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Abstract

People prefer linguistic stimuli with an inward-wandering consonant sequence (e.g., PATIKO) over those with an outward-wandering consonant sequence (e.g., KATIPO), a preference referred to as articulatory in-out effect. Previous research has proposed that this effect is based on a higher fluency of inward versus outward articulation. Recently, however, several keystones of this articulation fluency account have been called into question. In the present research, we provide a straightforward test for this account by extending the traditional in-out effect research design to include other sequences as well. This allowed comparing liking and articulation fluency judgments over a range of stimuli beyond merely inward vs. outward stimuli. The results of two highly powered experiments (N = 531, one preregistered) show that even though inward stimuli are more fluent and better liked than outward stimuli, over all stimulus types articulation fluency and liking judgments diverge. These findings imply that articulation fluency alone cannot account for differences in liking such as the in-out effect. We discuss further directions for future in-out effect research.

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... First, it has to be emphasized that an internal standard or scheme of consonant order is not a noetic rule or conscious belief individuals are aware of (Ingendahl et al., ,20 22b,2022c(Ingendahl et al., ,2022d. When being probed, participants never show insight into the in-out manipulation; when being debriefed, participants never mention consonant order as a cue they based their judgments on. ...
... The processing fluency and language frequency account Godinho & Garrido, 2021;Ingendahl et al., 2021Ingendahl et al., ,2022bIngendahl et al., ,2022cIngendahl et al., ,2022dKörner et al., 2019) states that inward relative to outward words are easier to articulate (cf., Silva et al., 2017;Song & Schwarz, 2009;Topolinski & Strack, 2010), because their consonantal sequence structure imitates real words in natural language more closely. Indeed, in corpus analyses it was found that inward consonant sequences are slightly more frequent than outward sequences in real language . ...
... This pattern resembles the unfolding of any fluency effect over the course of an experiment, where no absolute standards to compare the stimulus with are available, but participants develop an internal standard given the relative differences of the stimuli they are being presented with (cf., Dechêne et al., 2009;Garcia-Marques et al., 2019;Hansen et al., 2008;Unkelbach et al., 2012;Wänke & Hansen, 2015). Most importantly, this pattern would be predicted by both the fluency/frequency (e.g., Bakhtiari et al., 2016;Godinho & Garrido, 2021;Ingendahl et al., 2021Ingendahl et al., , 2022bIngendahl et al., , 2022cIngendahl et al., , 2022dKörner et al., 2019) and the letterposition (Ingendahl & Vogel, 2022b;Maschmann et al., 2020) accounts of the in-out effect. ...
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Individuals prefer letter strings whose consonantal articulation spots move from the front of the mouth to the back (e.g., BAKA, inward) over those with a reversed consonant order (e.g., KABA, outward), the so-called in-out effect. The present research explores whether individuals hold an internal standard or scheme of consonant order that triggers this effect. If this were the case, the in-out effect should already occur in one-trial between-subjects designs. If not, the in-out effect should emerge over the course of trials in within-subjects designs. In Experiments 1a-e (1b-e preregistered; total N = 2973; German, English, and Portuguese samples) employing a one-trial between-subjects design, no in-out effect was found. In Experiment 2 (N = 253), employing within-subjects designs with either 1, 5, 10, 30, or 50 trials per consonant order category (inward vs. outward), the in-out effect was absent in the first trial, but already surfaced for the first 2 trials, reached significance within the first 10 trials and a solid plateau within the first 20 trials. Of the four theoretical explanations, the present evidence favors the fluency/frequency and letter-position accounts and is at odds with the eating-related embodiment and easy-first accounts.
... Fluent processing feels positive, thus leading to the more positive evaluation of inward stimuli [7][8][9]. In fact, easy-first matches very well with a recent investigation on this fluency account [10]. Here, inward and outward words were found to differ in articulation fluency solely because of the different starting consonants of inward/outward words, for example, the labial [m] versus the dorsal [k] in MADIKO/ KADIMO. ...
Article
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Words whose consonant articulation locations move inward (from the front to the back of the mouth) are preferred over words with the opposite consonant articulation location direction, a phenomenon termed the in–out effect. Recently, an alternative explanation for the in–out effect has been proposed based on position-weighted consonant preferences instead of articulation location movement preferences. However, this explanation has only been tested with word fragments. In two experiments, we tested these explanations using both, word fragment and pseudo-word stimuli. For word fragments, preferences could be explained by position-weighted consonant preferences, while, for pseudo-words, stimuli containing articulation location movement were evaluated more favourably than stimuli not containing articulation location movement. Thus, the in–out effect for word stimuli depends on movement of articulation locations. This finding demonstrates that a word’s sound symbolic meaning cannot always be explained by its individual letters but can depend on letter sequences.
