvious task. We have followed, as much
as possible, the lineages, preceded by a general historical intro-
duction. Along each line, a story is added whenever appropriate
or available. Battles of Napoleon, for instance, receive attention
in the description of ancestors who were soldiers of Napoleon. In
contrast, events of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands are
described in the context of the soldiers of Desclergue who lived
during that period. The expansion of the Iberian empire in the
Americas and Asia are described respectively in the ancestry of
the Desclergues and the de Silvas. Even though we chose En-
glish to tell this story, several citations occur in other languages
whenever appropriate. Most records shown are in Latin, Flem-
ish, French, Castilian or Catalan. In recent years the historical
investigations were further consolidated with DNA examination.
The conclusions are in complete agreement with the fact that
the author descends from the Desclergues of Montblanc in Spain.
Furthermore, the results all point at Bertrand Du Guesclin (1320-
1380) as the progenitor of the Desclergues of Montblanc. DNA
research also agrees with the assumption that the Du Guesclin
bloodline originated in Bretagne in France around 800 AD and
arrived there from Northern Spain.
The presented bloodline constructed the house of Desclergue on
the Main Square of the beautiful town of Montblanc in Tarrag-
ona, Catalonia, Spain. From this family, three sons were sent
to Flanders in Belgium as soldiers. One of them continued the
bloodline and is our paternal ancestor.
The author has attempted to describe a proper historical con-
text to the family events he presents, which should keep the
manuscript exciting to any reader interested in local history in a
global context. To his children and their descendants, this work
should provide an eternal memory of their origins. In particular,
readers interested in the local history of the following places will
be rewarded: Montblanc in Spain; Saint Coulomb, Cambrai and
Broons in France; Deerlijk, Kortrijk, Harelbeke, Geluwe, Ypres
and Langemark in Belgium; Goa in India and Uduwara in Sri
Lanka, former Ceylon.
©2021 Nico F. Declercq The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc
section 0.9 xi
0.9 Preface in Sinhala
Figure 13: This translation to Singhalese is the courtesy of Thushani Dissanayake.
0.10 Preface with an Indian focus
It'shardtofindanequallybeautifulnationintheworldlike
India. Despite its unity, it'salsoaverycomplexcountrywith
so many languages, cultures and traditions and is, therefore, by
many, sometimes referred to as a continent. When we consider
the actual geographic subcontinent, including areas such as Sri
Lanka, we even observe an extension of its beauty and complex-
ity. This book primarily describes the history of the paternal
ancestors of the author, Nico F. Declercq. Nevertheless, a couple
of chapters are included that describe his wife'sancestry,Shirani
de Silva, too. It'sshownbyarchaeologicalevidence,genealogical
records and DNA research that her ancestors descend from a clan
that arrived in Sri Lanka from Goa in India. In particular, she
stems from Juan Carvalho de Silva, the son of Maria de Silva
and Honorato de Carvalho. Juan Carvalho de Silva had arrived
in Goa around 1570, and he was a nephew of Pere de Silva y
Rivera, a viceroy at Goa. Juan Carvalho de Silva was married to
a Goan Indian and had two sons. Father and sons are depicted
at the convent next to the Cathedral de Se at old Goa, where the
Archeological Museum is housed nowadays. One of the sons went,
with a clan, to Sri Lanka and settled at Uduwara along the river
Kalu Ganga, not far from Kalutara, where a new fortress was
built. A sculpture of him can still be seen in the old fortification.
It'sfromhimthattheauthor'swifedescendsandfromwhomshe
received her family name. She also has a Sinhalese family name
'Olupathage'in addition to the Portuguese one, which refers to
the fortress of Uduwara. The chapters about the de Silva an-
cestry and history focus primarily on the past of the Kingdom
of Kotte and its relationship with India, and in particular with
Goa.
Another chapter, concerning the author'sancestry,describesthe
family 'de Patin'of which Charles Philippe de Patin played an
essential role during the period of Austrian Belgium. Apart from
being an essential advisor of Emperor Charles VI of Austria and
his daughter Maria Theresa of Austria, he is most well known
for his manuscript 'Mare Liberum'. It is on this book that Mod-
ern Maritime Law is based. The book was why Belgium, under
Austrian rule, received permission from other European nations
to secure trade with the East coast of India through the Ostend
Company. The company lasted only a decade or so but allowed
the Belgians to taste Indian spices, something which had long
been denied, in contrast to the Dutch in the Netherlands who
had set up a trade, through their VOC, with most of Asia. De
Patin'sbookwasrootedinuniversalprinciples,incontrasttothe
one written by Grotius on which the VOC had based its claims
for free trade in the world.
The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc ©2021 Nico F. Declercq
xii chapter 0
Figure 14: The author's investigation of the 'Estado da India'and the 'V.O.C.'presence in Sri
Lanka, a hobby which has accompanied his weekend evenings for many years, actually started in
1997. Three images are shown, taken at Galle (Sri Lanka) in 1997 and 2007, and Goa (India)
in 2019. The V.O.C. tombstones in Galle are found in the Dutch Reformed Church, established
in 1755 (Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk, Galle). (Declercq de Silva Archive)
Figure 15: Business class travelling is fine, but to feel a country one must travel more humbly. In 2008, the author undertook an
incredible journey by train through India and visited institutes from Nepal to the very South of the country, such as, among others, the
University of Allahabad, Banaras University (Varanasi), Indian Institute of Technology Madras (Chennai), the Indian Institute of Science
(Bangalore). Humble respect for ancient cultures and history is the key to the right education of the real global engineers and scientists
of the future. The Indian Institute of Science at Bangalore is where C.V. Raman has been the first director. Raman is famous for the
Raman eect, used in modern Raman spectrometers. He is equally well-known for his work with Nagendra Nath in Acousto-Optics. The
Taj Mahal is where history, culture, religion, science and engineering meet. There are many beautiful places and buildings in the world,
but this is the number one, together with the Alhambra in Granada. (Declercq de Silva Archive)
©2021 Nico F. Declercq The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc
section 0.11 xiii
0.11 Acknowlegements
Figure 16: Dr. Jos´e
anchez Real 1918-
2008.
0.11.1 Jos´e S´anchez Real and the kindness of
the supportive Catalan historians and
the inhabitants of Montblanc
As can be found in the next section, chapter 0.11.3, numerous
people are acknowledged for their contributions in one way or
another. Here, a person is highlighted who, in our modern age,
produced the first pervasive work on the Desclergue family of
Montblanc. Later researchers on this matter all followed in this
Giant's footsteps. Dr Jos´e S´anchez Real is a well-known and
respected historian born in Malaga (Gauc´ın) and has lived in
Gerona, Granada, Madrid, Tarragona and Valencia. He began to
work on the history of the Desclergue family when he was com-
missioned by the Provincial Savings Bank of Tarragona in 1973
to restore the famous House of Desclergue at Montblanc. Soon
he led a team of young researchers to dig into the archives of the
Church of Santa Maria la Mayor of Montblanc, dierent notary
archives in Montblanc and Tarragona. His book was published
in less than two years and is remarkably well written. The speed
at which this occurred is a result of the quality of Dr Real and
his team, of their experience with reading old documents and of
extremely hard and uninterrupted work on this matter for about
two years. His famous book, a milestone in Spanish history, ap-
peared in 1974, one year before the author of the current book was
born. A closer look reveals that he published work on history and
physics and other topics. He wrote about anything interesting to
him. He became a professor in 1943 in Chemistry at Tarragona,
after which he worked on a PhD in Chemistry at the University
of Barcelona while he resided in Granada. He received the PhD
in 1948, after which he focussed most of his historical research
on the Tarragona area, where Montblanc is also located. His
Doctoral Thesis in Chemistry was, however, not published un-
til 1955. In 1956 he obtained an academic chair (full professor)
of didactics in chemistry at the Escuela Normal de Tarragona,
and in 1967 he became a professor at the Universidad Laboral de
Tarragona. He was a great teacher, and in his role as the direc-
tor of Mart´ı Franqu`es Institute, he even wrote a book about the
Institute'shistory. Interestingly,hewroteabookonthephysics
of bicycles and reported it to serve as a stepping stone, for the
reader, towards mechanics, physics, electromagnetics etc. He also
wrote works on heraldry, ceramics, specific topics of history and
so on. Not surprisingly, he was also an archaeologist. Here are
few sentences cited from 'Tex to ho m ena je a la vi d a y la ob r a del
Dr. Jos´e S´anchez Real. Elaborado con informaci´on publicada en
La Vanguardia con motivo de su obituario y redactada por Sara
Sans el 29 de abril 2008':
Sin embargo el hecho es que el hombre habla del tiempo como
algo casi tangible y lo mide y tiene definida incluso una unidad
que es una, junto con otras cinco, de las fundamentales en F´ısica:
el segundo. Muy pocos llevan consigo un fot´ometro o un am-
per´ımetro, pero un reloj lo lleva cualquiera. Y es que el tiempo
casi lo tocamos y hablamos de que se nos va de las manos, y que
se pierde, y que se gana, como si fuera dinero, y quiz´as de ah´ıla
frase de que el tiempo es oro. Algo valioso.
