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Teachers play a significant role in curbing Drug and Substance Abuse (DSA) because they spend much of their time with students in school. The teaching competency of teachers is needed in drug and substance abuse prevention. Some studies found that the school teachers still have lack knowledge to talk about DSA in their classroom and school environment. It is assumed that the problems are related to the teaching competency of teachers. This paper aims to discuss the role of teaching competency of teachers for curbing DSA in Malaysian secondary schools. The methodology used in this study is a conceptual approach, which involves con ducting literature research and critical thinking to develop a hypothetical concept. This paper has classified the teaching competency for curbing DSA into abilities of teachers to (1) Set up teaching planning (2) Curriculum (3) Pedagogical knowledge (4) Learning strategies (5) Classroom environment and (6) Social approach. These competencies help teachers implement a learning situation in which the students enjoy with their class and have commitment to avoiding drug abuse in their lives. Thus, this study recommends that the government consider the classroom drug policy to eradicate drug abuse comprehensively. The government can release the guideline for teaching competencies of classroom teachers in certain subjects for curbing DSA and develop the rubrics for measuring Malaysian secondary school teachers’ teaching competency.
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Ashdin Publishing
Journal of Drug and Alcohol Research
Vol. 10 (2021), Article ID 236147, 7 pages
Research Article
Teaching Competency of Teachers for Curbing Drug and Substance Abuse (DSA)
in Malaysian Secondary Schools
Ciptro Handrianto1, Ahmad Jazimin Jusoh1*, Pauline Swee Choo Goh1, Nazre Abdul Rashid2, Azizi Abdullah3
and M. Arinal Rahman4
1Faculty of Human Development, Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia
2Faculty of Art, Computing and Creative Industry, Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia
3Center for Articial Intelligence Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
4Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Islam Negeri Antasari, Indonesia
*Address Correspondence to Ahmad Jazimin Jusoh,
Received November 18, 2021; Accepted December 02, 2021; Published December 09, 2021
Copyright © 2021 Ciptro Handrianto, et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
In Malaysia, drugs are one of the major problems that the
nation has had to face since 1893, and since then, the han-
dling of drug abuse has been carried out more seriously by
raising awareness at all age levels. Education on how to
successfully deal with violent behavior in teenagers who
are inclined to consume drugs, one of which is by estab-
lishing positive behavior among adolescents, should be
addressed in order to produce future potential young gen-
erations [9].
National Anti-Drug Agency [10] mentioned that there were
178 areas across Malaysia identied high risk areas for
drug abuse, namely in Perak (30), Negeri Sembilan (16),
Johor (23), Selangor (15), Kelantan (13), Pahang (12),
Kedah (13), Pulau Pinang (11), WP Kuala Lumpur (10),
Terengganu (10), Sarawak (7), Sabah (7), Malaka (7), and
Perlis (4). The AADK also identied 1,017 (42%) of the
2,408 secondary schools in Malaysia as drug schools at
risk. There were 913,576 (41%) of 2,188,525 secondary
school students from all over Malaysia identied as having
a drug or tested positive for urine. Most of those involved
were 4th and 5th grade students.
The government emphasized that school institutions must
be actively involved in drug prevention. The following ef-
forts are some things that schools can do: (1) Paying at-
tention to normative values prevailing in schools and peer
inuence (2) Show students the negative impact of drug
use (3) Providing life skills such as communication skills,
making decisions, and collaborating, as well as providing
opportunities to practice them in everyday life (4) Promote
better communication between parents and schools and (5)
Creating stricter regulations regarding the prohibition of
drug use by students [7].
Drug abuse in schools in Malaysia is strictly prohibited, but
Teachers play a signicant role in curbing Drug and Substance Abuse
(DSA) because they spend much of their time with students in school. The
teaching competency of teachers is needed in drug and substance abuse
prevention. Some studies found that the school teachers still have lack
knowledge to talk about DSA in their classroom and school environment.