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The articulatory in-out effect describes the preference for stimuli with an inward-wandering consonant order (e.g., BODIKA) as opposed to an outward-wandering consonant order (e.g., KODIBA). Originally, the in-out effect has been explained in terms of articulation trajectories, with inward trajectories being preferred over outward trajectories. However, recent research by Maschmann et al. (2020) raised doubts on this explanation of articulation trajectory preferences, and offered a parsimonious alternative explanation for the in-out effect based on consonant preferences instead. As we show in the present paper, stimulus materials in Maschmann et al. (2020) diverged from materials used in previous research, and might have prevented the experience of articulation trajectories. Here, we present a conceptual replication of Maschmann et al. (2020), using stimulus materials more likely to elicit articulation trajectory preferences. In a preregistered, high-powered experiment (N = 349), we find strong support for the original idea of trajectory preferences, but no evidence for the consonant preference account. Our research shows that preferences for articulation trajectories are robust and cannot be explained by mere consonant preferences. We discuss further implications of these findings for future research on the processes involved in the empirical in-out effect.
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Words for which the consonantal articulation spots wander from the front to the back of the mouth (inward) elicit more positive attitudes than words with the reversed order (outward). The present article questions the common theoretical explanation of this effect, namely an association between articulation movements and oral movements during ingestion and expectoration (inward resembles eating which is positive; outward resembles spitting which is negative). In 4 experiments (total N = 468), we consistently replicated the basic in-out effect; but no evidence was found supporting an eating-related underlying mechanism. The in-out effect was not modulated by disgust inductions (Experiments 1, 2, 4, and 10) or food deprivation (Experiment 3). In 6 further experiments (total N = 1,067), we explored a novel alternative explanation, namely that the in-out effect is simply a position-specific preference for front consonants over back consonants. In these experiments, we found in-out-like preference effects for fragments that lacked an actual front-to-back movement but featured only starting (e.g., B _ _ _ _) or ending (e.g., _ _ _ K) consonants (Experiments 6-8). Consonants that are articulated in the front of the mouth were generally preferred over those articulated in the back of the mouth, and this basic preference was stronger at the beginning of a word-like stimulus (Experiments 6-10), thus explaining the preference pattern of the in-out effect. The present evidence speaks against an eating-related (embodied) explanation and suggests a simple word-morphologic explanation of the in-out effect. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
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Words whose consonantal articulation spots wander inward, simulating ingestion movements, are preferred to words featuring the opposite consonantal articulation direction, that is, resembling expectoration movements. The underlying mechanism of this so-called in–out effect is far from settled. Contrary to the original explanation proposing an oral approach-avoidance mechanism, recent evidence has been used to support an oral motor-fluency mechanism, suggesting that inward words are preferred because they may be more common and/or easier to pronounce. Across six experiments (n = 1123), we examined the impact of different fluency sources in the emergence of the in–out effect. The preference for inward-wandering words persisted both with classical font type and figure-ground contrast fluency manipulations, and no systematic additive effects were observed. The in–out effect was also replicated for the first time with a between-participant design. These results suggest that the in–out effect may be permeable to fluency manipulations, but it is not dependent upon a plain fluency mechanism.
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People prefer words with consonant articulation locations moving inward, from the front to the back of the mouth (e.g., menika ), over words with consonant articulation locations moving outward, from the back to the front of the mouth (e.g., kemina ). Here, we modulated this in–out effect by increasing the fluency of one consonant direction. Participants (total N = 735) memorized either inward or outward moving words. Afterward they evaluated different inward and outward words. In Experiment 1, training 60 outward (compared to inward) words led to a marginally significant attenuation of the in–out effect. In Experiment 2 and a preregistered replication (Experiment 3), training 120 inward words increased the size of the in–out effect, while training 120 outward words reversed the in–out effect. Experiment 4 confirms that consonant direction training affects fluency and rules out alternative explanations. Together, these experiments further supports a fluency explanation of the in–out effect and shows that abstract oral motor sequences can be learned implicitly.
