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A Comprehensive Tutorial on How to Practically Build and Deploy 5G Networks Using Open-Source Software and General-Purpose, Off-the-Shelf Hardware



5G technology is the cornerstone for new services like eMBB, uRLLC, and mMTC, thus it should be globally available and affordable to make these services a reality. Yet most vendors responsible for the manufacturing of 5G hardware equipment and software still utilize and adopt the classical closed radio access network (RAN) concept. Consequently, this forces mobile operators, who want to deploy such equipment to build 5G cellular networks, to pay a hefty, unreasonable amount of money and still end up in vendor lock-in, which limits them from making personal changes in the network architecture or using different equipment and software from other vendors. This generally means that operators do not have complete control over the network, which they have paid for. To tackle this challenge, a new concept called Open RAN has recently emerged, which has attracted significant attention by industry leaders due to its very exciting features like the ability to use open-source software, general-purpose hardware, having the hardware separated from the software while maintaining full transparency, and interoperability. Motivated by the many features and benefits enabled by Open RAN, there is a huge need for an educational comprehensive step-by-step tutorial on how an individual or company can practically build and deploy a 5G network using open-source software and commercial off-the-shelf, general-purpose hardware. In this tutorial, we discuss almost everything related to the history and background of 5G companies and manufacturers, legacy RAN solutions and equipment, different ways and approaches to build a 5G network including RAN, CORE, and EDGE frameworks, open-source software, and generic hardware. After this, we illustrate in detail the steps of how to build and set up a 5G network using srsRAN with LimeSDR, and Raspberry Pi 4. In the end, we list the best possible PCs and software-defined radio (SDR) combinations that can be extremely helpful in building 5G networks. (You may get our complete course on Open RAN at this link or this link The full article PDF can be found at
Received November 1, 2021, accepted December 15, 2021, date of publication December 16, 2021
Digital Object Identifier 10.46470/03d8ffbd.4ccb7950
A Comprehensive Tutorial on How to
Practically Build and Deploy 5G
Networks Using Open-Source Software
and General-Purpose, Off-the-Shelf
1WISLAB, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Antalya Bilim University,Antalya, Turkey (e-mail:
2WISLAB, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Antalya Bilim University, Antalya, Turkey (e-mail:
Corresponding author: S. Iqbal and J. M. Hamamreh (emails:,, Web:
WISLAB ( offers solutions for building and deploying fully secure, cloud-based, and low-cost end-to-end 4G/5G
networks along with providing consultations on helping companies reduce their networks CAPEX/OPEX cost and determine which
solutions are best suited for their needs and use cases.
ABSTRACT 5G technology is the cornerstone for new services like eMBB, uRLLC, and mMTC, thus it
should be globally available and affordable to make these services a reality. Yet most vendors responsible
for the manufacturing of 5G hardware equipment and software still utilize and adopt the classical closed
radio access network (RAN) concept. Consequently, this forces mobile operators, who want to deploy such
equipment to build 5G cellular networks, to pay a hefty, unreasonable amount of money and still end up
in vendor lock-in, which limits them from making personal changes in the network architecture or using
different equipment and software from other vendors. This generally means that operators do not have
complete control over the network, which they have paid for. To tackle this challenge, a new concept
called Open RAN has recently emerged, which has attracted significant attention by industry leaders
due to its very exciting features like the ability to use open-source software, general-purpose hardware,
having the hardware separated from the software while maintaining full transparency, and interoperability.
Motivated by the many features and benefits enabled by Open RAN, there is a huge need for an educational
comprehensive step-by-step tutorial on how an individual or company can practically build and deploy
a 5G network using open-source software and commercial off-the-shelf, general-purpose hardware. In
this tutorial, we discuss almost everything related to the history and background of 5G companies and
manufacturers, legacy RAN solutions and equipment, different ways and approaches to build a 5G network
including RAN, CORE, and EDGE frameworks, open-source software, and generic hardware. After this,
we illustrate in detail the steps of how to build and set up a 5G network using srsRAN with LimeSDR, and
Raspberry Pi 4. In the end, we list the best possible PCs and software-defined radio (SDR) combinations
that can be extremely helpful in building 5G networks.
INDEX TERMS 4G, 5G, 6G, radio access networks, RANs, Closed RAN, Open RAN, universal software
radio peripheral, USRP, open-source software, software-defined radio, SDR, srsRAN, 5G Non stand alone.
5G is a revolutionary mobile communication technol-
ogy that has ushered in the 4th Industrial Revolution
with the potential to change the society and economy
of the future. From the beginning of 2010, the Interna-
tional Telecommunication Union (ITU) began researching
5G mobile communication technology to prepare for the
expected data explosion after 2020 and to meet various
service requirements for future mobile communications [1].
After several years of research, three service scenarios of
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Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
5G are available: 1) eMBB (enhanced mobile broadband),
which provides data rates up to 20Gbps, much faster than
traditional mobile technologies; 2) uRLLC (ultra-reliable
low latency communication), which aims to minimize the la-
tency to 1ms or lower; and 3) mMTC (massive machine type
communication), which supports up to 1 million connections
per 1 GHz [1]. The emergence of 5G created enhanced 5G-
convergence services and integrated the existing industries
more deeply with mobile telecommunication. Adopting 5G
technology along with the ICT innovation services, such
as self-driving cars, smart factories, personal drones, and
remote healthcare, are expected to experience tremendous
changes in service paradigms, leading to new markets [1].
KISDI, Korea’s prestigious ICT state-run think tank,
predicts that the annual growth in major-related industries
of 5G will be 43.3 percent and that 1,161 trillion win in
global markets in 26 years will be created. IHS Markit, a
global market research firm, estimates that 5G will account
for 4.6 percent of the world’s total production in the future
[1]. Previous generations of mobile networks 1G, 2G, 3G,
and 4G all led to 5G, which is offering to provide more
connectivity than what is available right now [2]. Through
a landmark 5G Economy study, it is found that 5G’s full
economic effect will likely be realized across the globe by
2035, supporting a wide range of industries and potentially
enabling up to 13.1 trillion US dollars worth of goods and
services [2].
More importantly, 5G is designed to deliver peak data
rates up to 20 Gbps based on IMT-2020 requirements.
Qualcomm Technologies’ flagship 5G solution, the Qual-
comm Snapdragon X65 is designed to achieve up to 10
Gbps in downlink peak data rates. But 5G is about more
than just how fast it is [2], where in addition to providing
higher peak data rates, 5G is designed to provide much
more network capacity by expanding into new spectrum
bands, such as mmWave. 5G can also deliver much lower
latency for a more immediate response and provide an
overall more uniform user experience so that the data rates
stay consistently high even when users are moving around
[2]. This clearly shows the importance of 5G due to the
significant change it will bring globally, which will lead us
to think about how we can utilize the available resources
to build 5G base stations and networks in an efficient and
affordable manner, which can make users happy with the
service and its cost, whereas companies satisfied with the
revenue and return on investment (ROI).
Having understood the importance of 5G and the value
it offers to the world, it is very crucial to know about
the current big 5G companies, players, and what they
are doing so that we can compare the limitations and
challenges these companies are currently facing with the
benefits and solutions we can get by building a 5G network.
The companies leading 5G research and development (RD)
are Samsung, Huawei, Nokia, LG, Ericsson, Qualcomm,
ZTE, Orange, Verizon, ATT, NEC Corporation, and Cisco.
Samsung started researching 5G technology in 2011. In
2013, Samsung had successfully developed the world’s
first adaptive array transceiver technology operating in the
millimeter-wave Ka bands for cellular communications [3].
The new technology sits at the core of the 5G mobile com-
munications system and provides data transmission several
hundred times faster than the current 4G networks. The
company achieved a lot in the next generation of technology
and can now be considered one of the leaders in the 5G
domain [3].
Huawei has been pouring money into research on 5G
wireless networks and patenting key technologies. The
company has hired many experts from abroad to decide
the technical standards for the next-generation wireless
communication technology [3]. LG has also been one of the
top 5G players in research activities, products, and patent
analytics. In 2019, Bloomberg cited the 5G era as the era of
LG as the company managed to ship more than 100K 5G
smartphones in the Korean market [3]. The Korean company
has been researching 5G for quite some time and built a
reputation by getting published in many 5G related reports.