It is assumed that the problems are related to the teaching competency of
teachers. This paper aims to discuss the role of teaching competency of
teachers for curbing DSA in Malaysian secondary schools. The method-
ology used in this study is a conceptual approach, which involves con-
ducting literature research and critical thinking to develop a hypothetical
concept. This paper has classied the teaching competency for curbing
DSA into abilities of teachers to (1) Set up teaching planning (2) Curric-
ulum (3) Pedagogical knowledge (4) Learning strategies (5) Classroom
environment and (6) Social approach. These competencies help teachers
implement a learning situation in which the students enjoy with their class
and have commitment to avoiding drug abuse in their lives. Thus, this
study recommends that the government consider the classroom drug poli-
cy to eradicate drug abuse comprehensively. The government can release
the guideline for teaching competencies of classroom teachers in certain
subjects for curbing DSA and develop the rubrics for measuring Malay-
sian secondary school teachers’ teaching competency.
Keywords: Drug prevention; Classroom; School environment; Curric-
Drug prevention education in classroom situation
For several decades, drug prevention research in the school
context has attempted to understand the causes and con-
sequences of teachers’ roles [1-3]. Previous studies have
shown that a school that values teachers’ roles and recog-
nizes the importance of the school environment stands to
win in terms of students’ morale and commitment not to
use the drug [4-6]. However, some schools and teachers
pay scant regard to prevent drug abuse [7,8].
Journal of Drug and Alcohol Research
ironically, most drug abuse starts from schools. One of the
factors why that happen is that Malaysian school teachers
lack the knowledge to talk about it in their classroom and
school environment [5]. Moreira, Vóvio support this, and
Micheli [4], the various challenges presented by the teach-
ers in school drug prevention are related to the teachers’
personality, professionality, pedagogy, and prejudices and
moral values related to the subject he or she teaches.
Gizyatova [11] describes several ways that can be done to
increase the eectiveness of drug prevention in educational
institutions, especially for teachers. To begin, schools must
create positive motivation for instructors to include drug
misuse prevention aspects into their classrooms. Second,
schools provide high quality professional development
with an emphasis on eective preventative strategies that
teachers may apply. Additionally, maintaining control over
the quality of teacher professional development. Finally,
cooperation from all elements of society in drug abuse pre-
vention activities among students.
The aim of this study is to investigate the role of teachers
in curbing Drug and Substance Abuse (DSA) in Malaysian
secondary schools related to their teaching competency in
the classroom situation. The teaching competency of teach-
ers in DSA is classied into several abilities based on con-
cepts from previous literature.
Literature review
Teaching competency: For candidate teachers, knowledge
pedagogy is very important to learn during the training pe-
riod [12,13]. In addition, candidate teachers must also be
equipped with knowledge of the world of teachers and how
to be good teachers, and the opportunity to practice their
knowledge [14]. A teacher should ideally be able to apply
the various methods he learns in the teaching and learning
process later in school. Additionally, a teacher must be fa-
miliar with the pedagogical substance of knowledge [15]
and the philosophical, historical, and sociological contexts
in which concepts are taught [16].
Teaching competency is related to the concept of what
teachers do that will help his or her students reach their
maximum potential, for example, their academic achieve-
ment, acquisition of competencies, social skills, and ad-
aptation to the world of work [17]. Gálvez-Suarez and
Milla-Toro [18] emphasized that teaching competency is
teacher`s self-evaluation of their abilities and performances
in a teaching learning situation [19].
Teaching competence can also be said to be a competency
that refers to a teacher’s cognitive knowledge, which will
have an impact on classroom learning. A topic of teach-
er’s teaching competency refers to the abilities that enable
them to collaborate with students, colleagues, and other
professionals involved in children’s education and learning
to provide the most signicant learning environment possi-
bility [20-22].
Fathima, Sasikumar, and Roja [23] developed the concept
of teaching competence in ve dimensions, namely in-
duction, content, pedagogy, organization, and assessment
knowledge. Meanwhile, Zhu, Wang, Cai, and Engels [24]
developed four competencies teachers should have to im-
prove their teaching performance: Learning competence,
social competence, educational competence, and techno-
logical competence.
Teaching competence is related to the acquisition and
demonstration of the combined skills needed for teaching
students, such as providing explanation regarding subject
matter, prociency in questioning, ability to investigate,
explain and convey emotional arguments, time manage-
ment, feedback in teaching, understanding student psychol-
ogy, recognizing student behavior, classroom management,
and assessment. In the context of teaching competence, it
means the right way to convey theoretical knowledge, how
to apply and hone student skills [25,26].
Teachers’ teaching competency for preventing drug mis-
use in school’s entails topic knowledge and pedagogical
expertise to convey the dangers of drug abuse to students.