In the context of acknowledging Jos´e S´anchez Real, the au-
thor would also like to express his explicit gratitude to Josep
Maria Grau Pujol for the numerous documents he has shared in
the past years of the Desclergue family and Montblanc. Thanks
to his facilitation, the author also received scans of original doc-
uments from the Desclergue and de Pedrolo families, with the
help of Adelais de Pedrolo and Miquel `
Angel Farr´e Targa and
his team at CU Arxiu Comarcal Urgell. Their support has been
invaluable. Equally, the warm hospitality and continued contact
with Eduard Contijoch and the mayor of Montblanc, Josep An-
dreu Domingo, are acknowledged. Finally, the openness, curios-
ity and kindness of the Montblanquins the past years will always
be remembered and has been a motivation to bring this book to
satisfactory fruition.
0.11.2 Marcel Demeyere
The life of Marcel Demeyere (1943-2005) is described in Derlike5.
He was the author'sfirsthistoryteacherbackintheyears1987-
1988. The author had made the wrong choice, at the age of
11, to study 'Modern Education', instead of the 'Classics'. Mr
Marcel Demeyere and two other teachers, including Mrs Mari-
jke Martens, a Latin teacher from Ghent, and Mrs Maria Thoen
(alias Mrs Content) made a pivotal decision. They figured out
that his choice had been a mistake and that the author should
switch to Latin-Maths in the second year of Middle School, de-
spite the loss of one year. So, the following summer, the author
studied some basic Latin vocabulary while in Sri Lanka and joined
the class of Latin-Maths the next year, despite being one year
behind compared to the others. The first two months required
patience and endurance and, above all, a lot of confidence by Mr
Demeyere and Mrs Martens. After a few months, the hard work
paid o. Concerning mathematics, it took until University for
the author to fully appreciate the subject. He instead preferred
Physics, where his intuition could play a more prominent role.
History has always been an interest, but there has never been an
opportunity to work in this field. Marcel Demeyere had been a
close friend of Pierre Vangheluwe, the author'sgrand-uncleand
foster father, described in chapter 55.11 and chapter 0.12.
It's inevitable that this relationship contributed to the mu-
tual trust and indeed to the admiration of Mr Demeyere by the
author. At the age of 10-12, he was an example to the author
of an intellectual, an idealist and a philosopher. He was usually
wearing a long coat, he looked like a professor, and he must have
had the most extensive collection of stamps in the world. He was
a freemason and an ideological communist, which the author was
not, but this contributed to being an example of someone who
was not scared of thinking out of the box. Being confronted with
many conflicting ideologies in high school is a very enriching ex-
5Derlike XXVIII, 1 (2005), p. 31-32.
The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc ©2021 Nico F. Declercq
xiv chapter 0
Figure 17: Marcel Demeyere during an excavation at 'Goed te Ga-
vere'in Deerlijk in 1985. Courtesy of Archive Leon Defraeye Deerlijk,
picture 1297. The picture was also published in Derlike XXVIII, 1
(2005), p. 32.
perience. The author would later also choose classes in religion
and atheistic morality. Questioning and balancing ideas is an
essential source of wisdom and tolerance.
0.11.3 Brief recognitions, in alphabetical or-
der
Adams, Luc; Alberti, Santiago; Algoet, Guy; Amaat, Johan;
Amarasinghe, Hema; Andreu i Domingo, Josep; Baele, Jan;
Baert, Gino; Ballieu,Raymon; Beaucamp, Regine and Regis;
Bekaert, Ivan; Beke, Luc; Bels, Steven; Benoit, Filip; Benoit,
Frans; Berton, Ren´e; Blad´e Segarra, Anna; Blauwblomme, Is-
abelle; Boiserie, Lea; Bossuyt, Leon; Bruggeman, Albert; Brugge-
man, Lucie; Bulcaen, Romain; Buyse, Andreas; Buysschaert,
Geert; Byttebier, Freddy; Calafell, Francesc; Caluwaerts, Jan;
Casteleyn, Joke; Christiaens, Isabelle; Clauwaert, Anita; Claes,
Carl; Contijoch, Eduard; Corteville, Ine; Courtens, Ronny;
Craen, Bon; Croes, Claude; D'Almedia, Pedro; D'Haen, Paula;
De Backer, Hugo; de Beauort, Olivier; de Beauort, Eline; De
Bont, Michel; De Cabooter, Emmy; De Clercq, Wim; Decorte,
Claudine; De La Camara Castillo, Carlos; de Meirsman, Regi;
De Pedrolo i Desclergue, Francesc; de Silva, A. Lalithdeva; de
Silva, Piyal Lasantha; de Silva, Sarath; de Silva, Shirani; De
Smet, Bert; Declercq, Agnes; Declercq, Anna-Laura; Declercq,
Benjamin; Declercq, Carole; Declercq, Elke; Declercq, Ernes-
tine; Declercq, Frans; Declercq, Jenny; Declercq, Jozef; De-
clercq, Lambert; Declercq, Marcel; Declercq, Maria; Declercq,
Maurice; Declercq, Nathalie; Declercq, Rachelle; De Clercq,
Ren´e; Deceuninck, Geert; Deconinck, Pol; Defraeye, Gemma;
Defraeye, Hugo; Defraeye, Leon; Defraeye, Steven; Degezelle,
Antoon Degezelle, Georges; Dejaeger, Nancy; Dejonghe, Lisa;
Deknudt, Armand; Dekoninck, Jolien; Dekyvere, Philippe; De-
labie, Jan; Deleersnyder, Achiel; Deler, Win; Deloddere, Edith;
Deloddere, Martin; Demeyere, Marcel; Den Dauw, Rita; Den
Dauw, Jane; Depamelaere, Gilbert; De Pedrolo, Adelais; De-
plae, Christa; Depraetere, Mireille; Deprez, Remi; Deraedt, Se-
bastiaan; Deroover, Dirk; Derudder, Willy; Deschieter, Johan;
Desmet, Eddy; Despriet, Philippe; Devlaminck, Kay; Devreese,
Christiaen; Dewaele, Griet; Dewaele, Hilde; Dewulf, Marleen;
Dewyngaert, Simone; Dhaene, Carinne; Dheedene, Lodewijk;
Dickmans, Sabine; Dilrukshi, Lanka Rangany; Dissanayaka,
Thushani; Dissanayake, Nehansa; Dissanayake, Priyantha and
family; Dissanayaka, Thushani; Dobbelaere, Els; Ducatteuw, Eti-
enne; Espejo Abela, Alvaro; Eyckerman, Peter; Farr´e Targa,
Miquel `angel; Feryn, Jan; Furniere, R´egine; Galle, Cindy; Galle,
Michel; Ganseman, Ann; Goethals, Bart; Gonzalvo i Bou, Gener;
Grau Pujol, Josep Maria; Grouazel-Krauss, Romain; Gurusinghe,
Sudarshana; Haeck, Nathalie; Hubaut, Pascal; Huyghe, Frans;
Huygens, Tom; Huys, Emiel; Jacques, Filip; J`avega, Josep-
Pau; Jorissen, Bieke; Kemseke, Luc; Kemseke, Willy; Kesteloot,
Piet; Kinjet, Jan; Kunnen, Mathieu; Lainez, Debbie; Lambert,
Guido; Lamont, Werner; Lampaert, Jan; Larmuseau, Maarten;
Lecluyse, Ivan; Lefebre, Leen; Lefevre, Dirk; Legrand, Bernard;
Leijs, Els; Lesage, Andrea; Lesage, Daniel; Lesage, Stefaan;
Leijs, Els; L´opez, Maite; Lopez-Monis, Jose A.; Love, Marie;
Malysse, Annie; Messiaen, Marc; Mil, Jean; Milis, Sander; Ni-
lanthi, Kumari; Nolf, Sofie; Novell i Perell´o, Emma; Par´es Puvill,
Jaume; Pauwels, Louis and Pema; Pauwels, Nilani; Perrera,
Warren; Picavet, Georges; Pollee, Jef; Princen, Muri¨el; Pubill,
Joaquim Par´es; Pujol, Josep Maria Grau; Reusens, Els; Ro-
man, Alexander; Roman, Amelie; Roman, Elina; Roman, Je-
gan (Michael); Roussel, Marc; Rovira i G´omez, Salvador J.;
Royano Cabrera, Miguel; Ryssaert, Chris; Sanahuja - Valles
family; Sanchez Real, Jose; Sans, Joana; Satyanarayan, Luis
and family; Schelfhout, Luk; Schotte, Brecht; Segarra, Anna
Blad´e; Sherman, Richard Morey; Sleegers, Marianne; Soens, Eva;
Strosse, Joost; Tack, Laurent; Tarrago , Maria Teresia Aluja;
Ter r yn, Rog er; Th enuwa ra, Wasa nth i; The rry, Mar c ; Thy s,
Martine; Thijs, Nadine; Tijtgat, Jo; Tilleman, Bernard; Tops,
Bert; Uyttenhove, Karl; Van Damme, Patrick; Van Eeckhout,
Moniek; Van Eeckhoutte, Herv´e; Van Eeckhoutte, Julien; Van
Hoorebeke, G.; Van Impe, Steven; Van Kerkhoven, Paul; Van
Loosveldt, Dion; Van Loosveldt, Marleen; Vanaverbeke, Paul;
Vandecandelaere, Greta; Vandecasteele, Willy; Vanden Breede,
Ignaas; Vandenbroucke, Dominique; Vandenbroucke, Jos´e; Van-
denbroucke, Martijn; Vandeputte, Omer; Van den Abeele,
Maria; Vanderbeken, Jules; Vandercruyssen, Norbert; Vander-
meersch, Rosette; Vande Velde, Linda; Vandezande, Egied; Van-
duynslager, Hilde; Vanoverberghe, Jan; Vangheluwe, Christina;
Vangheluwe, Gilbert, Vangheluwe, Lucien; Vangheluwe, Mau-
rice; Vangheluwe, Nelly; Vangheluwe, Pierre; Vangheluwe, Ren´e;
Vanhauwaert, Frank; Vanhecke, Fran¸coise; Vanhecke, Franck;
Vanhecke, Ann; Vanheerweghe, Robert; Vanherck, Brigitte;
Vanhooren, Bart; Vanhoutte, Antoon; Vanhoutte, Mia; Van-
houtte, Ronny; Vanhoutteghem, Jacques; Vanmeerhaeghe, Joko;
Vanoverberghe, Jan; Van Rode, Olivier; Vansteelant, An; Vanwi-
jnsberghe, Marc; Vanwynsberghe, Bernard; Velghe, Dominique;
Ver Gucht, Erik; Ver Gucht, Magda; Verbeken, Erwin; Ver-
brugghe, Gerard; Verbrugghe, Jeanette; Vercruysse, Erika; Ver-
cruysse, Victor; Vergote, Marc; Vergucht, Eric; Verhaeghe,
Andr´e; Verhaeghe, Zozyma; Verhelst, Katrien; Verhelst, Nelly;
Vermeulen, Bernadette; Verschelde, Ignace; Vervaeke, Nadine;
Verzele, Katrien; Viaene, Dirk; Viaene, Ludwine; Vijayapala,
Don Imiyage Nilusha Jeewanee; Vila Vives, Jaume; Vols, Werner;
Vranken, Mie; Vroman, Mariette; Waelkens, Marc; Weydts, Bart;
Willems, Hubert; Windels, Filip; Withanaarachchi, Mahinda;
Woestijn, Andr´e; and Wybo, Lore.