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The present studies examined a novel explanation for the in-out effect, the phenomenon that words with inward wanderings of consonantal articulation spots are preferred over words with outward wanderings. We hypothesized that processing fluency might account for the in-out effect instead of, or in addition to, the originally proposed mechanism of motor-associated motivational states. Inward words could be more fluently processed than outward words, which could lead to the preference effect. Corpus analyses (Studies 1a and 1b) revealed more inward than outward words in English and German, which could account for their differing fluency. Additionally, inward compared to outward words were pronounced faster (Study 2) and were rated as being easier to pronounce (Studies 3a and 3b), indicating greater fluency. Crucially, a mediation analysis (Study 4) suggests that the influence of consonantal direction on preference was partially mediated by fluency. However, accounting for the influence of fluency still left a significant residual in-out effect, not accounted for by our fluency measure. This evidence supports a partial causal contribution of articulation fluency to the in-out effect.
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Modality-specific sensory systems are capable to directly influence human perception. This research investigates how the activation of oral movements that resemble either ingestion (inward movement) or expectoration (outward movement) kinematics affect food perception and consumption. We build on the idea that oral movements serve as simple knowledge basis for more complex judgments. Five studies show that unobtrusively activating oral movements through food names that mimic ingestion (vs. expectoration) lead to increases in perceived taste and food consumption. We provide evidence on the role of oral movement as the underlying mechanism driving the effects. We show that these effects take place across different languages and are consistent when we use words only, words and image, or actual products. Marketers should find important implications in recognizing that inward names can increase food evaluation and consumption.
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People prefer words with inward directed consonantal patterns (e.g., MENIKA) compared to outward patterns (KENIMA), because inward (outward) articulation movements resemble positive (negative) mouth actions such as swallowing (spitting). This effect might rely on covert articulation simulations, or subvocalizations, since it occurs also under silent reading. We tested to what degree these underlying articulation simulations are disturbed by oral motor interference. In 3 experiments (total N = 465) we interfered with these articulation simulations by employing concurrent oral exercises that induce oral motor noise while judging inward and outward words (chewing gum, Experiment 1; executing meaningless tongue movements, Experiment 2; concurrent verbalizations, Experiment 3). Across several word stimulus types, the articulatory in-out effect was not modulated by these tasks. This finding introduces a theoretically interesting case, because in contrast to many previous demonstrations regarding other motor-preference effects, the covert simulations in this effect are not susceptible to selective motor interference. (PsycINFO Database Record
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This article highlights recent approaches exploring a novel route to consumer preferences, motoric articulation patterns of names that invoke approach and avoidance tendencies and thereby trigger positive consumer attitudes toward the objects and products that bear such names. Specifically, names are construed for which the articulations spots of the consonants move either from the front to the back of the mouth (inward, such as BAKO) or from the back to the front of the mouth (outward, such as KABO). In several lines of studies, participants express higher favorability of inward over outward words. Moreover, persons and companies with inward names are liked more than persons with outward names. Also, participants report higher product liking, purchase intentions, and higher willingness to pay for products with inward names over outward names. When food is labeled in such a way, participants report higher palatability of and even consume more of food bearing inward names compared to outward names.
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The minimal conditions to elicit affective responses via approach-avoidance movements were explored by using oral movements (total N = 1,363). To induce oral movements, words were construed whose consonants (and vowels) wandered either from front to back of the mouth (e.g., PEKA, inward, like swallowing, approach) or from back to front (e.g., KEPA, outward, like spitting, avoidance). Participants preferred inward over outward consonant wanderings when reading only 2 phonemes (e.g., PEKA vs. KEPA), single letters (e.g., PK vs. KP), and even when only listening to a speaker uttering such stimuli (Experiments 1–4). Vowel wanderings had no systematic effect. The larger the consonantal inward and outward jumps, irrespective from where they started in the mouth, the stronger was their affective impact (Experiments 6–7). Visual presentation of words generally evoked stronger in-out effects than listening to a speaker uttering the words, which speaks against a sound symbolism explanation. Informing theorizing also on the much more common manual approach-avoidance inductions, these findings show that approach-avoidance movements can elicit affect by activating only the starting and ending point of a spatial movement gradient, even involving differing muscles for these spots, respectively. Also, the present findings imply that the magnitude of the distance of the spatial approach-avoidance gradient matters (the larger the distance, the larger the affective response), and that such effects can be induced by mere observation (by only listening to a speaker).