To include a drug prevention program, Teachers should be
able to elaborate their teaching learning process. Teach-
ers should be able to elaborate their teaching learning In
this case, a teacher’s skills are required to collaborate with
students and other stakeholders to prevent DSA in their
The role of school teacher`s for curbing DSA in the
The importance of the instructor in moulding pupils’ be-
haviour and perceptions cannot be overstated. Persuasive
communication by the instructor, which includes being
polite, oering factual information about drug abuse, and
paying attention to all pupils, is meant to help kids realize
how drug usage aects them [27].
In the study by Mahadi and Bahrin [28], several samples
agree on how drug abuse should be taught and learned in
school. It is possible to conclude that school based educa-
tion sessions on drug usage are successful. Teachers and
students both have a role to play in making drug abuse ed-
ucation more engaging.
In everyday life, teachers interact with students so that
a teacher has the opportunity to provide education relat-
ed to the dangers of drug abuse among adolescents [29].
Amesty and Páez [30] found that the experimental group
in their study of community drug prevention programs in
schools was eective. In addition, teachers in the experi-
mental group in their research also stated that the program
increased (1) the link between schools and communities,
(2) cooperation with parents, and (3) the teachers’ aware-
ness of the important role they could play in the prevention
of drug abuse by students.
Miller Day, Hecht, Krieger, Pettigrew, Shin, and Graham
[31] found that drug prevention was related to the level of
student involvement. Student involvement and in narrative
based drug prevention curriculum, teachers’ spontaneous
narratives are told to do so. In a narrative based curricu-
lum, the amount to which teachers communicate their nar-
ratives, identify dominant narrative elements, forms, and
Journal of Drug and Alcohol Research 3
functions, and examine the relationship between teacher
narratives, overall course narrative quality, and student en-
In comparison, drug abuse that is growing in Indonesia is
an emergency that requires the attention of all parties. For
example, namely in South Kalimantan. The main pillar of
drug prevention in Muslim communities in South Kaliman-
tan is to carry out Islamic teachings seriously. According to
the views of the people there, they uphold Islamic teach-
ings, namely prohibiting drug consumption.
In South Kalimantan, the role of guidance and counseling
teachers in schools is vital in the prevention and handling
of drugs because guidance and counseling ocers have the
duty and authority to control, supervise, and assist students
considered problematic [32].
The following is a reconstruction of Tuan Guru’s (teach-
er) role in drug prevention and eradication in Lombok: (1)
Implementing a personal approach method, (2) enforcing
a real action, (3) providing counseling services, and (4)
empowering the local economy Tuan Guru’s preaching
responsibilities in dealing with the drug problem were de-
termined to be quite helpful. Tuan Guru had succeeded in
removing the negative eects of drugs from the younger
generation. As reported by the drug investigation director-
ate of Lombok Barat, the number of drug cases is decreas-
ing [33].
A study by Teesson, Newton, Slade, Chapman, Allsop,
Hides, and Brownhill [34] in New South Wales, Australia,
found that teachers used cartoon media in drug abuse pre-
vention by reinforcing the learning outcomes, allowing in-
teractive communication between students, and providing
access to all program materials including what activities
will be carried out, implementation guidelines, educational
roles, making syllabus for each lesson. It can be concluded
that the role of teachers in improving their teaching com-
petency and self-ecacy in the teaching learning process
is important in drug abuse prevention among students [35].
In Malaysia, Sukor and Hussin [36] enlisted the help of 150
teachers to construct a Substance Abuse Prevention Pro-
gram (PDA). According to the ndings, the PPDA teacher
had a moderate level of self-ecacy and a low level of job
satisfaction. In the PPDA program, there were no signif-
icant dierences based on gender or experience. Further-
more, there is no discernible dierence in work satisfaction
depending on the PDA program.
The role of Malaysian secondary school teachers in the
teaching learning process in the classroom helps improve
student’s knowledge and awareness about the danger of the
drug. Teachers should be able to create valuable classroom
interaction to develop the potentials of student’s high think-
ing skills to construct their conclusion about drug abuse
[37]. Giving feedback is important in the learning process
to give information to the teachers about students’ level of
What are the teaching competencies of teachers for curbing
DSA in the school? This is the question that this conceptual
paper is attempting to answer. Using literature study and
critical thinking, the researchers investigated this subject
and developed a hypothetical concept.