0.11.4 Institutional appreciations
La Casa de S. M. El Rey, Fundacio Pedrolo, AFO Fotografie,
Familiekunde Vlaanderen, Andr´e Demedtshuis vzw, Heemkring
Dorp en Toren, Redactie Derlike, Belgian Military Archives, Ad-
ministration of Zonnebeke-Beselare, Waregem, Deerlijk, Kortrijk,
Langemark, Moorslede, Wielsbeke and Ypres, Arxiu Comarcal
Urgell, Arxiu Comarcal Conca de Barbera, Arxiu Comarcal de
T`arrega - Fons Pedrolo, C. E. Conca Barber`a Montblanc, Fun-
daci´o Catalunya La Pedrera, the town of Montblanc, the State
archives of Belgium and its local branches. The author equally
expresses his gratitude to Wikipedia®and Wikimedia Com-
mons®for making and maintaining an easily accessible and
ecient source of information to find facts and references as a
valuable gateway to further investigations. Without such a tool,
writing this book would have taken at least one more decade.
Additional gratitude is manifested towards Google®, Google
Books®and Google Maps®. There are no words to express
the added value of these platforms in finding information. Fam-
ily History Centres of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day
Saints deserves an acknowledgement too. Finally, the archives of
the parishes of the Catholic Church in Belgium, France and Spain
are thanked, with special appreciation to the parish of Deerlijk
and Sint Lodewijk.
©2021 Nico F. Declercq The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc
section 0.12 xv
Figure 18: Left to right: Benjamin J. H. Declercq, Shirani O. de Silva, Nico F. Declercq
(the author), Lambert L. B. Declercq and Anna-Laura F. M. Declercq. (Declercq de Silva
Archive)
0.12 Special gratitude
The final words of gratitude are devoted to the author'sgrand-
uncle and foster father, Pierre Vangheluwe, also described in
chapter 55.11.He was a sagacious person, a self-educated historian
and philosopher and mastered several languages. He was always
correct, honest, reliable, diplomatic and rational. Circumstances
had prevented him from becoming a teacher, which he has al-
ways regretted. He passed away 30 years ago, on July 8, 1991. It
has been his final wish for the author to study and obtain a uni-
versity diploma. Because of the many experiences in his youth,
made possible by Pierre and his wife Jeanette Verbrugghe, and
the support by the latter long after 1991, the author stayed on
track, obtained a diploma, became a PhD and finally a university
professor at the age of 30. It'scorrecttosaythatPierresaved
the author in 1987-1988 by providing shelter and a stimulating
environment for study. To rephrase his words, 'he was the rock
on which the author could build his church'.This book is a result
of general interest triggered by him. The author'sfamilyisa
result of visiting Sri Lanka with him.
'Thank you.'
The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc ©2021 Nico F. Declercq
xvi chapter 0
©2021 Nico F. Declercq The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc
Contents
Foreword v
0.1 Aboutthismanuscript .................................................... v
0.2 Afewwordsabouttheauthor ................................................ v
0.3 The Author'sAcademicBackground ............................................ v
0.4 AfewwordsinCatalan.................................................... vii
0.5 AfewwordsinSpanish.................................................... vii
0.6 AfewwordsinFlemish.................................................... vii
0.7 AfewwordsinFrench .................................................... ix
0.8 AfewwordsinEnglish.................................................... x
0.9 AfewwordsinSinhalese................................................... xi
0.10AfewwordstothefriendsfromIndia............................................ xi
0.11Acknowlegements....................................................... xiii
0.11.1 Jos´eS´anchezReal................................................... xiii
0.11.2 MarcelDemeyere ................................................... xiii
0.11.3 Briefrecognitions................................................... xiv
0.11.4 Institutionalappreciations .............................................. xiv
0.12Specialgratitude ....................................................... xv
I Prelude 3
1 Heraldry and Geography 5
1.1 HeraldicArmsofNicoFelicienDeclercq........................................... 5
1.1.1 Historical backbones of the arms: Desclergue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1.2 Historical backbones of the arms: de Patin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1.3 Presentation of Declercq'sarms ........................................... 5
1.1.4 Enamels,SymbolsandMeaning........................................... 6
1.1.4.1 Enamels................................................... 6
1.1.4.2 Symbols................................................... 6
1.1.4.3 Meaning................................................... 6
1.1.5 TheDeclercqdeSilvaFamilytomb ......................................... 6
1.1.6 HeraldicRegistrations ................................................ 7
1.2 ArmsofShiranideSilva ................................................... 7
2 The Town and the Duchy of Montblanc in Spain. 9
3 Onomastics 13
3.1 Namesinagenealogicalcontext ............................................... 13
3.2 TheDesclergues........................................................ 14
3.3 Polymorcnames....................................................... 15
3.4 Otherforeignnames ..................................................... 17
3.5 The name connected to the Casal dels Desclergue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4 A Brief History of Flanders and its Iberian Connections 21
4.1 Francia-TheKingdomoftheFranks............................................ 22
4.2 TheSpanishReconquista................................................... 23
4.3 TheBattleoftheGoldenSpursin1302........................................... 23
4.4 TheBurgundianEmpireRise ................................................ 24
4.4.1 PhiliptheBold .................................................... 25
4.4.2 JohnofBurgundy................................................... 27
4.4.3 PhiliptheGood.................................................... 28
4.4.4 CharlestheBold ................................................... 28
4.4.5 MarytheDuchessofBurgundy ........................................... 28
4.4.6 PhiliptheHandsome................................................. 28
4.5 IberiaastheCrownoftheWorld .............................................. 29
4.6 EmperorCharlesV...................................................... 30
4.7 The Spanish Crown and its Habsburg Rule over Belgium after Emperor Carlos V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.7.1 H. M. Felipe II as King of Spain and Ruler of the Spanish Netherlands, 1556-1598 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.7.2 H. M. Felipe III as King of Spain, 1598-1621 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.7.3 H. M. Isabella of Spain and H. M. Albert of Austria as Rulers of the Spanish Netherlands, 1598-1621 . . . . 33
4.7.4 H. M. Felipe IV as King of Spain and Ruler of the Spanish Netherlands, 1621-1665 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.7.5 H. M. Carlos II as King of Spain and Ruler of the Spanish Netherlands, 1665-1700 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.8 TheEightyYearsWar .................................................... 33
4.9 TheSpanishArmyofFlanders................................................ 34
The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc ©2021 Nico F. Declercq
xviii CONTENTS
4.9.1 The composition of the Army of Flanders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.9.2 TimelineoftheEightyYearsWar.......................................... 36
4.10 The Spanish Devolution War and the War of Succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.10.1 TheDevolutionWar1667-1668 ........................................... 39
4.10.2 TheWarofSuccession1701-1714 .......................................... 39
4.11 The Spanish Monarchy from H.M. King Felipe V until the First Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.11.1 H.M.FelipeVofSpain................................................ 39
4.11.2 H.M.LuisIofSpain ................................................. 39
4.11.3 H.M.FelipeVofSpain................................................ 39
4.11.4 H.M.FernandoVIofSpain ............................................. 39
4.11.5 H.M.CarlosIIIofSpain ............................................... 41
4.11.6 H.M.CarlosIVofSpain ............................................... 41
4.11.7 H.M.FernandoVIIofSpain ............................................. 41
4.11.8 H.M.IsabellaIIofSpain............................................... 41
4.11.9 H.M.AmadeoIofSpain ............................................... 41
4.12 The Spanish Monarchy, the Second Republic and the Civil War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4.12.1 H.M.AlfonsoXIIofSpain.............................................. 41
4.12.2 H.M.AlfonsoXIIIofSpain ............................................. 41
4.13 The Second Spanish Republic and Francisco Franco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4.14 Spanish Monarchy after Francisco Franco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.14.1 H.M.KingJuanCarlosIofSpain.......................................... 42
4.14.2 H.M.KingFelipeVIofSpain ............................................ 43
4.15BelgiumAustriacum ..................................................... 43
4.15.1 H.M.EmperorCharlesVI .............................................. 44
4.15.2 H.M.EmpressMariaTheresia............................................ 44
4.15.3 H.M.EmperorJosephII ............................................... 44
4.15.4 H.M.EmperorLeopoldII .............................................. 44
4.15.5 H.M.EmperorFrancisII............................................... 44
4.16TheFirstBelgianRevolutionin1789 ............................................ 44
4.17H.M.EmperorNapoleonBonaparte............................................. 44
4.18TheDutchPeriod....................................................... 48
4.19ModernBelgium ....................................................... 48
4.19.1 H.M.KingLeopoldI ................................................. 48
4.19.2 H.M.KingLeopoldII ................................................ 48
4.19.3 H.M.KingAlbertI.................................................. 49
4.19.4 H.M.KingLeopoldIII ................................................ 49
4.19.5 H.M.KingBoudewijn................................................. 49
4.19.6 H.M.KingAlbertII ................................................. 49
4.19.7 H.M.KingPhilippe.................................................. 49
4.19.7.1 TheRoyalFamily ............................................. 49
4.19.7.2 H.R.H. Princess Elisabeth, the Duchess of Brabant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
II Genetics 53
5 DNA Analysis of N. F. Declercq 55
5.1 Introduction.......................................................... 55
5.2 Y-DNAandmt-DNA..................................................... 55