LG has been one of the few companies, like Samsung and
Huawei, that does not just deploy 5G networks but also
build products that utilize the 5G network [3]. Ericsson
on the other hand claims to be the only vendor currently
working on all continents to make 5G a global standard for
the next generation of wireless technology. Their 5G radio
prototypes are the first products designed to enable operators
to conduct live field trials in their network which helps
operators to get a greater understanding of the potential
of 5G in their networks and environments [3]. Qualcomm,
one of the leading 5G chip makers, is also leading in the
overall 5G race. While other companies are talking about
5G, Qualcomm is building the technologies. Qualcomm also
disclosed their royalties’ price for every 5G phone that could
be up to 16.25 US dollars, threefold than Ericsson’s price
Nokia has also joined the race of 5G as the company is
developing, researching, and partnering with other entities to
render 5G communication as fast as possible. The company
uses an 8000-hectare site to carry out 5G tests collaborating
with Deutsche Telekom and Hamburg Port Authority for
their project 5G MoNArch. The project’s goal is to gain
knowledge and experience from 5G networks in the real-
world environment. Its industrial uses could be traffic light
management, data processing from mobile sensors, and VR
applications [3].
ZTE Corporation, regarded as one of the leaders in
the 4G LTE, also maintains its position in 5G research
and tests. Because of its performance and capabilities, the
4G network was confronted by various bottlenecks on the
Internet of things. At that time, ZTE was the first company
to propose its Pre5G concept and series solution [3]. NEC
also rolled its sleeves for 5G and introduced a new business
concept, “5G. A Future Beyond Imagination” to make
drastic changes in the industry. According to SVP Toshim-
itsu Shimuzu, NEC plans to “collaboratively create new
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Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
RAN Evolution
FIGURE 1. Evolution of RAN.
business models and services that connect information from
different industries and companies by utilizing advanced
information and communications technologies (ICT) that
combine 5G with NEC’s proprietary AI, IoT, and other
digital technologies” [3].
The US telecom company Verizon deployed policies to
render 5G for US consumers. Verizon positioned itself at
the forefront of 5G technology as they are building modern
infrastructure all over the country. According to them, the
world needs policies for 5G deployment which they are
ready to provide [3]. Mobile network operator Orange is
also participating in the build-out of a more connected
planet. The company is exploring different complementary
areas such as improving mobile broadband up to 10 times
faster than 4G, employing high-performance fixed Inter-
net access to complete the fiber network where it’s not
available, and deploying new applications to support digital
transformation across business sectors. Orange also claims
that it will be a genuine multi-service network designed to
adapt to a whole host of devices: smartphones mainly, but
also enhanced 360° content, augmented reality, connected
objects, refrigerators, and driverless cars [3].
ATT is going to be the first company to provide 5G
services in the US. For achieving this feat, they deployed
5G connection in three cities: Waco TX, Kalamazoo MI,
and South Bend IN [3]. Cisco Systems launched 5G now
portfolio in MWC 2018 to support 5G automation and
infrastructure, which the company will support in three
primary ways: Services – enable 5G services so service
providers (SPs) can make more money; Infrastructure –
help build the 5G infrastructure, and Automation – Make
a mass scale simpler to operate [3].The company knows
the potential of 5G and plans to connect more than 30
billion devices in the next three years. From the previous
discussions, we can see the hype, attention, and importance
of 5G. The World Economic Forum describes 5G as the
Fourth Industrial Revolution, so 5G will generate billions
of dollars through unrealized revenue streams.
All the telecom giants are motivated to get a hold of
the upcoming wave [3]. Recently, even Amazon one of
the big five companies in America, lauched AWS Private
5G service through its own Amazon Web Services (AWS)
adopted cloud platform. AWS Private 5G is a managed
service that makes it easy to deploy, operate, and scale your
own private cellular network, with all required hardware and
software provided by AWS. Some use cases of AWS Private
5G are running a smart manufacturing facility, enabling
business-critical applications such as augmented and virtual
reality (AR/VR) applications for design engineering, image
analysis during medical procedures, and autonomous guided
vehicles at fulfillment centers and deliver reliable campus
connectivity [4].
Now we move onto the actual question of why do we
need to build a 5G base station. Earlier, we mentioned,
the companies, vendors, and operators, working on different
internal and external areas of the 5G network are building
their own devices, architectures, and networks. The cost
of these products is hundreds of thousands of dollars, for
example, China Mobile’s 2020 capital expenditure budget
was 179.8 billion yuan (about 25 billion US dollars). Of
this sum, the 5G-related investment plan was about 100
billion yuan (about 14 billion US dollars). This means that
on average, each 5G base station costs nearly 400,000 yuan
(about 57,000 US dollars) [5].
From this example alone, we can see how much the ven-
dors and operators charge for their products. The products
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Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
Possible Ways of Building 5G Network
Old Way New WayClosed RAN Open RAN
Integrated Hardware
and Software
Off the Shelf Hardware Software(Cloud-Based)
FIGURE 2. Closed RAN vs. Open RAN with some examples on companies from each category (noting that the lists are not inclusive).
are not available in the local market and cannot work with
third-party hardware. Even the software is the proprietary
product of these organizations. This indicates the limitations
enforced on local consumers from the tech giants. We
can ignore these limitations and build an end-to-end 5G
networks using open-source software and state-of-the-art
off-the-shelf SDR-RF hardware along with generic compute
devices, which costs a fraction of the previously mentioned
In this section, we will highlight the evolution of RANs from
Distributed RANs (D-RANs) to Cloud RANs (C-RANs),
Heterogeneous Cloud RANs (H-CRANs), Fog Computing
RANs (F-RANs) and virtual RAN (V-RAN) as shown in
Fig. 1, to know about the previous technologies so that we
have the base knowledge about how networks work and
then we can focus on building a 5G network. Previous
generations of cellular systems used to have a baseband
unit (BBU) and remote radio head (RRH) components
physically integrated and located at the bottom of a Base
Station (BS) connected to a Radio Frequency (RF) antenna
at the top of the tower through heavy electrical cables.
This architecture presented significant RF signal propaga-
tion loss in the electrical cable feed resulting in degraded
signal transmission/reception power and quality. Therefore,
telecommunication operators began to adopt a separated
BBU and RRH architecture based on D-RAN or just RAN
What is a D-RAN? In a traditional D-RAN system, each
BS is composed of two collocated components: (1) a digital
unit (DU) or BBU, and (2) a radio unit (RU) or RRH. These
two components connect through a Common Public Radio
Interface (CPRI). The BBU is the component responsible
for baseband processing that processes multiple calls and
forward’s traffic. The RRH is responsible for digital radio
signal processing by transmitting, receiving, and converting
signals. Each BS connects to the core network through
a backhaul [6]. C-RANs have emerged as a centralized
solution, moving the BS functionalities to the cloud to
optimize the resources and improve energy efficiency. What
is a C-RAN? The principle behind C-RAN architecture
4VOLUME 2, 2021
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
USRP Hardware Driver (UHD) NI-USRP
Linux, Mac OS
GNU Radio,
Python, HDL Coder
RFNoC (Open-Source
FPGA Framework)
NI Linux Real-
LabVIEW 2018
and Newer
FIGURE 3. Supported software generally used to build 5G Networks.
is to relocate some of the cellular network functions to
the cloud infrastructure. Network operators understand that
the main cost of 5G is related to RAN and decided to
invest in new types of open and low-cost architectures
[6]. The traditional RANs have limitations, so to overcome
them the RRH, and BBU functions decouple in C-RAN
architectures where RRH is at the BS, the BBU in the
cloud infrastructure, and we have a front-haul in between
RRH and BBU. The most intensive computational tasks get
performed in BBUs allocated in the cloud. In a traditional
RAN architecture, the deployment and the commissioning
of a new BS are expensive and time-consuming. But in C-
RAN architecture, the infrastructure is easily deployed as
only an RRH is installed and an associated BBU service
deployed in the cloud [6]. However, C-RANs experience
drawbacks such as primary user emulation attack, spectrum
sensing data falsification, centralized signal processing in
the cloud which can introduce the risk of higher latency,
and these issues can be solved by H-CRAN and F-RAN
What is a H-RAN? H-CRAN is an architecture that takes
advantage of two approaches: C-RAN and Heterogeneous
Networks (HetNets). In H-CRAN architectures, RRHs as-
sume the role of low power nodes (LPNs) by performing
simple functions (such as radiofrequency management and
simple symbol processing). The BBU is responsible for
coordination between high power nodes (HPNs) and RRHs
to mitigate inter-tier interference [6].