Conceptual papers are an eective instrument for con-
structing theories [38]. By analyzing existing knowledge,
emphasizing problems and contradictions, identifying crit-
ical gaps in knowledge, essential insights, and providing
an agenda for future study, conceptual review papers might
theoretically enrich the subject [39]. The result is a theo-
retical contribution that renes, re-conceptualizes, or even
replaces the prevailing viewpoint on a phenomenon.
This conceptual article serves as a foundation for a broader
empirical study by researchers on the importance of teach-
ing competence in preventing drug misuse in schools. Con-
ceptual papers combine existing ideas in appealing ways,
link interdisciplinary work, provide multilayered insights,
and widen our thinking. Another key consideration is the
necessity to present coherent and comprehensive argu-
ments regarding this connection, rather than simply testing
it [40].
Arguments in a conceptual paper are not developed in the
traditional sense from actual evidence but rather require
digesting and integrating information in the form of pre-
formed concepts and hypotheses. Researchers looked at
prior empirical studies on drug misuse prevention by school
instructors and developed concepts and theories based on
the ndings [41].
This conceptual paper was discussed and analyzed using
one of Jaakkola’s four conceptual paper formats [38]. The-
ory Synthesis, Theory Adaptation, Typology, and Model
are the four templates. This study uses the Theory Synthe-
sis template because of the goals, method of using theories,
and contribution potential.
A theoretical synthesis paper provides conceptual con-
vergence by combining numerous hypotheses or sourc-
es of information. This study oers a fresh or improved
perspective on a topic or phenomenon through novel links
from previously unconnected or incompatible elements.
According to MacInnis [42], summarizing aids researchers
by distilling, digesting, and condensing an area of study
into a more brief and comprehensible format. By translat-
ing prior discoveries and hypotheses into new high level
viewpoints that integrate phenomena previously thought to
be separate, integration allows researchers to see concepts
or phenomena in new ways. Such articles can also look into
the conceptual underpinnings of new theories or explain
conicting research ndings by providing more concise ex-
planations that bring disparate pieces together into a more
comprehensible one.
The researchers began their investigation into the role of
school teachers’ teaching competency in drug abuse pre-
vention by looking at concepts of teaching competency and
drug abuse prevention in schools. These two ideas were
Journal of Drug and Alcohol Research
chosen as the subject of additional research. The research-
ers next looked at the focused phenomena, which were not
thoroughly addressed in the previous study. By evaluat-
ing material found on Google scholar using the keywords
teaching competency and drug abuse prevention, the re-
searchers were able to identify dierent conceptualizations
of the problem. The researchers looked for patterns, resem-
blances, and regularities in the observed premises then used
the theoretical framework to come up with an explanation
before concluding the study. The researchers proposed to
discuss the following concepts as a result of this framework
in Figure 1 below:
Figure 1: Methodology.
Results and Discussion
Some studies have been done to show the importance of
teachers in preventing drug misuse [5,27,30,43]. Teachers
in Venezuela place a premium on building relationships
with the community, involving parents, and educating chil-
dren [30]. Australian teachers supervise classroom settings,
preparing online worksheets, discussion, and intervention
online cartoon lessons [34]. In the United Kingdom, Teach-
ers strive to enhance their teaching skills and pay attention,
which leads to mindfulness about the things being discussed
[44]. In Indonesia, teachers focus on providing information
and giving attention to the students [27]. Meanwhile, in
Malaysia, teachers are actively involved in handling drug
abuse prevention programs (PPDA) in their schools [36].
Based on the literature, teachers play a signicant role in
curbing DSA in school related to their teaching compe-
tency. The teaching competency includes the abilities of a
teacher to improve the valuable relationship between the
students and all school members in the school. Teachers
also treat all their students with the best attitude that they
have to make students enjoy learning at the school. They
give attention to all their students not to be involved with
drug abuse because it will harm their future. For students
whose teachers display greater interactive teaching, a good
adjustment in lifestyle patterns and commitment is no sub-
stance usage. Furthermore, in classrooms with interactive
teaching, cognitive requirements were connected with low-
er levels of alcohol use, whereas impulse decision making
was associated with lower rates of cannabis use [45].