5.3 DNA and Family names in Catalonia, with strong evidence of Tarragona as the ancient origin . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
5.4 Autosomal DNA (FamilyTreeDNA®)-TheSpanishconnection ............................. 58
5.5 Autosomal DNA (FamilyTreeDNA®) - The North Sea basin and the Flemish connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
5.6 Autosomal DNA (FamilyTreeDNA®)-TheIrishconnection............................... 59
5.7 GEDmatch®results ..................................................... 60
5.7.1 Populationmatches.................................................. 60
5.7.2 Spanishmatches ................................................... 61
5.7.3 Detailedautosomalanalysis ............................................. 61
5.7.3.1 TheBrittanycluster ............................................ 61
5.7.3.2 TheSoriacluster .............................................. 61
5.7.3.2.1 Genes in common with Torres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5.7.3.2.2 Genes in common with Soriano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5.7.3.3 Genes in common with de Montoya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
5.7.3.4 GenesincommonwithCort´es....................................... 62
5.7.3.5 Genes in common with de la Cruz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
5.7.3.6 GenesincommonwithFossa ....................................... 62
5.7.3.7 The maternal Perlan Irish Ancestry Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
5.7.3.8 Genes in common with Montaigne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
5.7.3.9 Genes in common with Lombaerde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
5.7.3.10 GenesincommonwithLesage....................................... 63
5.7.3.11 Genes in common with Desplenter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
5.7.3.12 GenesincommonwithBenoit....................................... 63
5.7.3.13 GenesincommonwithGoddyn...................................... 63
5.7.3.14 GenesincommonwithPennet ...................................... 63
5.7.3.15 Genes in common with Corneille . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
5.7.3.16 Genes in common with De Croock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
©2021 Nico F. Declercq The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc
CONTENTS xix
5.7.3.17 GenesincommonwithMassa....................................... 63
5.7.4 AFocusontheRegions ............................................... 63
5.7.4.1 SpainandPortugalingeneral....................................... 63
5.7.4.1.1 Spain ............................................... 63
5.7.4.1.2 Portugal.............................................. 64
5.7.4.1.3 Iberia,unspecied ........................................ 64
5.7.4.2 Galicia.................................................... 64
5.7.4.3 Brittany................................................... 64
5.7.4.3.1 OldfamiliesofBrittany ..................................... 64
5.7.4.3.2 Other names related to Brittany, in Brittany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
5.7.4.3.3 Other names associated with Brittany, around Brittany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
5.7.4.3.4 Names possibly related to the 'legend'that Du Guesclin had some of his roots at the coast
ofAlgeria(Bougie)........................................ 64
5.7.4.4 Other Particular Spanish Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
5.7.4.4.1 Soria................................................ 64
5.7.4.4.2 Catalonia ............................................. 64
5.7.4.4.3 CrownofAragon ......................................... 64
5.7.4.5 Expansion of Catalonia and the Crown of Aragon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
5.7.4.5.1 Sardinia.............................................. 65
5.7.4.5.2 Naples............................................... 65
5.7.4.5.3 DeepSouthItaly ......................................... 65
5.7.4.5.4 Sicily ............................................... 65
5.7.4.5.5 Greece............................................... 65
5.7.4.5.6 Malta ............................................... 65
5.7.4.6 Spanish Territories in the 16th-17th centuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
5.7.4.6.1 MilanandGenua......................................... 65
5.7.4.6.2 Milan and Genua, but also the deep South of Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
5.7.4.6.3 Cross match between GEDmatch®and the Montblanc Census of 1359 . . . . . . . . . . 65
5.7.4.7 Connection with other descendants of Du Guesclin in Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
5.8 Genetic Analysis based on MyTrueAncestry®....................................... 65
5.9 Genetic Analysis based on MyHeritage®.......................................... 65
5.9.1 Spanishresidents ................................................... 65
5.9.2 Portugueseresidents ................................................. 69
5.10 Genetic Analysis based on Geneanet®........................................... 69
5.11 Comparison with ancient Skeletons by GEDmatch®................................... 69
5.11.1 Alps(13700yearoldskeletons) ........................................... 70
5.11.1.1 French-Burgundian-Helvetian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.11.2 Byzantine area (8300-9700 year old skeletons) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.11.2.1 Georgia (9700 years ago; weight 22) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.11.2.2 Turkey (8300-8400 years ago; weights 1-5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.11.3 Iberia (4700-7200 year old skeletons) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.11.3.1 Spain (4700-7200 years ago; weights 3-10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.11.4 Celtic British Isles (4000-5200-year-old skeletons) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.11.4.1 Ireland (4000-5200 years ago; weights 28-40) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.11.5 Germanic-Hungarian (3100-7000-year-old skeletons) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.11.5.1 Hungary (4200-7200 years ago; weights 1-2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.11.5.2 Germany (3100-7000 years ago; weights 1-5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.11.5.3 Russia (1500-5300 years ago; weights 1-5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.11.6 Roman and Anglo Saxon British Isles (1500-1800-year-old skeletons) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.11.6.1 (1500-1800 years ago; weights 1-13) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
6 DNA de Silva 71
6.1 Introduction.......................................................... 71
6.2 Iberia and the ancestors before genealogical records: The Byzantine migration path 224-1300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
6.3 MixedByzantineandIberianGenes............................................. 72
6.4 Aninterestingobservation .................................................. 73
6.5 DNA analysis by FamilyTreeDNA®............................................ 74
6.6 TheIberianByzantineHaplogroup ............................................. 74
6.7 YFull®DNAanalysis .................................................... 75
6.8 The Y-STR values indicate Iberian roots from a Byzantine origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6.9 The Autosomal DNA analysis reveals Sri Lankan, Indian, Byzantine and Iberian origins (FamilyTreeDNA®) .... 77
6.10 The mt-DNA Haplogroup reveals the Kuru Kingdom as the maternal-line origin (FamilyTreeDNA®) ........ 78
6.11 Old DNA analysis by Consanguinitas®agreeswithnewresults............................. 78
6.12 GEDmatch®resultsforDeSilva .............................................. 79
6.12.1 Population matches with de Silva (GEDmatch®)................................. 79
6.12.1.1 Dodecad V3 Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.12.1.2 MDLP K23b Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.12.1.3 HarappaWorld Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.12.1.4 MDLP K16 Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.12.1.5 puntDNAL K12 Modern Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.12.1.6 Eurogenes K12b Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.12.1.7 Eurogenes K13 Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.12.1.8 Eurogenes EUtest V2 K15 Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc ©2021 Nico F. Declercq
xx CONTENTS
6.12.1.9 Eurogenes K36 Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.12.1.10 Dodecad K12b Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.12.1.11 MDLP K16 Modern Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.12.1.12 MDLP World Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.12.1.13 MDLP World-22 Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.12.1.14 puntDNAL K15 Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.12.1.15 EUtest Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.12.1.16 puntDNAL K13 Global Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.12.1.17 EthioHelixK10 Africa Only Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
6.12.1.18JtestAdmixtureProportions ....................................... 80
6.12.1.19 Africa9 Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
6.12.1.20 Harappa World Admixture Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
6.12.1.21AfocusonIndia .............................................. 80
6.12.2 Individual matches with de Silva (GEDmatch®) ................................. 80
6.12.2.1 Total centimorgans 40.0-50.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
6.12.2.2 Total centimorgans 16.5-20.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
6.12.2.3 Total centimorgans 10.1-16.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
6.12.2.4 Totalcentimorgans9.0-10.0 ........................................ 80
6.12.2.5 Totalcentimorgans8.5-8.9......................................... 80
6.12.2.6 Totalcentimorgans8.0-8.4......................................... 80
6.12.2.7 Totalcentimorgans7.5-7.9......................................... 80
6.12.2.8 Totalcentimorgans7.0-7.4......................................... 81
6.12.3 Match between de Silva and Declercq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
6.12.4 Old ancestry matches between de Silva and de Rivera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
6.12.5 De Silva - Carvalho - de Almeida DNA (GEDmatch®).............................. 81
6.12.5.1 Carvalho .................................................. 81
6.12.5.2 deSilva ................................................... 81
6.12.5.3 deAlmeida ................................................. 81
6.12.5.4 mutual overlap between De Silva, Carvalho and de Almeida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
6.12.5.5 DNA comparison with the families of the first Fidalgos of Goa and Kotte (GEDmatch®)...... 81
6.13 Genetic Analysis based on MyTrueAncestry®....................................... 82
6.14 Geneanet®dNAresultsforDeSilva ............................................ 84
6.15ComparisonwithancientSkeletons ............................................. 84