What is a F-RAN? The C-RAN and H-CRAN architec-
tures centralize their software process at the cloud resulting
in a heavy load on the front-haul link. To mitigate this prob-
lem the F-RAN architecture based on the H-CRAN architec-
ture is used [6]. F-RAN aims to minimize the disadvantages
of C-RAN and H-CRAN. 5G networks need ultra-densified
networks, device-centric architecture, specialized hardware,
need to coexist with legacy infrastructures, e.g., 2G, 3G,
and 4G, which increases management cost and complexity.
A solution to address these factors is to implement the 5G
network functions as software components [6].
What is a v-RAN? A virtual radio access network
(vRAN) is a type of RAN with its networking functions
separated from the hardware it runs on. The control and
data planes of the vRAN are also separated as part of the
virtualization. Network functions virtualization (NFV) is the
practice of turning hardware-based functions into software.
In an NFV architecture, the hardware is typically commer-
cial off-the-shelf (COTS) standard hardware. A vRAN is
more flexible because it also allows change without having
to replace hardware throughout the entire infrastructure and
all it needs is to update its software [8].
What is a Open RAN? It includes developing interop-
erable open hardware, software, and interfaces for cellular
wireless networks that use white box servers and other
standard equipment, rather than the custom-made hardware
typically used in base stations [9]. Now we know about
the use of conventional RAN and its types. Therefore, we
mention the companies that utilize these architectures, their
limits, and the disadvantages. Then compare them with the
Open RAN. Afterward, we will discuss the usage of Open
RAN in building a 5G Network and BS.
Many custom RAN solutions and equipment are available
from vendors such as ASOCS, Airspan, Altiostar, Casa
Systems, Ericsson, Intel, Nokia, Parallel Wireless, Radisys,
and Samsung [11]. Out of these ASOCS focuses on vRAN
solutions, Airspan deals in OpenRANGE, RRUs, and DUs,
Altiostar rolls out open virtualised RAN software solutions,
Casa Systems manage Casa’s Axyom Software platform
with 5G equipment, Ericsson’s RAN portfolio consists of
basebands, radio processors and a radio access processing
platform, Ericsson Radio System, Intel’s portfolio for wire-
less 5G deployment solutions is centered around its Intel
FGPA suite, which consists of a wide variety of configurable
VOLUME 2, 2021 5
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
FIGURE 4. O-RAN Architecture [7].
embedded SRAM, high-speed transceivers, logic blocks and
routing, Nokia’s AirScale Radio Access portfolio supports
all radio access technologies including both NSA and SA
5G networks, Nokia is also a contributor in ORAN alliance,
Parallel Wireless offer Open RAN solutions like end-to-
end virtualized network deployment services combined with
software-defined hardware, Radisys is also a contributor
in Open RAN alliance because of sharing its Open 5G
Software seed code and Samsung is an active member of the
Open RAN community, participating in large-scale deploy-
ment tests, conferences and most recently, commercializing
a new carrier-grade, fully-virtualized 5G RAN solution [11].
However, the companies that use closed or traditional
RAN will face challenges like declined sales, and equipment
companies will also face challenges from new rivals that
support Open RAN. The orange tech company even said that
any equipment it buys in Europe will have to be O-RAN-
compliant starting in 2025 [12]. Omdia, a telecommunica-
tion, media, and technology consultant, anticipates a 13%
decline in 4G and 5G closed RAN products between 2020
and 2024. Ericsson and Nokia both have joined the O-RAN
Alliance, a group developing specifications, and promised
O-RAN products. Omdia expects Open RAN sales to soar
from 252 million US dollars last year to around 3.2 billion
US dollars in 2024. European operators also want authorities
to cultivate a local Open RAN supply chain, ensuring Asian
and US vendors are not the only alternatives to Ericsson and
Nokia. All this could make for an extremely crowded 3.2
billion US dollar market [12].
So far, we have discussed 5G, its importance, tech com-
panies that utilize Closed RAN, custom equipment, their
limitations, challenges, costs, and why we need to build a
5G network. In the subsequent sections, we will mention the
possible ways of building a 5G network using Closed RAN
and Open RAN. Afterward, we will elaborate on different
approaches of how a 5G network can be built using Open
RAN and open-source software?
Building a 5G network usually can be categorized into two
ways the classical old way and the new way, as shown
in Fig. 2. The old way utilizes Closed RAN, which has
coupled and integrated the hardware and software as a
joint RAN solution, and the new way uses the Open RAN
concept, which has separated and disaggregated hardware
from software. One way of implementing Open RAN is
through the disaggregation of software from hardware which
allows RAN software to run on any common hardware
platform such as those based on Intel x86 and ARM
architectures [15]. This disaggregation also applies to other
hardware components such as Field Programmable Gate
Arrays (FPGAs) and Graphics Processing Units (GPUs),
which opens the abstraction layer. From Fig. 2, on the
left-hand side, we can see the vendors who use closed
6VOLUME 2, 2021
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
FIGURE 5. SD-RAN Architecture [10].
FIGURE 6. NVIDIA Aerial Architecture [13].
RAN architecture to build products that include hardware
and software from the same vendor. In other words, if an
operator uses vendor A for the radio, typically, it must
use the baseband from vendor A as well. In addition, the
software that runs on the baseband hardware does not run
on another vendor’s hardware. This creates a vendor lock-in
due to the proprietary vendor-specific product realization of
the interface specification [15]. It is a serious issue faced
by individuals who do not have the resources to buy these
products from the same vendor as they are costly. So, for
this reason along with the need to have flexibility in scaling
when compared with integrated platforms (Closed RAN),
the vendors mentioned on the right-hand side of Fig. 2
support Open RAN.
From Fig. 3, we can see the supported software that can
generally be used with the compatible hardware to build
a 5G network, such as the NI USRP LabVIEW and the
USRP hardware driver (UHD). LabVIEW software adopted
VOLUME 2, 2021 7
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
FIGURE 7. 5G-EmPOWER Operating System [14].
FIGURE 8. FlexRAN Infrastructure [16].
by LabVIEW users with the NI-USRP LabVIEW driver is
a paid program [17]. In this way, users can buy LabVIEW
software, the supported hardware to build a 5G network
which is costly at the same time. On the other hand, users
can build a 5G network, using USRP UHD open-source
software that is a product of Ettus Research published
by NI under open-source licenses [17]. The UHD driver
facilitates application development on USRP hardware in
C/C++, offers cross-platform support for industry develop-
ment environments and frameworks, such as RF Network-
on-Chip (RFNoC), GNU Radio, HDL Coder, and Math-
Works MATLAB and Simulink software [17]. Now moving
on to other open-source solutions and implementations for
the RAN, Core and Edge frameworks such as:
1) O-RAN
A key principle of the O-RAN architecture is to extend
the SDN concept of decoupling the control plane (CP)
from the user-plane (UP) into RAN while bringing in
embedded intelligence. The first benefit decoupling offers
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Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
FIGURE 9. Open-Air-Interface 5G Stack [18].
is to allow the UP to get more standardized since most of
the variability is in the CP. This allows easy-scaling and
cost-effective solutions for the UP. RAN cloudification is
one of the fundamental tenets of the O-RAN architecture
[7]. Operators are delivering NFVI/VIM requirements to
enhance virtualization platforms in support of various splits.
For example, high layer split between PDCP and RLC, low
layer split within PHY. The O-RAN reference architecture is
built on a set of key interfaces between multiple decoupled
RAN components. These include enhanced 3GPP interfaces
(F1, W1, E1, X2, Xn) for true multi-vendor interoperability.