In the teaching learning process, teaching competency
means that teachers should be able to create interactive and
innovative learning in their classes. They open opportuni-
ties to students to discuss any topics to trigger student’s
knowledge and their understanding, especially about the
danger of drugs. A teacher should apply a soft approach
to students in drug abuse prevention in school. Teachers
need to implement Project Based Learning (PBL) in the
classroom situation. Students are working to nd the mean-
ing contained in the project’s assignment, making the proj-
ect work meaningful to their own experience and in real
life. So that, students leave and far away from the drug is
not because of compulsion but their knowledge and self`s
Pereira, Paes, and Sanchez [46] found that experimenting
with novel strategies boosted the likelihood of schools de-
veloping drug prevention programs by nearly 6 times. Im-
plementation challenges are more common in public and
municipal schools than in private schools, owing to a lack
of teaching resources, a lack of funding, and instruction
conicting with other topics. The study showed that some
diculties in drug prevention in public and private schools
still exist. Teaching competency is needed to solve these
problems. Teachers should take action with their roles amid
the limited access to items.
Teachers’ performance is usually characterized by a wide
range of teaching skills linked with the use of technolo-
gy. Learning competence, social competence, educational
competence, and technical competence are the four primary
competencies that teachers must have in order to improve
their teaching ability [24]. These elements have contribu-
tion to supporting the teaching learning process in DSA
from a pedagogical, ethical, and professional standpoint, as
shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Elements of teaching competencies.
This notion, also known as adaptive learning, has been
dened as the ability to change teaching abilities in such
a way that subject knowledge may be implemented [47].
As a result, the situational aspect of the learning process
is linked to topic themes, which pertain to teaching style
characteristics. The elements of classroom management
must be incorporated into teaching approaches that have a
variety of positive conditions in student learning. Accord-
ing to this perspective, regulating the learning process with
activities handled in the classroom necessitates teachers
with adaptive teaching competencies to have self-regulat-
ed management directed to teaching in specic disciplines
[48,49]. Classroom management is quickly linked to teach-
Journal of Drug and Alcohol Research 5
er subject matter expertise and interpersonal behavior in
terms of how to connect with students to integrate DSA
into the learning process. It also incorporates motivation
for teachers, as well as interpersonal behavior and class-
room management.
The term “Teaching competency” is made up of two terms:
“Teaching” and “Competence.” Teaching is the process of
imparting knowledge or skills to someone in order to assist
them in achieving their aims and objectives in the future.
A person’s skill or capability to accomplish a job has long
been dened as competence. Motivation and self-aware-
ness and a desire and readiness to do well are all aspects
of competence [20]. Teaching when dealing in a classroom
teaching scenario, a teacher’s competence refers to their
actions. Creative attitudes based on expectations for certain
teaching competencies and assessment criteria oer a lot
of potentials to improve education quality [50]. The role
of teaching competencies in preventing DSA is to expand
on teachers’ knowledge, abilities, and attitudes to assist
students in avoiding drug abuse by enhancing motivation,
willingness, and teacher performance in the teaching and
learning process. This is also linked to instructors’ ability
to promote the hazards of drug misuse in the classroom.
Teaching competency of the classroom teachers means that
the message of curbing DSA should be delivered in every
situation, including the classroom. The teachers should
create a learning situation in which the students feel with
their class and commit to avoid drug abuse in their lives.
Spanierman, Heppner, Neville, Mobley, Wright, and Na-
varro [51] formulated the teaching competency of teachers
and can be integrated as abilities for curbing DSA in the
classroom situation as (1) Set up teaching planning. The
teacher should plan the activities in teaching planning to
prevent drug abuse in school. The materials used in the
teaching and learning process should provide information
and increase student’s knowledge about the danger of drug
abuse (2) Curriculum. The needs of curricula development
include integrating drug prevention in the teaching process.
Teachers should pay attention to the student’s situation,
what happened to their community, and what problems that
they face in daily life.
Teachers can develop syllabi, lesson plans, and topics of
the material subjects which integrate drug prevention based
on student needs (3) Pedagogical knowledge. The teach-
ers should know about particular teaching strategies that
arm drug prevention to all students. They also have a
clear understanding of drug abuse prevention in pedagogy.
Teachers should know about drug abuse prevention theo-
ries (4) Learning strategies. Teachers should understand the
various activities of drug prevention in their classrooms.