6.15.1 Byzantine and Georgia (8300-9700 year old skeletons; weights 1-31) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
6.15.2 Ireland (3900-5200 year old skeletons; weights 1-30) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
6.15.3 Switzerland (13700 year old skeletons; weight 16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
6.15.4 England (1450-1800 year old skeletons); weights 2-11) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
6.15.5 Iberia (5800-7200 year old skeletons; weights 2-9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
6.15.6 Germany (4200-9100 year old skeletons; weights 1-9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
6.15.7 Russia (2300-7300 year old skeletons) (weights 1-3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
6.15.8 Sweden (5700-7700 year old skeletons; weights 1-2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
6.15.9 Hungary (4200-4900 year old skeletons; weight 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
III Brittany is from where the Desclergues of Montblanc came 93
7 Introduction 95
8 Bertrand Du Guesclin 97
8.1 Spanish roots, French ancestry and descendants in Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
8.1.1 Mediterranean blood at Saint Coulomb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
8.1.2 OnthelegendofKingAquin ............................................ 97
8.1.3 ThinkableRomanrootsinAquino.......................................... 98
8.1.4 Thinkable connection with the Umayyad invasions of France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
8.1.5 Plausible Seedbed in La Marche de Bretagne and La Marche d'Espagne..................... 99
8.1.6 Consistency with the ocialhistoryofSaintCoulomb............................... 100
8.1.7 Thinkable Britonia Genesis and what we learned from Lebor Gab´ala ´
Erenn...................100
8.1.8 Historians on Du Guesclin'sOspring........................................ 100
8.1.8.1 OnMichelDuGuesclin(DG12)......................................101
8.1.8.2 On Beltr´an de Torres (DT01b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
8.1.8.3 On Gu´erech de Torres (DT01), our ancestor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
8.1.8.4 A reference by Juan Manuel, Infante de Castilla, 14th century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
8.1.8.5 A reference by Cuvelier, 14th century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
8.1.8.6 A reference by Francisco de Rades y Andrada, 1572 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
8.1.8.7 A reference by Juan Manuel, 1575 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
8.1.8.8 A reference by Gonzalo Argote de Molina, 1588 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
8.1.8.9 A reference by Medro Porralis, 1591 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
8.1.8.10 A reference by Andre Fauyn, 1620 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
8.1.8.11 A reference by Alonso Lopez de Haro, 1622 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
8.1.8.12 A reference by P`ere Anselme de Sainte-Marie, continu´ee par Honor´e du Fourny, 1726-1733 . . . . . 104
8.1.8.13 A reference by Michaud fr`eres, 1814 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
8.1.8.14 A reference by Christine de Pisan, 1824 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
8.1.8.15 A reference of Alberto y Arturo Garcia Carraa,1952-1958 ...................... 105
8.1.8.16 A reference of Roberto Calvo Torre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
©2021 Nico F. Declercq The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc
CONTENTS xxi
8.1.8.16.1 A) Beltr´an de Torres (DT01b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
8.1.8.16.2 B) Gu´erech de Torres (DT01) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
8.1.8.16.3 1) Juan Guti´errez de Torres (DT02b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
8.1.8.16.4 2) Carlos D´ıaz de Torres (DT02) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
8.1.8.16.5 2) Diego de Torres (DT02c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
8.1.8.17 A reference of Lucia Mosquera Novoa, 2015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
8.1.8.18 A reference of Lucia Mosquera Novoa, 2017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
8.1.9 The Reported Ancestors of Du Guesclin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
8.1.9.1 RicherdeGuarplic(DG01) ........................................ 107
8.1.9.2 Clamaroch de Guarplic (DG02) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
8.1.9.3 Bertrand I de Guarplic (DG03) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
8.1.9.4 GeoroydeGuarplic(DG04) ....................................... 108
8.1.9.5 Bertrand II du Guesclin (DG05) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
8.1.9.6 PierreduGuesclin(DG06) ........................................ 108
8.1.9.7 Bertrand III du Guesclin (DG07) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
8.1.9.8 Bertrand IV du Guesclin (DG08) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
8.1.9.9 Guillaume du Guesclin (DG09) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
8.1.9.10 Robert II du Guesclin (DG10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
8.2 Du Guesclin'sBriefBiography................................................ 108
8.3 HonoursreceivedbyDuGuesclin ..............................................109
8.4 Du Guesclin'sLegacy.....................................................109
8.5 The Burial place of Bertrand Du Guesclin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
9 Heraldry and the Appearance of Du Guesclin in Spain 111
9.1 Du Guesclin supporting H.M. Enrique de Trastamara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
9.2 PlacesvisitedbyDuGuesclininSpain ...........................................111
9.3 The presence at and the liberation of Montblanc by Du Guesclin, in the records of 1366-1370 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
9.4 The Spanish format of Du Guesclin'sname.........................................113
9.5 HeraldryofDuGuesclin ...................................................113
9.5.1 TheDuGuesclinfamily ............................................... 113
9.5.2 The seal of Du Guesclin upon his arrival in Spain: The Gryphon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
10 The Desclergues Coat of Arms forms a connection to Bertrand Du Guesclin and Cort´es de Monroy 115
10.1TheShield...........................................................115
10.2TheHelmet .......................................................... 116
10.3TheGryphonontheHelmet.................................................116
10.4ThreeMilitaryFlags .....................................................117
10.5TheFleursdeLys....................................................... 117
11 On the Estimated time of Settlement of the Desclergues at Montblanc 119
12 The Brittanic Grouazel-Krauss family as descendants of Uuethenoc and Boisguehenneuc 121
13 DNA analysis exposing the Connection with Du Guesclin 123
13.1 DNA evidence of Du Guesclin as the originator of the Desclergues of Montblanc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
13.2 A sample of R. Grouazel-Krauss from Ruca in Brittany, male descendant of Gu´eh´eneuc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
13.3AsampleofF.Gu´ez´ennec .................................................. 124
13.4AsampleofB.Chaix.....................................................124
13.5AsampleofM.Cariou .................................................... 124
14 The Bloodline from Bertrand Du Guesclin to Pere Desclergue (DC01) 125
14.1 Don Bertrand Du Guesclin / Beltran Claquin (DG11) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
14.2DonGraudeTorres(I)(DT01) ............................................... 125
14.3DonGraudeTorres(II)(DT02)............................................... 125
14.4 Don Carlos Diaz de Torres (DT02) y Do˜na Desclergues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
14.5DonPereDesclergue(DC01)yTorres............................................ 126
IV The Desclergues of Montblanc 131
15 Summary of the Desclergue Paternal Ancestry Line 133
16 Spanish-Catalan Roots 137
16.1Introduction.......................................................... 137
16.2 Don Pere Desclergue (I) (DC01), the earliest recorded Desclergue ancestor in Montblanc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
16.2.1 Pere Desclergue (I) y Torres (DC01) was a Notary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
16.2.2 The Spouse of Don Pere Desclergue y Torres (I) (DC01) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
16.3 Descendants of Pere Desclergue (I) (DC01) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
16.3.1 Pere Desclergue (DC02b), a mercador . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
16.3.2 AntichDesclergue(DC02c) ............................................. 144
16.3.3 Galceran Desclergue (I) (DC02d), a mercador, and his descendants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
16.3.3.1 Galceran Desclergue (II) (DC02dy1), the son of Galceran Desclergue (I) (DC02d) . . . . . . . . . . 152
16.3.3.2 Jer´onimo Desclergue (DC02dy1y2), the son of Galceran Desclergue (II) (DC02dy1) a servitor of the
MarquisofAytona ............................................. 152
The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc ©2021 Nico F. Declercq
xxii CONTENTS
16.3.3.3 Maria Anna Desclergue y de Ojeda (DC02dy1x1), our ancestor and the daughter of Galceran De-
sclergue(II)(DC02dy1) ..........................................153
16.4 Don Joan Berenguer Desclergue (DC02) & Prunera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
16.4.1 Don Joan Berenguer Desclergue (DC02), general conservator of the Montblanc Dukedom . . . . . . . . . . . 153
16.4.2 HiswifePrunera ................................................... 154
16.5 Don Bonaventura Desclergue (I) (DC03) & Anna Cort´es de Monroy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
16.5.1 Don Bonaventura Desclergue (I) (DC03), a notary and local deputy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
16.5.2 Anna Cort´es de Monroy, her ancestry and relatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
16.5.2.1 Hern´an Cort´es de Monroy, Anna'scousinandaConquistador . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
16.5.2.1.1 Introduction............................................ 162
16.5.2.1.2 His early life and arrival in the New World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
16.5.2.1.3 ThedeityQuetzalCoatl..................................... 163
16.5.2.1.4 HislifeinHispa˜nola ....................................... 163
16.5.2.1.5 His first visit of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
16.5.2.1.6 His Conquista of Tenochtitian (Mexico City) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
16.5.2.1.7 His Involvement in other Conquistas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
16.5.2.1.8 A devastating end of his life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
16.5.2.2 The author's Meso-American and Hellenistic research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
16.5.2.2.1 Description ............................................ 164