To take full advantage of the economies of scale offered
by an open computing platform approach, O-RAN Alliance
reference designs will specify high performance, spectral,
and energy-efficient white-box base station hardware. Ref-
erence platforms support a decoupled approach and offer
detailed schematics for hardware and software architecture
to enable both the BBU and RRU. Many components of
the O-RAN architecture will be delivered as open-source,
through existing communities. These components include:
the RAN intelligent controller, protocol stack, PHY layer
processing, and virtualization platform [7].
The O-RAN reference architecture shown in Fig. 4, is
designed to enable next-generation RAN infrastructures.
Empowered by principles of intelligence and openness,
the O-RAN architecture is the foundation for building the
virtualized RAN on open hardware, with embedded AI-
powered radio control, that has been envisioned by operators
around the globe. The architecture is based on well-defined,
standardized interfaces to enable an open, interoperable sup-
ply chain ecosystem in full support of and complementary
to standards promoted by 3GPP and other industry standards
organizations [7].
SD-RAN is building open-source components for the mobile
RAN space, complementing O-RAN’s focus on architecture
and interfaces by building and trialing O-RAN compliant
open-source components. SD-RAN is developing a near-
real-time RIC (nRT-RIC) and a set of exemplar xApps for
controlling the RAN. This RIC is cloud-native and builds
on several of ONF’s well-established platforms including the
ONOS SDN Controller. The architecture for the SD-RAN
nRT-RIC will leverage the O-RAN architecture and vision
[10]. As illustrated in Fig. 5, ONF has started to develop an
Exemplar Platform consistent with the O-RAN architecture
using a specific set of implementation choices:
1) The solution will include open-source implementa-
tions of O-DU, O-CU-UP, and OCU-CP.
2) The solution will implement O-CU-UP using P4.
3) The solution will include an open-source Near-Real-
Time RIC Controller implementation that is based on
4) The solution will likely expand on the E2 interface to
VOLUME 2, 2021 9
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
FIGURE 10. Virtualized Open RAN Split 7.2 architecture [19].
FIGURE 11. COMAC Exemplar Platform [20].
allow for scheduler control and network slicing and
contribute this expansion back to O-RAN for inclusion
in the specifications.
5) The solution will be inter-operable with third-party
6) The solution will leverage COTS and white box P4-
programmable switches.
7) The solution will use Aether5 as the Virtualization
Layer, VIM, and Infrastructure Management Frame-
3) NVIDIA Aerial
NVIDIA Aerial is an Application framework for building
high-performance, software-defined, cloud-native 5G appli-
cations to address increasing consumer demand. Optimize
your results with parallel processing on GPU for baseband
signals and data flow [13]. The NVIDIA Aerial SDK pack-
age as shown in Fig. 6, simplifies building programmable
and scalable software-defined 5G RAN. The Aerial SDK
1) CUDA Baseband (cuBB): The NVIDIA cuBB SDK
10 VOLUME 2, 2021
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
FIGURE 12. Magma Architecture [21].
FIGURE 13. free5GC Architecture [22].
provides a GPU-accelerated 5G signal processing
pipeline, including cuPHY for Layer 1 5G PHY. It
delivers unprecedented throughput and efficiency by
keeping all physical layer processing within the high-
performance GPU memory [13].
2) CUDA Virtual Network Functions (cuVNF): The
NVIDIA cuVNF SDK provides optimized in-
put/output and packet processing, exchanging pack-
ets directly between GPU memory and GPUDirect-
capable NVIDIA ConnectX-6 DX network interface
cards [13].
The Aerial SDK works on COTS hardware and cloud-
native platforms such as NVIDIA EGX. It’s the single
software programming model that goes from pico cells to
centralized RAN (CRAN) to distributed RAN (DRAN). It’s
Kubernetes based and provides container orchestration for
ease of deployment and management [13].
5G-EmPOWER is a Software-Defined Networking Platform
for 5G Radio Access Networks. Its flexible architecture
provides an open ecosystem where new 5G services can
be tested in realistic conditions [14]. The 5G-EmPOWER
Operating System as shown in Fig. 7, consists of the
following components:
1) Empower-core, the core library used to develop the
5G-EmPOWER controller.
2) Empower-runtime, the Python-based 5G-EmPOWER
Controller. This allows network apps to control Wi-Fi
APs and LTE eNBs using either a REST API or a
Python API.
3) Empower-lvap-agent, the 5G-EmPOWER Wi-Fi
VOLUME 2, 2021 11
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
FIGURE 14. SD-Core Architecture [23].
agent. This agent allows controlling Wi-Fi access
points using the empower-runtime. While in principle
it is possible to install this agent on any Linux
box you will avoid a lot of pain if you use our
OpenWRT branch which includes all the necessary
Kernel patches.
4) Empower-enb-agent, the 5G-EmPOWER LTE agent
library. This agent allows controlling LTE eNBs using
the empower-runtime. The agent can be integrated
with any LTE stack however for the moment we
officially support only srsLTE.
5) Empower-vbs-emulator, a basic dummy eNB imple-
menting part of the 5G-EmPOWER southbound in-
terface and meant to help in the development of the
controller when a real eNB is not available.
6) srsLTE, a branch of srsLTE with the 5G-EmPOWER
eNB agent.
7) Empower-openwrt-packages, the ’empower-lvap-
agent’ package for OpenWRT 19.07.
8) Empower-openwrt, a branch of OpenWRT 19.07 in-
cluding some Kernel patches necessary for the correct
operation of the ’empower-lvap-agent’.
9) Empower-config, the configuration files for the Wi-Fi
10) Docker, some docker files of the main 5G-EmPOWER
5) FlexRAN
The FlexRAN platform is made up of two main components:
the FlexRAN Service and Control Plane and FlexRAN
Application plane. The FlexRAN service and control plane
follows a hierarchical design and is composed of a Real-time
Controller (RTC) that is connected to several underlying
RAN runtime, one for each RAN module (e.g., one for
monolithic 4G eNB, or multiple for a disaggregated 4G and
5G) [16]. The control and data plane separation as shown
in Fig. 8, are provided by the RAN runtime environment
which acts as an abstraction layer with the RAN module on
one side and RTC and control apps on the other side. RAN
control applications can be developed both on the top of the
RAN runtime and RTC SDK allowing to monitor, control,
and coordinate the state of RAN infrastructure [16].
1) RAN Control Data Plane Separation: FlexRAN de-
couples the RAN control and data plane with several
benefits, including reducing the complexity of devel-
oping new control solutions; promoting openness and
innovation by allowing operators to open their RAN
service environment to authorized third parties to
rapidly deploy innovative applications and services for
mobile subscribers, enterprises, and vertical segments
2) Centralized Real-time Control: FlexRAN consoli-
dates the control plane into a single logically cen-
tralized controller, enabling easier coordination among
base stations, effectively simplifying the development
of more sophisticated control applications [16].
3) Abstraction and Virtualized Control Functions:
FlexRAN allows the flexible and programmable con-
trol of the underlying RAN infrastructure through
the introduction of RAN API and virtualized control
functions that have a modular structure and well-
defined interfaces and are responsible for performing
the various control operations of the base station [16].
4) Control Delegation Policy Reconfiguration: The vir-
tualized control functions of FlexRAN are exploited
through a set of mechanisms designed to allow the
12 VOLUME 2, 2021
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
FIGURE 15. CORD Architecture [24].
FIGURE 16. LL-MEC Platform [25].
delegation of control functions, like schedulers and
mobility managers, from the master controller to the
base stations at runtime and the reconfiguration of
their behavior and parameters on the fly simply and
seamlessly [16].
6) Open-Air-Interface 5G Radio Access Network Project
The OAI 5G stack supports the following Non-Stand-Alone
(NSA) gNB, Stand-Alone (SA) gNB, and 5G NSA SA UE.