They examine the instructional materials that they use in
the classroom for drug abuse prevention. They include ex-
amples of the destructive eect of drug abuse during their
classroom lessons (5) Classroom environment. Teachers
should make changes within the general school environ-
ment so that the students will have understood the danger
of drug abuse for them. They promote drug abuse preven-
tion by the behaviors they exhibit and (6) Social approach.
Teachers should meet with other teachers or administrators
regularly to discuss drug prevention in the classroom. They
establish solid and supportive relationships with the parents
for drug prevention in the school. They are knowledgeable
of how the drug abuse environment may aect students’
learning. They are knowledgeable about the community’s
involvement in drug prevention programs within the city
that they teach.
Substance abuse is a global enemy, and it already spreads
in school institutions. The teachers play a signicant role to
prevent drug abuse in school because students spend much
of their time in the school. Some studies found that the
school teachers still lack knowledge to talk about substance
abuse in their classroom and school environment. It is as-
sumed that the problems are related to the teaching compe-
tency of teachers. Teaching competency is needed in drug
abuse prevention in school. This paper classied the teach-
ing competency in drug prevention into abilities of teachers
to (1) Set up teaching planning (2) Curriculum (3) Peda-
gogical knowledge (4) Learning strategies (5) Classroom
environment and (6) Social approach. The implementation
of drug policy in the classroom has to be considered by the
government for eradicating drug abuse comprehensively.
The government can release guideline for classroom teach-
ers for curbing DSA and rubrics to measure the teaching
competency of secondary school`s teachers. Students must
be involved in drug abuse prevention and teachers should
pay attention to that eort. All the integrated eorts by the
school community will help them to protect.
The Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia supported
this study through Long Term Research Grant Scheme
(LRGS/1/2019/UKM/02/2/4). We would like to express
our gratitude to editorial board and reviewers who spent
their valuable time to improve this article
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... The language style is a choice of words used by people in a place or condition, and the style of language is also essential for expressing ideas which depend on the person who wants to convey in what style of speech (Mareden, 2016). The same opinion is also stated by Aaliyah (2018) that Language style is a way to give expression, whether it is formal or informal (Handrianto, Jusoh, Goh, Rashid, Abdullah & Rahman, 2021). This depends on the context or conversation from person to person. ...
The objective of this research is to know and learn more about the language style in figurative language in the lyrics of the song on the song by Glass Animal, which is entitled Heat Waves and can also provide information about the style of language in the lyrics of the song, which means that further researchers can continue further research. The results of this study are (1) Personification: 1; (2) Hyperbole: 2; (3) Alliteration: 1; (4) Assonance: 4; (5) Irony: 1; (6) Anaphora: 2; and (7) Repetition: 3. Based on the result of study, there are 14 figurative languages in the lyrics of "Heat Waves" by Glass animal. It can be concluded that there is no metaphor in this lyric, and dominant in this lyric of figurative language is Assonance.
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The objective of this study, which is being conducted in the middle of the COVID-19 outbreak, was to explore children's interest in reading. The investigation was conducted at the University of Indonesian Antasari in Banjarmasin, more precisely within the English Education Study Program context. The quantitative approach was applied with a survey design, and the participants were made up of 39 students who were enrolled in the second, fourth, and sixth semesters respectively. The items on the questionnaire were used to gather data, which was then subjected to descriptive analysis. The outcomes of this study indicate that the vast majority of respondents like reading when they are doing their academics at home. The kind of reading that is often regarded as being the most delightful is one in which the reader engages in the process of reading fiction using traditional reading tools. According to the study results that were carried out, the amount of time that students who attended lessons at home spent reading daily varied anywhere from fifteen minutes to more than an hour. According to the findings of this research, professors should present lecture materials so that students will be interested in reading
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Today academic achievement has become a benchmark of the success of students. Students self-regulation can be measured through self-regulatory instruments that the author has tested in SPSS by looking at the rotation and spread of its components. Self-regulation is important in achieving student's achievement in study. There are external and internal factors influences the process of students self-regulatory. The aim this study was to created the self-regulatory instruments for students. The reliability value produced by this instrument is quite high which is 0.860. The results of the exploratory analysis produced four constituent components of self-regulation composed in 31 items of scale.