16.5.2.2.2 The author'spublicationsonthismatter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
16.5.2.2.3 Articles published by news agencies on the author'sactivity,concerningtheQuetzalecho
atChichenItza.......................................... 166
16.5.2.2.4 Articles published by news agencies concerning the author'sworkontheRaindropeect . 166
16.5.2.2.5 Articles published by news agencies concerning the author'sworkinEpidaurus. . . . . . . 166
16.5.3 Descendants...................................................... 167
16.5.3.1 Francesc Desclergue y Monseny (DC04b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
16.5.3.2 Bonaventura Desclergue y Monseny (DC04c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
16.5.3.3 Luis Desclergue (I) (DC04d) y Cort´es, a mercador . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
17 Bonaventura Desclergue (DC04) and his family 169
17.1Introduction.......................................................... 169
17.2 Don Bonaventura Desclergue y Cort´es (II) (DC04) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
17.3 His marriage with Maria Anna Desclergue y de Ojeda and their children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
17.3.1 Don Jeroni Desclergue y Cort´es (DC05) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
17.3.2 Don Enric Desclergue (DC05c) y Cort´es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
17.4 His marriage with Anna (II) Ratera and their children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
17.4.1 Don Antoni Desclergue y Ratera (DC05b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
17.4.2 Don Francesc Desclergue (DC05e) y Ratera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
17.4.2.1 Introduction and source of income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
17.4.2.2 Lifeandtraitsasalawyer......................................... 174
17.4.3 Do˜na Francisca Desclergue (DC05d) y Ratera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
17.4.4 Do˜na Isabel/Elisabeth Desclergue y Tous (DC05ex1) - first marriage, with Jacinto Francesc Jori . . . . . . . 177
17.4.5 Do˜na Isabel/Elisabeth Desclergue y Tous (DC05ex1) - second marriage, with Jacinto Pedrolo . . . . . . . . . 177
17.5 Don Francesc de Pedrolo y Desclergue, (DC05ex1y2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
17.5.1 Introduction......................................................178
17.5.2 Narrativeofhislife.................................................. 180
17.5.3 Descendants:dePedrolo............................................... 183
17.5.4 Manuscripts authored by Francesc de Pedrolo y Desclergue (DC05ex1y2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
17.5.5 Francesc de Pedrolo y Desclergue (DC05ex1y2) is also found in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
17.5.6 Francesc de Pedrolo y Desclergue'sancestralhighlights ..............................184
17.5.7 Desclergue documents in Fons documentals de Montblanc a l'Arxiu comarcal de T`arrega . . . . . . . . . . . 184
17.5.7.1 Appointments................................................ 184
17.5.7.2 Judicial documentation of the patrimony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
17.5.7.3 Personal and family documentation - Family history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
17.5.7.4 Personal and family documentation - Inheritance documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
17.5.7.5 Personal and family documentation - Francesc de Pedrolo y Desclergue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
17.5.7.6 Desclergue Family - General documentation of assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
17.5.7.7 Desclergue Family - Transfer of ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
17.5.7.8 Desclergue Family - Wealth - Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
17.5.7.9 Desclergue Family - Equity - Debt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
17.5.7.10 Desclergue Family - Correspondence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
17.5.7.11 Desclergue Family - Family History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
17.5.7.12 Desclergue Family - Inheritance documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
17.5.7.13 Desclergue Family - School and academic documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
17.5.7.14 Desclergue Family - Francesc Desclergue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
17.5.7.15 Desclergue Family - Bonaventura Desclergue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
17.5.7.16 Desclergue Family - Other documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
17.5.8 AntonidePedrolo(DC05ex1y2y1) ......................................... 185
17.5.9 Amadeo Francesc Desclergue y Tous (DC05ey1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
17.6 Earlier connection with the de Pedrolo family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
©2021 Nico F. Declercq The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc
CONTENTS xxiii
18 Jeroni Desclergue y Cort´es (DC05) & Felipa de Montoya 193
18.1Introduction.......................................................... 193
18.2HisrootsinMontblanc.................................................... 195
18.3 The Career of Jeroni Desclergue 1587-1604 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
18.3.1 Introduction......................................................197
18.3.2 The influence of Carlos Coloma and Luis del Villar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
18.3.3 TheCaptureofGeldern1587 ............................................214
18.3.4 The Invasion of England with the Spanish Armada 1588 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
18.3.5 TheSiegeofBergenopZoom1588 ......................................... 215
18.3.6 The Attempt to sack Ostend in Spring 1589 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
18.3.7 The Siege of Heusden, Heel and Bommelerwaard, 1589 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
18.3.8 The arrival in Harelbeke and Kortrijk, December 1589 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
18.3.9 Attack on the Fortress of Noordam 1590 near Zevenbergen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
18.3.10 The Attack on occupied Oudenburg 1590 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
18.3.11 The Relief of la Fert´e-Milon in 1591 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
18.3.12 The Liberation of the Westerlo castle in 1591 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
18.3.13DefenceofNijmegenin1591............................................. 227
18.3.14TheDefenseofSteenwijk(1592)........................................... 227
18.3.15 The Siege of Coevorden in 1593-1594 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
18.3.16 The capture of La Capelle and the loss of Laon in 1594 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
18.3.17 The Capture of Hoei (Huy) in Spring of 1595 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
18.3.18 The Siege of Le Catelet, Doullens and Cambrai - Summer of 1595 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
18.3.19 The Hospital of Saint-Jean at Citadel of Cambrai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
18.3.20 The Siege of Calais and Ardres in 1596 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
18.3.21TheSiegeofHulstin1596 ..............................................230
18.3.22 The Battles of Turnhout, Alphen and Moers in the North-East, in 1597 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
18.3.23 Surprise Capture of Amiens in the South, 1597 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
18.3.24 A new career in Tournai in the Spring of 1598 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
18.3.25 Short career in Barcelona and membership of the Corts 1598-1602 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
18.3.26HisStayinTournai1602-1604............................................232
18.3.27 His Participation in the Siege of Ostend 1602-1604 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
18.4 The Events after Jeroni'sdeathin1604...........................................233
18.5TheSpaniardCastleofGhent ................................................ 233
18.6TheEarlyNetworkofJeroniDesclergue .......................................... 235
18.6.1 The Friendship between the Desclergue, Du Puich, Masse, DeKlerk, de Bucqouy, Vosse, Andries and de la
Cruzfamilies ..................................................... 235
18.6.2 JanDeKlerk...................................................... 235
18.6.3 TheduPuichfamily ................................................. 237
18.6.3.1 Appearance of Jeroni Desclergue at Loos (near Lille) with du Puich . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
18.6.3.2 A marriage between the Du Puich and the Desclergue family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
18.6.3.3 The presence of the Du Puich family at the Spaniard Castle of Ghent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
18.6.3.4 A marriage between de Bucqouy and the Desclergue families, with Du Puich as a witness . . . . . . 238
18.6.3.5 His post-mortem influence on the realisation of the Chapel in Deerlijk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
18.6.4 TheMassefamily................................................... 238
18.6.5 ThedeVosFamily .................................................. 238
18.6.6 The de la Cruz Family, related to Jeroni'swife...................................239
18.6.7 TheAndriesFamily.................................................. 239
18.7 Jeroni'schildren........................................................239
18.7.1 Juana Desclergue (DC06c), the daughter of Jeroni Desclergue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
18.7.2 Maria Desclergue (DC06e), the daughter of Jeroni Desclergue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
18.7.3 Anna Desclergue (DC06f), the daughter of Jeroni Desclergue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
18.7.4 Antoni Desclergue (DC06), the son of Jeroni Desclergue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
18.7.5 Miguel Desclergue (DC06b), the son of Jeroni Desclergue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
18.8 Felipa de Montoya, the wife of Jeroni Desclergue, and her family. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
18.8.1 Felipa de Montoya, related to the Ximenes de la Cruz Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
18.8.2 JeronimodeMontoya,senior............................................. 245
18.8.3 JeronimodeMontoya,junior............................................. 245
18.8.3.1 JuandeMontoya..............................................245
18.8.4 AntoniodeMontoya ................................................. 247
18.8.5 MariadeMontoya,junior .............................................. 247
18.9 The Orphans of Jeroni Desclergue, Ius Inter Gentes, their inheritance, and the destiny of Felipa de Montoya . . . . . 247
18.9.1 Ius Inter Gentes and Citizen Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
18.9.2 Ius Inter Gentes and Inheritance Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
18.9.2.1 Introduction ................................................ 249