1) L1-simulation framework: The RF simulator replaces
the radio board with software (TCP/IP) communi-
cation to make possible all functional tests without
an RF board. The OAI gNB and the OAI UE com-
municate as if there were an RF interface between
them, but without any real-time clock constraints. The
I/Q samples can be transmitted over a radio channel
simulator. The RF simulator also supports MIMO
2) L2-simulation framework: Using actual radios or even
RF simulators does not allow testing a large number of
UEs. Therefore, as shown in Fig. 9, the L2 simulator
offers the possibility of connecting the OAI UE with
the OAI xNB (eNB in LTE and gNB in 5G) through
the nFAPI interface defined by the Small Cells Forum
VOLUME 2, 2021 13
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
FIGURE 17. LightEdge-MEC Platform [26].
FIGURE 18. Aether Architecture [27].
(SCF). nFAPI splits the xNB into a MAC entity and a
PHY entity. In OAI, the xNB MAC connects through
the nFAPI interface to a channel proxy that simulates
the channel and allows the connection of many UEs
to the MAC stub. Each UE is the simulated OAI UE
that connects to the proxy [18].
7) openLTE
OpenLTE is an open-source implementation of the 3GPP
LTE specifications. The focus is on the transmission and
reception of the downlink. Currently, octave code is avail-
able for the test and simulation of downlink transmit and
receive functionality. In addition, GNU Radio applications
are available for downlink to transmit and receive to and
from a file. The current focus is on extending the capabilities
of the GNU Radio applications [28].
8) Open vRAN
Mavenir Open vRAN solution brings increased business
agility with network elasticity and flexibility in radio access
networks with the world’s first fully containerized, virtu-
alized Open RAN Split 7.2 architecture [19]. This allows
14 VOLUME 2, 2021
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
the Mavenir customers to break free of vendor lock-in with
the evolved Open RAN architecture, designed with cloud-
native virtualization techniques, which enables RAN to flex
and adapt based on usage and coverage. Mavenir’s Open
vRAN O-RAN compliant, fully containerized true Open
RAN solution works on open interfaces supporting O-RAN
Split 7.2x and Split 2 as shown in Fig. 10,. It further
disaggregates into Distributed unit (DU) and centralized
unit (CU). These entities work as a containerized network
function (vDU, vCU CNF) running on Commercial Off
the Shelf (COTS) hardware. Designed to support multiple
Fronthaul splits simultaneously [19].
The Converged Multi-Access and Core (COMAC) open-
source project, paired with the COMAC RD, has been
launched to bring convergence to Operators’ mobile and
broadband access and core networks. It will build upon a
suite of ONF projects that are part of the CORD project
umbrella. By leveraging and unifying both access and
core projects, COMAC will enable greater infrastructure
efficiencies, as well as common subscriber authentication
and service delivery capabilities [20].
Optimized for 5G deployments, the COMAC Exemplar
Platform as shown in Fig. 11, will leverage SDN and cloud
principles to disaggregate elements and will be built on
a microservice architecture, so operators can dynamically
place elements where they best serve their needs. Access,
edge, core, or public clouds work together in a centralized
and coordinated way to deliver exceptional user experience
while leveraging common infrastructure and public cloud
economics [20].
2) Magma
Magma is an open-source software platform that gives
network operators an open, flexible, and extendable mobile
core network solution. The high-level Magma architecture
Ais shown in Fig. 12. Magma is designed to be 3GPP
generation and access network (cellular or WiFi) agnostic.
It can flexibly support a radio access network with minimal
development and deployment effort [21]. Magma has three
major components:
1) Access Gateway: The Access Gateway (AGW) pro-
vides network services and policy enforcement. In an
LTE network, the AGW implements an evolved packet
core (EPC), and a combination of an AAA and a
PGW. It works with existing, unmodified commercial
radio hardware [21].
2) Orchestrator: Orchestrator is a cloud service that pro-
vides a simple and consistent way to configure and
monitor the wireless network securely. The Orches-
trator can be hosted on a public/private cloud. The
metrics acquired through the platform allow you to
see the analytics and traffic flows of the wireless users
through the Magma web UI [21].
3) Federation Gateway: The Federation Gateway in-
tegrates the MNO core network with Magma by
using standard 3GPP interfaces to existing MNO
components. It acts as a proxy between the Magma
AGW and the operator’s network and facilitates core
functions, such as authentication, data plans, policy
enforcement, and charging to stay uniform between
an existing MNO network and the expanded network
with Magma [21].
3) free5GC
The free5GC is an open-source project for 5th generation
(5G) mobile core networks. The goal of this project is to
implement the 5G core network (5GC) defined in 3GPP
Release 15 (R15) and beyond. The implementation is based
on nextEPC, implementation of 4G EPC R13. That is, the
MME, SGW, and PGW are migrated into 5GC. Because
commercial 5G User Equipment (UE) and base station
(gNB) are not on the market yet, the free5GC uses 4G
protocols to communicate with 4G UE and 4G base station
(eNB) as shown in Fig. 13. Thus, the authentication protocol
is still based on 4G [22].
4) SD-Core
The SD-Core project is a 4G/5G disaggregated mobile core
optimized for public cloud deployment in concert with
distributed edge clouds and is ideally suited for carrier and
private enterprise 5G networks. It exposes standard 3GPP
interfaces enabling the use of SD-Core as a conventional
mobile core [23]. SD-Core is a flexible, agile, scalable, and
configurable dual-mode 4G/5G core network platform that
builds upon and enhances ONF’s OMEC and free 5GC core
network platforms to support LTE, 5G NSA and 5G SA
services as shown in Fig. 14. The SD-Core control plane
provides the flexibility of simultaneous supports for 5G
standalone, 5G non-standalone, and 4G/LTE deployments.
SD-Core provides a rich set of APIs to Runtime Operation
Control (ROC). Operators can use these APIs to provision
the subscribers in the mobile core; control runtime config-
uration of network functions, and provide telemetry data to
third party applications [23].
The edge of the operator network (such as the central
office for telcos and the head-end for cable operators) is
where operators connect to their customers. CORD is a
project intent on transforming this edge into an agile service
delivery platform enabling the operator to deliver the best
end-user experience along with innovative next-generation
services [24]. The CORD (Central Office Re-architected as
a Datacenter) platform as shown in Fig. 15, leverages SDN,
NFV, and Cloud technologies to build agile datacenters for
the network edge. Integrating multiple open-source projects,
CORD delivers a cloud-native, open, programmable, agile
platform for network operators to create innovative services
VOLUME 2, 2021 15
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
FIGURE 19. Akraino Architecture [29].
FIGURE 20. srsRAN Architecture [30].
[24]. Commodity servers interconnected by a fabric of
White-box Switches, switching fabric in a Spine-Leaf topol-
ogy for optimized East-to-West traffic and specialized access
hardware for connecting subscribers (residential, mobile,
and/or enterprise).
The LL-MEC platform is made up of two main components:
the LL-MEC platform and data-control APIs as shown in
Fig. 16. The LL-MEC provides two main services: native
IP-service endpoint and real-time radio network information
to MEC applications on per user and service basis and can
be connected to several underlying RANs and CN gateways.
The data plane APIs acts as an abstraction layer between
RAN and CN data plane and the LL-MEC platform. The
OpenFlow and FlexRAN protocols facilitate the commu-
nication between the LL-MEC and underlying RAN and
CN. With LL-MEC, coordinated RAN and CN network
applications can be developed by leveraging both LL-MEC
and FlexRAN SDKs allowing to monitor and control not
only the traffic but also the state of network infrastructure
Lightedge is a lightweight, ETSI-compliant MEC solution
for 4G and 5G networks. Lightedge can provide Mobile
Network Operators (MNOs) with a MEC platform that can
immediately bring the advantages of edge computing to
current 4G users as shown in Fig. 17 while enabling a seam-
less transition from the 4G towards a full 5G architecture
[26]. Lightedge follows the bump in the wiring architecture
proposed by ETSI, thereby placing the MEC host between
16 VOLUME 2, 2021
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
FIGURE 21. srsEPC Architecture [31].
FIGURE 22. srsENB Architecture [31].
the RAN and the EPC of the 4G system to enable the
interception of UE requests.