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This study revealed the results of the validation of the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) within the Bachelor degree students who undertook their undergraduate from a Western university with 50% of the classes conducted in Malaysia. The specific instrument has been used extensively in other contexts to investigate the teaching-learning environment in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). A sample of 368 students from the HEIs participated in this study. The validity and reliability of the CEQ were investigated through exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach alpha coefficient. The overall course satisfaction was used as an external criterion in order to strengthen the instrument's validity. The exploratory factor analysis identified four constructs reflecting good teaching, generic skills, appropriate assessment and clear goals and standards. The population of the research was limited and data was collected only from students of HEIs so the generalization of findings needs attention from more institutions.
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The purpose of this study was to develop an innovation of digital learning for package C learners in facing the new normal education. This study used a qualitative method with a literature review approach and secondary data analysis. The results showed that there were several advantages that would be obtained by the package C learners from innovation of digital learning, such as: (1) Learners were familiar with the use of technology; (2) Creating independent learning; (3) Proficient in accessing learning materials from the internet; (4) Improving entrepreneurial aspects by utilizing online marketing; and (5) Developing communication`s skills as part of a global citizens. The conclusion of this study was that it took serious efforts from the program administrators and tutors of the package C program to implement an innovation in digital learning, so that the Packet C learners could survive in learning during the plague.
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Drug education in school is one of the efforts of the government for eradicating drug abuse among young children in educational institutions. Teachers play significant role in drug prevention because they spend much of their time with students at school. The objective of this study is to highlight the teachers` self-efficacy and its impact on level of drug abuse in Malaysian schools. This study employed a qualitative approach acquired through secondary data with literature review.. The study showed that teachers` self-efficacy has contributed to the quality of drug education among students due to dominant components, such as: (1) Teaching performance in the classroom; (2) Developing cooperative learning; (3) Teachers` personal involvement; (4) Teachers` training; and (5) Students` engagement in drug prevention. As the conclusion, teachers` self-efficacy is a critical determinant factor to improve the quality drug education, especially in classroom situation. The 5 aspects also determine level of teachers` self-efficacy. The higher the self-efficacy, the more quality drug abuse prevention are found among students. The recommendation of this study is that the government body should actively encourage training`s program for teachers in drug prevention. It also suggests to find out the empirical data for teacher`s self-efficacy in drug education for following studies.
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This exploratory study is an attempt to investigate the work–the role of teachers in drug abuse prevention in schools. The drug is one of the forbidden item consumed by human. Nevertheless, students who are still too young got exposed to the drug. Having a good teacher will greatly prevent the students to abuse the drug. Teachers’ roles have resulted as the key factor for the prevention of the consumption of drug because students spend most of their quality time at school. This paper is intended to study the possibility of the existence of the role of teachers in drug prevention in schools in Malaysia. A mixed methods research design shall be deployed for the study. A conceptual framework with factors such as teaching competency, teachers' self-efficacy, the teaching-learning process in the classroom, and school environment.
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This research investigated the use of folklore in early childhood disaster education. A systematic analysis of the literature was used to evaluate early childhood disaster education. The researchers identified different concepts present in the literature; and examined patterns, parallels, and regularities. The researchers synthesized the principle of folklore use in early childhood disaster education as part of this research. Folklores have a tremendous potential to make early childhood disaster education effective if interpreted, integrated, and demonstrated by science. This work provides a strong foundation for further study into the same research issue by using empirical data or research into how to make folklore an efficient tool for early childhood disaster education.
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Paper available at: Customer experience is a key marketing concept, yet the growing number of studies focused on this topic has led to considerable fragmentation and theoretical confusion. To move the field forward, this article develops a set of fundamental premises that reconcile contradictions in research on customer experience and provide integrative guideposts for future research. A systematic review of 136 articles identifies eight literature fields that address customer experience. The article then compares the phenomena and metatheoretical assumptions prevalent in each field to establish a dual classification of research traditions that study customer experience as responses to either (1) managerial stimuli or (2) consumption processes. By analyzing the compatibility of these research traditions through a metatheoretical lens, this investigation derives four fundamental premises of customer experience that are generalizable across settings and contexts. These premises advance the conceptual development of customer experience by defining its core conceptual domain and providing guidelines for further research.