18.9.2.2 Felipa de Montoya'sExtendedFamily ..................................249
18.9.2.3 TheInheritance............................................... 249
18.10The Spanish Military Barracks of Harelbeke, adjacent to Deerlijk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
18.10.1TheHistoricalPerspective .............................................. 255
18.10.2 Archaeological Evidence of the Spanish Barracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc ©2021 Nico F. Declercq
xxiv CONTENTS
19 Overview of Whereabouts of Jeroni Desclergue and his family in Flanders 261
19.1Introduction.......................................................... 261
19.2TheSpaniardCastleofGhent ................................................ 261
19.3Kortrijk ............................................................ 261
19.4Cambrai............................................................ 261
19.5Tournai ............................................................ 261
19.6Ostend.............................................................264
19.7OverackerinDeerlijk-Harelbeke ............................................... 264
20 The Siege of Ostend 269
20.1Introduction.......................................................... 269
20.2TheEarlystageofthebattle................................................. 269
20.3 The Late and Final Stages of the Battle and the death of Jeroni Desclergue (DC05) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
20.4 Sandhill in Ostend, where Jeroni was killed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
20.5 Colombye, San Miquel and the pregnant widow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
20.6LegacyoftheSiegeofOstend ................................................ 278
21 Antoni Desclergue y Ratera (DC05b) 289
21.1Introduction.......................................................... 289
21.2HisCareer........................................................... 289
21.2.1 RecruitmentandserviceinMilan .......................................... 289
21.2.2 Ostend.........................................................289
21.2.3 Damme ........................................................ 289
21.2.4 BarcelonaandGerona ................................................ 292
21.2.5 Antwerp, with his brother Enrique (DC05c) and the onset of the 30-year War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
21.3Spouse............................................................. 293
21.4HisDeathatGhent......................................................293
21.5 His Ospring ......................................................... 295
21.5.1 PereDesclergue.................................................... 295
21.5.2 JoanDesclergue....................................................295
21.5.3 FranciscaDesclergue ................................................. 297
21.5.4 JoseDesclergue .................................................... 297
21.6TheappearanceofMariaJuanaPollet ........................................... 297
22 Enric Desclergue y Cort´es (DC05c) 299
22.1Introduction.......................................................... 299
22.2HisRecruitment........................................................ 299
22.3HisCareer........................................................... 299
22.3.1 Handwrittenreference1 ............................................... 299
22.3.2 Handwrittenreference2 ............................................... 301
22.3.3 Handwrittenreference3 ............................................... 301
22.3.4 ´
I˜nigodeBorjayVelasco ............................................... 307
22.3.5 The defence of 'sHertogenboschin1603 ...................................... 307
22.3.6 His involvements in Ostend and Sluis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
22.3.7 The battles with Ambrogio Spinola 1606-1609 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
22.3.7.1 The Battle of the Berkumerbrug in Zwolle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
22.3.7.2 ThetwoSiegesofLochem.........................................310
22.3.7.3 ThetwoSiegesofGroenlo......................................... 310
22.3.7.4 TheSiegeofRheinberg .......................................... 310
22.3.8 His Mediterranean career in the period 1610-1613 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
22.3.9 His involvement in Eastern Provinces and residence of Enric Desclergue in Antwerp with his brother Antoni,
and the onset of the 30-year War, 1614-1618 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
22.3.9.1 ResidenceinAntwerp ...........................................311
22.3.9.2 SupportforAachen ............................................312
22.3.9.3 ThecaptureofWesel............................................312
22.3.9.4 The Kleef-Rees-J¨ulich issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
22.3.10 Enric Desclergue was Awarded in 1623 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
22.3.11HisResidenceinWingene .............................................. 312
22.4HisSpouses .......................................................... 312
22.4.1 Maria, the First Wife of Enric Desclergue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
22.4.2 Ana Fabiana Pacheco, the Second Wife of Enric Desclergue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
22.5TheDeathofEnricDesclergue................................................ 313
22.6 His Ospring ......................................................... 313
23 Antoni Desclergue y de Montoya (DC06) 315
23.1Introduction.......................................................... 315
23.2 The discovery of Antoni Desclergue (DC06) by Jose Sanchez Real . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
23.3 Antoni Desclergue (II) (DC06) in the literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
23.4 The Birth of Antoni Desclergue (II) (DC06) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
23.5 The Life and Military Career of Antoni Desclergue until 1640 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
23.5.1 The Siege of Ostend and the Death of his father Jeroni and uncle Jeronimo de Montoya . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
23.5.2 The Truce between the Northern and Spanish Netherlands 1609-1621 and how it ended . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
23.5.3 An event which may have triggered Antoni to join the armed forces: the Comet on Christmas 1618 . . . . . 323
23.5.4 TheSiegeofGulik,1621-1622 ............................................ 323
©2021 Nico F. Declercq The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc
CONTENTS xxv
23.5.5 The Siege of Bergen Op Zoom and Steenbergen, 1622 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
23.5.6 TheSiegeofBreda,1624-1625............................................ 324
23.5.7 The defence of 's Hertogenbosch in 1629 and Bruges in 1631 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
23.5.8 TheSiegeofLeuven,1635 .............................................. 334
23.5.9 Meanwhileintheworld................................................ 334
23.5.10 1639-1641, the period when Antoni Desclergue (II) (DC06) was in Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
23.5.11 Specific appearances of and links to Antoni Desclergue in the area of Deerlijk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
23.5.12 Troops and their families in the area Deerlijk-Harelbeke-Kortrijk and their impact on the inhabitants during
the lifetime of Antoni Desclergue - until his departure for Spain in 1639 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
23.5.13 The role of Carlos Coloma de Saa in the life of Antoni Desclergue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
23.5.14 The Construction of the Chapel at Deerlijk in 1639-1641 and possible involvement in another one in 1666 . . 343
23.5.15 A Donation to the Hospital of Saint-Jean at the Citadel of Cambrai in 1641 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
23.6 Military Career of Antoni Desclergue after 1641 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
23.6.1 The Battle of Honnecourt-sur-Escaut (1642) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
23.6.2 The Spanish defeat at Rocroi (1643) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
23.6.3 Troops and their families in the area Deerlijk-Harelbeke-Kortrijk and their impact on the inhabitants during
the lifetime of Antoni Desclergue - after 1641 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
23.7TheSiegeofBarcelonain1651 ............................................... 359
23.7.1 Antoni Desclergue'scontext .............................................359
23.7.2 Antoni Desclergue'sinvolvement intheSiegeofBarcelona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
23.7.3 Antoni Desclergue'slifeaftertheSiegeofBarcelona................................362
23.8 Tratado de los Pirineos - visit of Antoni to Montblanc in 1659 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
23.9 Devolution War (1667-1669) and his Residence in Ghent (1672-1678) during the Dutch war . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
23.9.1 Antoni Desclergue as a military recruiter for the Devolution War (1667-1669) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
23.9.2 French King Louis XIV and Spanish Maria Theresia of Austria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
23.9.3 ResidenceatGhent..................................................364
23.10A visit to Spain in 1679 for a wedding after the Peace of Nijmegen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
23.11Antoni Desclergue'sMarriageandWhereabouts ...................................... 365
23.11.1 Antoni Desclergue (II) (DC06) on the list of 'la bourgeoisie foraine'of Kortrijk at Deerlijk . . . . . . . . . . . 365
23.11.2 The Orphan's deed when Antoni'swifeBeatricedeClercqdiedin1651 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
24 Pedro de Clerque, the brother in law of Antoni Desclergue (II) (DC06) 373
24.1Introduction.......................................................... 373
24.2HisBloodline .........................................................373
24.3HisMilitaryCareer......................................................373
25 Juan de Clerque, the brother in law of Antoni Desclergue (II) (DC06) 375
25.1Introduction.......................................................... 375
25.2HisMilitaryCareer......................................................375
25.3 Beatrice Maria Vandeputte, the wife of Juan de Clerque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
26 Children of Antoni Desclergue (DC06) 377
26.1 Maria Declerque (DC07b) the daughter of Antoni Desclergue (DC06) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
26.2 Joan Declerque (DC07c) the son of Antoni Desclergue (DC06) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
26.3 Pere Declerque (DC07d), the son of Antoni Desclergue (DC06) and soldier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
26.4 Ana Declerque (DC07e), the daughter of Antoni Desclergue (DC06) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
26.5 Antoni Declerque (DC07), the son of Antoni Desclergue (DC06) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