4) Aether
Aether is the first open-source 5G Connected Edge platform
for enabling enterprise digital transformation. It provides
mobile connectivity and edge cloud services for distributed
enterprise networks as a cloud-managed offering as shown
in Fig. 18. Aether is an open-source platform optimized
for multi-cloud deployments, and simultaneous support for
wireless connectivity over licensed, unlicensed, and lightly
licensed (CBRS) spectrum [27]. The Aether network is op-
erational and connects Aether Edges at project collaborator
locations around the world. The network is used for Aether
and Pronto development.
5) Akraino
Akraino is a set of open infrastructures and application
blueprints for the Edge, spanning a broad variety of use
cases, including 5G, AI, Edge IaaS/PaaS, IoT, for both
provider and enterprise edge domains. These Blueprints
have been created by the Akraino community and focus
exclusively on the edge in all its different forms as shown
in Fig. 19. What unites all these blueprints is that they have
been tested by the community and are ready for adoption
as-is or used as a starting point for customizing a new edge
blueprint [29].
Akraino follows a holistic design focused on availability,
capacity, security, and continuity such as:
1) Finite set of configurations – To reduce complexity,
the design will follow a finite set of configurations.
2) May support Multiple workloads types such as VMs,
Containers, microservices, etc.
3) Security – The design needs to validate the security
of the blueprint.
4) Autonomous, turn-key solution for service enable-
5) Platform, VNF, and application assessment and gating
– assess whether the application is fit to run at the edge
(e.g., latency sensitiveness, code quality).
These above-mentioned open-source software are non-
conventional 5G software suites that can be used to build
a 5G mobile networks. It depends on the user’s choice,
the resources available, and software platforms. In our use
case study, we will focus on srsRAN as the open-source
software [30] and possible software-defined radio (SDR)
devices that can be deployed with srsRAN such as Lime
VOLUME 2, 2021 17
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
FIGURE 23. srsUE Architecture [31].
FIGURE 24. Basic 5G Network.
SDR mini,BladeRF micro 2.0 xA4, and Ettus x310 that
are listed in Tables 1,2, and 3 respectively [32]. Tables 1,2,
and 3 give the description of each mentioned SDR, their
advantages and limitations. It is up to the reader’s choice
which SDR to use.
Lime SDR mini Description
1 Price: 200 US Dollars
2 Driver: SoapySDR
3 Frequency Range: 10 Mhz – 3.5 GHz
4 RF Bandwidth: 30.72 Mhz
5 Clock: 30.72 MHz onboard VCTCXO
6 Channels: 1x1
A brief description of what is srsRAN, use case scenarios
of how to set up a 5G network using the Zero MQ with
virtual radios, srsRAN on Raspberry Pi 4, and 5G Non-
Standalone Access (NSA) end to end system respectively
will be given in the subsequent section. After this, we
will mention the best possible SDR and PC hardware
combinations that can be used with the srsRAN software
suite in the following subsequent sections.
BladeRF micro 2.0 xA4 Description
1 Price: 500 US Dollars
2 Driver: SoapySDR
3 Frequency Range: 47 Mhz – 6 Ghz
4 RF Bandwidth: 56 Mhz
5 Clock: 38.4 MHz onboard VCTCXO
6 Channels: 2x2
Ettus x310 Description
1 Price: 7050 US Dollars
2 Driver: UHD
3 Frequency Range: DC - 6GHz (w/ Daughter Cards)
4 RF Bandwidth: 160 MHz (w/ Daughter Cards)
5 Clock: Configurable
6 Channels: 2x2
srsRAN is an open-source 4G and 5G software radio suite
as shown in Fig. 20. that provides UE and RAN solutions
[30], [33]. It runs on off-the-shelf computer, RF hardware,
18 VOLUME 2, 2021
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
FIGURE 25. 5G NSA Network.
featuring both the UE and eNodeB/gNodeB applications
The srsRAN includes features like srsEPC, srsENB and
srsUE which are discussed below:
1) srsEPC
srsRAN uses srsEPC as a lightweight implementation of a
complete LTE core network (EPC) as shown in Fig. 21.
However, srsEPC runs as a single binary but still provides
the key EPC components such as Home Subscriber Service
(HSS), Mobility Management Entity (MME), Service Gate-
way (S-GW), and Packet Data Network Gateway (P-GW)
2) srsENB
srsRAN uses srsENB in conjunction with srsEPC to im-
plement functionalities of a complete 4G/5G BS [31] and
includes the following features:
1) srsENB is aligned with LTE Release 10. It supports
FDD configuration, has been tested with bandwidths
1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MHz and it also includes
transmission modes such as 1 (single antenna), 2
(transmit diversity), 3 (CCD), and 4 (closed-loop spa-
tial multiplexing) [31]. srsENB also offers command-
line trace metrics, detailed input configuration files,
and supports 5G NSA [31].
2) Frequency-based ZF and MMSE equalizers and highly
optimized Turbo Decoder are also included in the
srsENB. Detailed log system can be obtained with
per-layer log levels and hex dumps and MAC layer
Wireshark packet capture is also possible [31]. It also
has a channel simulator for EPA, EVA, and ETU
3GPP channels, a ZeroMQ-based fake RF driver for
I/Q over IPC/network, mobility support for Intra-
ENB, and Inter-ENB (S1) and proportional-fair and
round-robin MAC scheduler with FAPI-like C++ API
3) srsENB also provides SR, periodic, aperiodic CQI
feedback support, and standard S1AP and GTP-U
interfaces to the core network as shown in Fig. 22.
It can reach up to 150 Mbps during DL in 20
MHz MIMO TM3/TM4 with commercial UEs (195
Mbps with QAM256), 75 Mbps during DL in SISO
configuration with commercial UEs, 50 Mbps during
UL in 20 MHz with commercial UEs, and user-plane
encryption [31].
3) srsUE
It is an application running on a Linux-based operating
system, the excellent advantage of srsUE is that it is
implemented entirely in software as a 4G LTE and 5G NR
NSA UE modem [31]. It can connect to an LTE network
to provide a standard network interface and includes the
following features:
1) srsUE is LTE release 10 aligned with features up to
release 15, is configured for TDD and FDD opera-
tions. It is tested with bandwidths like 1.4, 3, 5, 10,
15, and 20 MHz and includes transmission modes 1
(single antenna), 2 (transmit diversity), 3 (CCD), and
4 (closed-loop spatial multiplexing). It can manually
configure DL/UL carrier frequencies and simulate
3GPP channels such as EPA, EVA, and ETU [31].
2) It offers TUN virtual network kernel interface integra-
tion for Linux OS, a detailed log system with per-layer
log levels and hex dumps. It comes with MAC and
NAS layer Wireshark packet captures, command-line
trace metrics, and detailed input configuration files as
shown in Fig. 23. srsUE also provides services like
evolved multimedia broadcast and multicast service
(eMBMS), frequency-based ZF and MMSE equaliz-
ers, and highly optimized Turbo Decoder for Intel
SSE4.1/AVX2 (with +150 Mbps) [31].
3) For support purposes, srsUE includes 5G NSA sup-
port, soft USIM supporting XOR/Milenage authenti-
cation, hard USIM support via PC/SC, snow3G and
AES integrity/ciphering support, QoS support, 150
Mbps during DL in 20 MHz MIMO TM3/TM4 or
2xCA configuration (195 Mbps with QAM256), 75
Mbps during DL in 20 MHz SISO configuration (98
Mbps with QAM256), 36 Mbps during DL in 10
MHz SISO configuration and supports Ettus USRP
B2x0/X3x0 families, BladeRF, LimeSDR [31].
In the above paragraphs, we briefly discussed what is
srsRAN and its features, now in the subsequent sections,
we will talk about how to implement srsRAN with ZMQ
application to simulate a virtual 5G Network, an end-to-end
VOLUME 2, 2021 19
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
5G NSA Network and after that, we will also list the steps
of how practically implement srsRAN with an ultra-low-cost
SDR device like limeSDR and low power Raspberry Pi 4
so that the users can practically build extremely low budget
5G Networks.
The main goal of this setup is to help the readers learn how
to build and deploy 4G/5G base stations. From Fig. 24,
we can see a 5G network consisting of a 5G base station
(which utilizes commonly available hardware and open-
source software) and a user equipment (UE) device. As it
depends on the reader’s choice about what type of hardware
device one can use, on the other hand, we illustrate the steps
of how one can virtually simulate and practically build a
4G/5G Network using srsRAN with ZMQ and srsRAN with
LimeSDR and Raspberry Pi 4.