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Background Substance use, depression, and anxiety in adolescence are major public health problems requiring new scalable prevention strategies. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a combined online universal (ie, delivered to all pupils) school-based preventive intervention targeting substance use, depression, and anxiety in adolescence. Methods We did a multicentre, cluster-randomised controlled trial in secondary schools in Australia, with pupils in year 8 or 9 (aged 13–14 years). Participating schools were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to one of four intervention conditions: (1) Climate Schools–Substance Use, focusing on substance use only; (2) Climate Schools–Mental Health, focusing on depression and anxiety only; (3) Climate Schools–Combined, focusing on the prevention of substance use, depression, and anxiety; or (4) active control. The interventions were delivered in school classrooms in an online delivery format and used a mixture of peer cartoon storyboards and classroom activities that were focused on alcohol, cannabis, anxiety, and depression. The interventions were delivered for 2 years and primary outcomes were knowledge related to alcohol, cannabis, and mental health; alcohol use, including heavy episodic drinking; and depression and anxiety symptoms at 12, 24, and 30 months after baseline. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12613000723785) and an extended follow-up is underway. Findings Between Sept 1, 2013, and Feb 28, 2014, we recruited 88 schools (12 391 pupils), of whom 71 schools and 6386 (51·5%) pupils were analysed (17 schools dropped out and 1308 pupils declined to participate). We allocated 18 schools (1739 [27·25%] pupils; 1690 [97·2%] completed at least one follow-up) to the substance use condition, 18 schools (1594 [25·0%] pupils; 1560 [97·9%] completed at least one follow-up) to the mental health condition, 16 schools (1497 [23·4%] pupils; 1443 [96·4%] completed at least one follow-up) to the combined condition, and 19 schools (1556 [23·4%] pupils; 1513 [97·2%] completed at least one follow-up) to the control condition. Compared with controls, the combined intervention group had increased knowledge related to alcohol and cannabis at 12, 24, and 30 months (standardised mean difference [SMD] for alcohol 0·26 [95% CI 0·14 to 0·39] and for cannabis 0·17 [0·06 to 0·28] at 30 months), increased knowledge related to mental health at 24 months (0·17 [0·08 to 0·27]), reduced growth in their odds of drinking and heavy episodic drinking at 12, 24, and 30 months (odds ratio for drinking 0·25 [95% CI 0·12 to 0·51], and for heavy episodic drinking 0·15 [0·04 to 0·58] at 30 months), and reduced increases in anxiety symptoms at 12 and 30 months (SMD −0·12 [95% CI −0·22 to −0·01] at 30 months). We found no difference in symptoms or probable diagnosis of depression. The combined intervention group also showed improvement in alcohol use outcomes compared with the substance use and mental health interventions and improvements in anxiety outcomes when compared with the mental health intervention only. Interpretation Combined online prevention of substance use, depression, and anxiety led to increased knowledge of alcohol, cannabis, and mental health, reduced increase in the odds of any drinking and heavy episodic drinking, and reduced symptoms of anxiety over a 30-month period. These findings provide the first evidence of the effectiveness of an online universal school-based preventive intervention targeting substance use, depression, and anxiety in adolescence. Funding Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.
Set against a backdrop of diminished interest in drug education outside of school settings in Ireland, this paper draws from 10 years of professional practice in the field of drug education and prevention, to reflect on illicit drug use in Ireland and on the lay understandings of illicit drug use encountered by this practitioner. This paper sets out to achieve four things; paint a picture of the Irish illicit drug landscape and of lay understandings of drugs and drug issues; highlight the emergent issue of people obtaining fake drug information on the Internet; explore drug education as a field of scholarship in Ireland; and reflect on 10 years of practitioner experience within the field. Given the complexity of the drug landscape and the proliferation of questionable drug information available online, this paper argues that drug education is an appropriate and worthwhile response to precarious understandings of illicit drugs and drug issues. The paper suggests drug education warrants revival within the Irish context, particularly given the pace of change in both the drugs and online landscapes. To conclude, this practitioner urges other practitioners and scholars with an interest in drug education within the Irish context to revive and advance the field.
Conceptual review papers can theoretically enrich the field of marketing by reviewing extant knowledge, noting tensions and inconsistencies, identifying important gaps as well as key insights, and proposing agendas for future research. The result of this process is a theoretical contribution that refines, reconceptualizes, or even replaces existing ways of viewing a phenomenon. This paper spells out the primary aims of conceptual reviews and clarifies how they differ from other theory development efforts. It also describes elements essential to a strong conceptual review paper and offers a specific set of best practices that can be used to distinguish a strong conceptual review from a weak one.