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The affective consequences of sequential approach-avoidance movements in the mouth were investigated. Participants (total N = 872) received words for which consonantal stricture spots either wandered first-inward-then-outward (e.g., FOLOKOLOF; approach-avoidance) or first-outward-then-inward (e.g., KOLOFOLOK; avoidance-approach) in the mouth. In a pilot study, it was established that first-inward-then-outward (first-outward-then-inward) is associated with negative disgust (positive ingestion) reactions (Experiment 1). Approach-avoidance sequences were preferred less than avoidance-approach sequences (Experiments 2a-3b); and this effect disappeared under oral motor-interference (Experiment 4). Experiment 5 provides evidence that a mere recency effect is an unlikely explanation for these effects. Thus, sequentially executed oral approach and avoidance movements do not cancel each other out but jointly influence resulting affective responses.
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Previous research revealed that mouth movements influence attitudes. Covert subvocal articulations inducing muscular contractions resembling ingestion movements were preferred over expectoration-like movements, unveiling a relationship between vocal muscles' wandering and motivational states such as approach and avoidance. These findings, explained in terms of embodied cognition, suggest that specific movements are directly connected to, and more importantly, automatically activate concordant motivational states. The oral approach-avoidance effect was replicated using the original stimulus set and a new set of stimulus developed for Portuguese. Results from two high-powered (total N = 407), independent replications, revealed that the preference for inward words (over outwards) exists in both sets but to a greater extent in the pool phonetically adapted for Portuguese.
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There is a strong consensus that the sounds and sound patterns of babbling and early speech are basically the same. The common state is one of "Frame Dominance" - a syllabic frame produced by an open-close mandibular oscillation dominates both stages, with limited ability of other articulators, including the tongue to produce active intrasyllabic and intersyllabic changes. The question of whether the first words are similar to babbling in all respects was evaluated in 4 subjects, using a database consisting of 152 hours of audio recording. A tendency towards increasing use of labial consonants relative to alveolar consonants was observed in 3 of the four subjects, and this was interpreted as a regression towards an easier production form. Progress in words took the form of an increase in variegation of utterances, mainly due to vowel variegation, much of which derived from an increase in the use of high vowels and mid back yowels, especially in wordfinal position. The presence of regression and the limited nature of the progress were taken as evidence of the strength of the Frame Dominance pattern and the consequent difficulty of escaping from it. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.
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Names are rich sources of information. They can signal gender, ethnicity, or class; they may connote personality characteristics ranging from warmth and cheerfulness to morality. But names also differ in a much more fundamental way: some are simply easier to pronounce than others. Five studies provide evidence for the name-pronunciation effect: easy-to-pronounce names (and their bearers) are judged more positively than difficult-to-pronounce names. Studies 1–3 demonstrate that people form more positive impressions of easy-to-pronounce names than of difficult-to-pronounce names. Study 4 finds this effect generalizable to ingroup targets. Study 5 highlights an important real-world implication of the name-pronunciation effect: people with easier-to-pronounce surnames occupy higher status positions in law firms. These effects obtain independent of name length, unusualness, typicality, foreignness, and orthographic regularity. This work demonstrates the potency of processing fluency in the information rich context of impression formation.
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Three studies investigated the impact of the psychological principle of fluency (that people tend to prefer easily processed information) on short-term share price movements. In both a laboratory study and two analyses of naturalistic real-world stock market data, fluently named stocks robustly outperformed stocks with disfluent names in the short term. For example, in one study, an initial investment of $1,000 yielded a profit of $112 more after 1 day of trading for a basket of fluently named shares than for a basket of disfluently named shares. These results imply that simple, cognitive approaches to modeling human behavior sometimes outperform more typical, complex alternatives. • heuristic reasoning • psychology • stock market
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Fluency - the subjective experience of ease or difficulty associated with completing a mental task - has been shown to be an influential cue in a wide array of judgments. Recently researchers have begun to look at how fluency impacts judgment through more subtle and indirect routes. Fluency impacts whether information is represented in working memory and what aspects of that information are attended to. Additionally, fluency has an impact in strategy selection; depending on how fluent information is, people engage in qualitatively different cognitive operations. This suggests that the role of fluency is more nuanced than previously believed and that understanding fluency could be of critical importance to understanding cognition more generally.
Sequential approach-avoidance movements
  • Topolinski
BayesFactor: Computation of Bayes factors for common designs
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