1) Virtually building a full end-to-end LTE network on a
single computer by using ZMQ Virtual Radios
In this particular approach, we can use virtual radios with a
ZMQ networking library to transfer radio samples between
applications and build an end-to-end network [35]. Why this
approach is useful because we do not need to have any
physical radios for performing development, testing, CI/CD,
teaching, and demonstration. Before this, the user needs to
make sure that they have installed ubuntu on their PC [36],
on the virtual box which is a free and open-source hosted
hypervisor for x86 virtualization [37]. After this, the user
needs to install ZMQ and build srsRAN and for installing
ZMQ development libraries on ubuntu the user can use:
1) sudo apt-get install libzmq3-dev
Then, the user must install two important library files such
as libzmq and czmq [35].
For libzmq:
1) git clone
2) cd libzmq
3) ./
4) ./configure
5) make
6) sudo make install
7) sudo ldconfig
For czmq:
1) git clone
2) cd czmq
3) ./
4) ./configure
5) make
6) sudo make install
7) sudo ldconfig
Now, to build and compile srsRAN so that it recognizes
the addition of ZMQ:
1) git clone
2) cd srsRAN
3) mkdir build
4) cd build
5) cmake ../
6) make
After this, the cmake console output should read the
following lines:
2) Checking for module ’ZeroMQ’
3) No package ’ZeroMQ’ found
4) Found libZEROMQ: /usr/local/include,
5) /usr/local/lib/
The ZMQ application has been installed.
Now, to start the LTE network on a single PC, we need to
make sure that UE and EPC both are in different namespaces
because they will share the same network configuration, UE
receives the IP address from the EPC subnet and the Linux
will bypass the TUN interfaces when routing traffic between
both ends. To communicate over the TCP/IP stack, we
require TUN interfaces for the UE and EPC. Each srsRAN
application will be launched in a separate terminal as well
as ping and iperf [35].
Basically, there are six steps in order to launch the
network and at the end terminate it, following the step 1,
creating network namespace ue1 for UE as:
1) sudo ip netns add ue1
In step 2, running the EPC, will create a TUN device
in the default network namespace so it will need root
permissions as:
1) sudo ./srsepc/src/srsepc
In step 3, running the eNodeB, with the default configura-
tions and pass all the parameters needed to be tweaked for
ZMQ as command line programs:
1) ./srsenb/src/srsenb - -rf.device_name=zmq
- -rf.device_args="fail_on_disconnect=true,
In step 4, running the UE with root permission to create
the TUN device as:
1) sudo ./srsue/src/srsue - -rf.device_name=zmq
- -rf.device_args="tx_port=tcp://*:2001,
base_srate=23.04e6" - -gw.netns=ue1
This command will run the UE and attach it to the core
network, then the UE will be assigned a new IP address
In step 5, generating traffic in the downlink direction from
EPC to UE, by just entering ping in command line as:
1) ping
and in order to generate traffic in the uplink direction from
UE to EPC, running the ping command in the UE network
name space as:
1) sudo ip netns exec ue1 ping
After step 5 and finishing the setup, the user also needs to
delete the netns as: s
20 VOLUME 2, 2021
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
FIGURE 26. Overview of NSA Network Architecture.
1) sudo ip netns delete ue1
By following the above directions and the five steps, the
users can run an end-to-end LTE network [35] which can
be highly desirable for an individual with a single PC. To
end the simulation, first, the UE needs to be terminated then
the eNB, they can only run one time, to run them again the
UE needs to detach and after that, the eNB can be restarted.
For now, only one eNB and UE are supported [35].
2) Virtually building a 5G NSA End-to-End Network using
The 21.10 release of srsRAN brings 5G NSA features to
srsENB and can be enabled via the srsENB configuration
files. Therefore, by using the ZMQ virtual radios in place of
actual RF hardware we can create a 5G network as shown
in the following steps:
From Fig. 27. we can see the 5G Non-Standalone mode,
which uses the pre-existing 4G infrastructure to build upon,
two carriers are sent to UE, the primary carrier being the 4G
and the secondary carrier being the 5G, the UE first connects
with the 4G carrier and then with the 5G carrier. The 4G
carrier anchor is used for control plane signaling while the
5G carrier is used for high-speed data plane traffic [39].
To run this setup, we need three things, srsUE must run in
a separate network namespace, srsENB should be configured
so that both the LTE eNB, and the NSA gNB cells are
created at run time and srsEPC should include UE in the
list of subscribers [39]. To enable ZMQ and 5G NSA carrier
changes must be made in the configuration files of srsUE
and srsENB, no changes are made in the srsEPC and also
the modified config files can be downloaded from here [39].
For srsUE, changes must be made in ue.conf file to enable
ZMQ and 5G NR features. To enable ZMQ, we need to
change the device names in [rf] section of UE as:
1) device_name = zmq
2) device_args = tx_port0=tcp://*:2001,
In the above command, two TX and two RX channels
are added to support the primary and secondary carrier as
shown in Fig. 26. So, to complete the ZMQ setup, the user
needs to set the network namespace netns under the [gw]
settings as:
1) [gw]
2) netns = ue1
Now to setup the NR RAT, which provides the 5G NR
capabilities of UE, this has to enabled in the config under
[] as:
1) []
2) bands = 3, 78
3) nof_carriers = 1
In the above command, the enable bands are 3 and
78 which reflect the FDD and TDD respectively, and the
user can test each duplex mode simply by configuring the
network. The number of carriers must be set to 1, if not then
the UE will not be able to connect to gNB and will only
have an LTE connection [39]. The NSA mode is a part of
3GPP release 15, so it must be included in the config entry
under the [rrc] field, by default the release included is 8.
1) [rrc]
2) release = 15
Until now we have only configured UE, now moving on
the srsENB, to enable 5G NSA, the user needs to make
changes in both enb.conf and rr.conf as shown below:
For configuring the eNB, the user needs to make the
required changes to enable ZMQ in the [rf] section as:
1) device_name = zmq
2) device_args = fail_on_disconnect=true,
Just like UE, here we have two TX and two RX channels
that are mapped to the relevant ports configured on the UE
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Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
FIGURE 27. Y Cable [38].
[39]. For RRC config, the main change is to add the NR
cell to the cell list in the rr.conf file to the end of the file
1) nr_cell_list =
rf_port = 1;
cell_id = 0x02;
tac = 0x0007;
pci = 500;
root_seq_idx = 204;
// TDD:
//dl_arfcn = 634240;
//band = 78;
// FDD:
dl_arfcn = 368500;
band = 3;
As shown in the above command, the user can see the
FDD and TDD configs, however, for the RRC config, only
the FDD is used as shown above. For utilizing TDD, the user
needs to the opposite change and restart the srsENB [39].
Till now, the necessary changes have been made to operate
the 5G NSA mode. Now the user can start the network as
shown below in three steps:
Step 1, run the EPC,
1) sudo srsepc
This command will give the output as:
1) HSS Initialized.
2) MME S11 Initialized.
3) MME GTP-C Initialized.
4) MME Initialized. MCC: 0xf001, MNC: 0xff01
5) SPGW GTP-U Initialized.
6) SPGW S11 Initialized.
7) SP-GW Initialized.