27 Antoni Declerque (DC07) & Martina de la Cruz 383
27.1Introduction.......................................................... 383
27.2 Antoni Declerque (III) (DC07), the son of Don Antoni Desclergue (II) (DC06) and Beatrice de Clercq . . . . . . . . 383
27.3 Antoni Declerque (III) (DC07) on the list of 'la bourgeoisie foraine'of Kortrijk at Deerlijk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
27.4 The Ancestry of Martine Vercruyce or Martina de la Cruz, with Roots in Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
27.4.1 Father and son Carlos Ximenes de la Cruz at Sint Eloois Vijve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
27.4.2 On Martina'sancestors................................................389
27.4.3 On Martina'ssiblings................................................. 389
27.4.3.1 JoannesXimenesdelaCruz........................................390
27.4.3.2 MariaXimenesdelaCruz......................................... 390
27.4.3.3 PedroXimenesdelaCruz......................................... 390
27.4.3.4 AnnaXimenesdelaCruz ......................................... 390
27.4.3.5 CatarinaXimenesdelaCruz ....................................... 390
27.4.3.6 PedroXimenesdelaCruz......................................... 390
27.4.3.7 MariaXimenesdelaCruz......................................... 390
27.4.3.8 MargaritaXimenesdelaCruz.......................................390
27.4.3.9 AdrianoXimenesdelaCruz........................................ 390
27.4.4 An Early Connections between the de la Cruz family and families of Desclergue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
27.4.5 OtherrelativesofMartina .............................................. 396
27.5 Marriage of Antoni Desclergue (DC07) and Martina de la Cruz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
27.6 Their Residence in Ghent during the French Occupation of the Castellany of Kortrijk and the Dutch War (1672-1679)397
27.7TheFrenchRaidof1681-1685................................................399
27.8TheNineYearWarof1688-1697 .............................................. 400
27.9 Their Ospring ........................................................ 400
27.9.1 Maria Catarina Declercgz (DC08e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
27.9.2 MariaDeclercgz(DC08d) .............................................. 405
The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc ©2021 Nico F. Declercq
xxvi CONTENTS
27.9.2.1 The Children of Maria Declercgz (DC08d) and Egidius Vandeputte (Du Puich) . . . . . . . . . . . 405
27.9.3 Joanna Catharina Declercgz (DC08b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
27.9.4 JoanDeclercgz(DC08c) ............................................... 405
27.9.4.1 Joan Declercgz (DC08c) on the list of 'la bourgeoisie foraine'of Kortrijk at Deerlijk . . . . . . . . . 406
27.9.5 PereDeclercgz(DC08) ................................................ 406
28 Pere Declercgz (II) (DC08) & Marie Prienne 409
28.1Introduction.......................................................... 409
28.2DonPereDeclercgz(II)(DC08)............................................... 409
28.3MariePrienne......................................................... 409
28.4TheirMarriage ........................................................ 409
28.5SpanishSuccessionWar(1701-1713)............................................. 410
28.6 Their Ospring ........................................................ 411
29 Joan Declercq (II) (DC09) & Marie Montaigne 413
29.1Introduction.......................................................... 413
29.2DonJoanDeclercq(II)(DC09) ............................................... 413
29.3MarieMontaigne .......................................................413
29.4TheirMarriage ........................................................ 413
29.5 Their Ospring ........................................................ 413
29.6 The total destruction of 'Hof van Brussel'in1731 ..................................... 413
30 Renier Declercq (DC10) & Marie Anne Th´er`ese Lombaerde 417
30.1Introduction.......................................................... 417
30.2 Renier Declercq (DC10), sometimes also referred to as Ren´e Declercq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
30.3MarieAnneTh´er`eseLombaerde............................................... 417
30.4TheirMarriage ........................................................ 420
30.5 Their Ospring ........................................................ 420
31 Pierre Joseph Declercq (DC11) & Barbara Th´er`ese d'Hont 423
31.1Introduction.......................................................... 423
31.2PierreJosephDeclercq(DC11) ...............................................423
31.3 Barbara Th´er`ese d'Hont ................................................... 423
31.4TheirMarriage ........................................................ 423
31.5 Their Ospring ........................................................ 423
32 Leo Bernard Declercq (DC12) & Th´er`ese Loncke 431
32.1Introduction.......................................................... 431
32.2LeoBernardDeclercq(DC12) ................................................ 431
32.2.1 His Birth, Military Service and Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
32.3Flaxandlinen.........................................................433
32.4Th´er`eseLoncke ........................................................ 435
32.5TheirMarriageandChild .................................................. 435
32.6 Their Link with the Renier Family and an exciting example of Name Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
32.7TheirLinkwiththeVerriestFamily.............................................442
32.8OtherAcquaintances ..................................................... 444
33 Ivo Declercq (DC13) & Mathilde Van den Broucke 445
33.1Introduction.......................................................... 445
33.2IvoDeclercq(DC13) .....................................................445
33.2.1 His Birth, Military Service and Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
33.3MathildeVandenBroucke.................................................. 445
33.3.1 HerLife ........................................................ 445
33.3.2 HerRelatives ..................................................... 445
33.4TheirMarriage ........................................................ 447
33.5 Their Ospring ........................................................ 447
33.6TheMansionTenBrouckeinWielsbeke...........................................449
33.7TheVerriestFamily...................................................... 449
33.8Otheracquaintances ..................................................... 449
33.9 Ivo Declercq (DC13) was well established . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
34 Ernest Constant Declercq (DC14) & Marie Elodie Devenyn 463
34.1Introduction.......................................................... 463
34.2ErnestConstantDeclercq(DC14)..............................................463
34.2.1 His Birth, Military Service and Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
34.2.2 The Ancestry of Ernest Constant Declercq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
34.2.3 Blood-relatives of Ernest Constant Declercq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
34.3MarieElodieDevenyn ....................................................465
34.3.1 Introduction......................................................465
34.3.2 HerBirthandDeath ................................................. 465
34.3.3 Life and Blood-relatives of Marie Elodie Devenyn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
34.4TheirMarriage ........................................................ 473
34.5 Their Family Life and Ospring............................................... 473
34.5.1 JosephAntoniusGerardusDeclercq.........................................476
34.5.1.1 Introduction ................................................ 476
©2021 Nico F. Declercq The Desclergues of la Villa Ducal de Montblanc
CONTENTS xxvii
34.5.2 MariaAntoinetteGerardaDeclercq......................................... 476
34.5.3 MichelDeclercq(DC15) ...............................................481
34.5.4 AlidaMariaJulianaDeclercq ............................................481
34.5.5 ValentineDeclercq .................................................. 484
34.5.6 RachelleGabrielleDeclercq ............................................. 495
34.5.7 Esther Ernestina Godeliva Declercq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
34.5.7.1 Introduction ................................................ 495
34.5.7.2 StijnStreuvels ............................................... 495
34.5.7.3 KarelJonckheere ..............................................495
34.5.7.4 Her Adventure in Congo 1958-1964 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
34.5.7.5 HerRetirement...............................................496
34.5.7.6 HerDeathin2011 ............................................. 496
34.5.7.7 SomeMemorabilia ............................................. 496
34.5.8 JudithFlaviaMariaDeclercq ............................................ 496
34.5.8.1 Introduction ................................................ 496
34.5.8.2 HerLifeandCareer ............................................496
34.6 Their Life as Farmers and Flax Merchants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
34.6.1 Introduction......................................................496
34.6.2 Plowing, Harrowing and Sowing Flax ('Ploegen, 'Eggen'or 'Rakelen'and 'Zaaien') ............... 499
34.6.3 WeedingtheField .................................................. 499
34.6.4 TheBloomofFlax .................................................. 499
34.6.5 'De Mei steken'....................................................500
34.6.6 Harvesting after 100 days : 'Slijten'......................................... 500
34.6.7 Stacking ........................................................ 500
34.6.8 Threshing ('Boten'or 'Dorsen')............................................ 500
34.6.9 Rippling ('Repelen') .................................................501
34.6.10 Retting ('Roten') ................................................... 501
34.7HewasanInvestor ...................................................... 501
34.8 They were Ambassadors of Morality, Education, Literature and Christianity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
34.8.1 ErnestConstantDeclercq .............................................. 502
34.8.2 Edward Vermeulen and Elisa Vermeulen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506
34.8.3 PaulIreneusLesage.................................................. 507
34.8.4 JosephZiller...................................................... 508
34.8.5 MauritsDemedts ................................................... 508
34.8.6 GeorgesIsta...................................................... 508
34.8.7 WillemElsschot.................................................... 508
34.8.8 KarelLateur ..................................................... 508
34.8.9 MarcelMatthijs....................................................508
34.8.10HenrietteRolandHolst................................................509
34.8.11Marnix