Aim: To examine the level of knowledge on new psychoactive substances (NPS) among health care profesionals (HCPs) working within the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system in Poland, and to assess how they would like to improve it. Material and methods: The study involved 602 HCPs working within the EMS system and was carried out using a survey questionnaire. Both online and paper-copy surveys were utilized. The collected data were statistically analyzed using the STATISTICA 12.5PL computer program (StatSoft, Inc., USA). Results: Most responders perceived themselves as having a “sufficient” (49%) or a “weak” level (40.5%) of knowledge of NPS, while only 10.5% as “good”. The Internet was a main source of information on NPS. In the 4-year period covered by the study, only less than 22% of HCPs took part in any training courses on NPS. Most participants expressed a need to learn more about “pharmacological treatment”, “legal provisions” and “qualification for hospital treatment”. Conclusions: An inadequacy in essential knowledge of NPS by HCPs working within the EMS system highlights the need for education on these novel molecules.