Step 2, run the eNB/ gNB,
1) sudo srsenb
The output obtained will look like this:
1) Opening 2 channels in RF
device=zmq with args=fail_on_disconnect=true,
tx_port1=tcp://*:2100, rx_port1=tcp://
2) CHx base_srate=23.04e6
3) CHx id=enb
4) Current sample rate is 1.92 MHz with a
base rate of 23.04 MHz (x12 decimation)
5) CH0 rx_port=tcp://localhost:2001
6) CH0 tx_port=tcp://*:2000
7) CH0 fail_on_disconnect=true
8) CH1 rx_port=tcp://localhost:2101
9) CH1 tx_port=tcp://*:2100
10) ==== eNodeB started ===
11) Type <t> to view trace
12) Current sample rate is 11.52 MHz with a
base rate of 23.04 MHz (x2 decimation)
13) Current sample rate is 11.52 MHz with a
base rate of 23.04 MHz (x2 decimation)
14) Setting frequency: DL=2680.0 Mhz,
UL=2560.0 MHz for cc_idx=0 nof_prb=50
15) Setting frequency: DL=1842.5 Mhz,
UL=1747.5 MHz for cc_idx=1 nof_prb=52
From the output, the IDs can be seen as 0 and 1, where
0 represents LTE cell and 1 represents NR Cell [39]. Next
step is to run the UE as:
1) sudo srsue
When the UE runs successfully then attaches with the
eNB/gNB, the user will see the following output:
1) Opening 2 channels in RF device=zmq with
22 VOLUME 2, 2021
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
2) CHx base_srate=23.04e6
3) CHx id=ue
4) Current sample rate is 1.92 MHz with a
base rate of 23.04 MHz (x12 decimation)
5) CH0 rx_port=tcp://localhost:2000
6) CH0 tx_port=tcp://*:2001
7) CH1 rx_port=tcp://localhost:2100
8) CH1 tx_port=tcp://*:2101
9) Waiting PHY to initialize ... done!
10) Attaching UE...
11) Current sample rate is 1.92 MHz with a
base rate of 23.04 MHz (x12 decimation)
12) Current sample rate is 1.92 MHz with a
base rate of 23.04 MHz (x12 decimation)
13) Found Cell: Mode=FDD, PCI=1, PRB=50,
Ports=1, CP=Normal, CFO=-0.2 KHz
14) Current sample rate is 11.52 MHz with a
base rate of 23.04 MHz (x2 decimation)
15) Current sample rate is 11.52 MHz with a
base rate of 23.04 MHz (x2 decimation)
16) Found PLMN: Id=00101, TAC=7
17) Random Access Transmission: seq=33, tti=981, ra-
18) RRC Connected
19) Random Access Complete. c-rnti=0x46, ta=0
20) Network attach successful. IP:
21) Software Radio Systems RAN (srsRAN) 13/10/2021
15:29:9 TZ:0
22) RRC NR reconfiguration successful.
23) Random Access Transmission: prach_occasion=0,
preamble_index=0, ra-rnti=0xf, tti=1611
24) Random Access Complete. c-rnti=0x4601, ta=0
In the output, RRC NR reconfiguration successful
points out the successful connection of UE with the NR cell,
this will be used for data link while the LTE cell will be used
for control messaging [39]. From here, we move towards the
testing of the NSA connection, to generate traffic from UE
to gNB, iperf3 client will be used on the UE side, UDP
traffic will be generated at 10 Mbps and 60 seconds [39],
here it is important to note to start the server first and then
the client.
To listen to traffic coming from UE, the user must start
the iPerf server on network side:
1) iperf3 -s -i 1
With the network and iPerf up and running, it’s time to
run the client on UE side from the command:
1) sudo ip netns exec ue1 iperf3
-c -b 10M -i 1 -t 60
Traffic will now be sent from UE to eNB, it will be shown
in both server and iperf consoles.
For client iPerf output:
1) Connecting to host, port 5201
2) [ 5] local port 52484 connected to port 5201
3) [ ID] Interval Transfer Bitrate Retr Cwnd
4) [ 5] 0.00-1.00 sec 954 KBytes 7.81 Mbits/sec 0 79.2
5) [ 5] 1.00-2.00 sec 1.12 MBytes 9.44 Mbits/sec 0 126
6) [ 5] 2.00-3.00 sec 1.00 MBytes 8.39 Mbits/sec 12
49.5 KBytes
7) [ 5] 3.00-4.00 sec 640 KBytes 5.24 Mbits/sec 2 42.4
8) [ 5] 4.00-5.00 sec 512 KBytes 4.19 Mbits/sec 2 39.6
9) [ 5] 5.00-6.00 sec 512 KBytes 4.19 Mbits/sec 2 33.9
For server iPerf output:
1) --------------------------------
2) Server listening on 5201
3) --------------------------------
4) Accepted connection from, port 52482
5) [ 5] local port 5201 connected
to port 52484
6) [ ID] Interval Transfer Bitrate
7) [ 5] 0.00-1.00 sec 634 KBytes 5.19 Mbits/sec
8) [ 5] 1.00-2.00 sec 950 KBytes 7.78 Mbits/sec
9) [ 5] 2.00-3.00 sec 977 KBytes 8.00 Mbits/sec
10) [ 5] 3.00-4.00 sec 533 KBytes 4.36 Mbits/sec
11) [ 5] 4.00-5.00 sec 553 KBytes 4.53 Mbits/sec
12) [ 5] 5.00-6.00 sec 537 KBytes 4.40 Mbits/sec
Traffic can be traced from UE and eNB/gNB consoles by
typing t in each console and the result obtained will be as
shown below: For UE console,
1) ------Signal----------|
2) rat pci rsrp pl cfo |
mcs snr iter brate bler ta_us |
mcs buff brate bler
3) lte 1 -11 11 -1.4u |
0 142 0.0 0.0 0% 0.0 |
0 0.0 0.0 0%
4) nr 500 1 0 23u |
27 70 1.0 8.5M 0% 0.0 |
28 36k 8.3M 0%
5) lte 1 -11 11 -1.4u |
0 142 0.0 0.0 0% 0.0 |
0 0.0 0.0 0%
6) nr 500 1 0 23u |
27 70 1.0 9.2M 0% 0.0 |
28 24k 8.1M 0%
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Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
7) lte 1 -11 11 -1.4u |
0 142 0.0 0.0 0% 0.0 |
0 0.0 0.0 0%
8) nr 500 2 0 23u |
27 69 1.0 4.6M 0% 0.0 |
28 19k 4.2M 0%
9) lte 1 -11 11 -1.3u |
0 142 0.0 0.0 0% 0.0 |
0 0.0 0.0 0%
10) nr 500 2 0 23u |
27 69 1.0 5.0M 0% 0.0 |
28 26k 4.8M 0%
11) lte 1 -11 11 -1.4u |
0 142 0.0 0.0 0% 0.0 |
0 0.0 0.0 0%
12) nr 500 2 0 23u |
| 27 69 1.0 4.7M 0% 0.0 |
28 28k 4.7M 0%
For eNB/ gNB console,
1) --------------DL--------------|
2) rat rnti cqi ri mcs brate ok nok (%) |
pusch pucch phr mcs brate ok nok (%) bsr
3) lte4615000000%|
n/a n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0% 0.0
4) nr 4601 n/a 0 27 6.9M 124 0 0% |
n/a n/a 0 0 6.1M 95 0 0% 0.0
5) lte4615000000%|
n/a n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0% 0.0
6) nr 4601 n/a 0 27 4.4M 92 0 0% |
n/a n/a 0 0 4.2M 76 0 0% 0.0
7) lte4615000000%|
n/a n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0% 0.0
8) nr 4601 n/a 0 27 5.2M 113 0 0% |
n/a n/a 0 0 5.0M 94 0 0% 0.0
9) lte4615000000%|
n/a n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0% 0.0
10) nr 4601 n/a 0 27 5.4M 118 0 0% |
n/a n/a 0 0 5.3M 99 0 0% 0.0
11) lte4615000000%|
n/a n/a 0 0 0 0 0 0% 0.0
12) nr 4601 n/a 0 27 7.6M 156 0 0% |
n/a n/a 0 0 7.2M 129 0 0% 0.0
In both outputs obtained from UE and eNB/gNB, the rat
column represents the metrics associated with the NSA 5G
link (nr), or with the LTE link (lte). In the above section
(ii), we talked about the steps related to simulating 5G NSA
network using srsRAN with ZMQ application. In the (iii)
section, we will enumerate the steps the user can take to
build a practical 4G LTE network.
3) Building a 4G LTE Network using srsRAN on Raspberry
Pi 4 as a PC and limeSDR USRP
A user can easily build a 4G LTE network by using ultra-
low-cost computing hardware like the low power Raspberry
Pi 4, since srsRAN consists of a core network and an eNB,
the eNB can be run on the hardware device such as the
Raspberry Pi 4B /4GB rev 1.2 running with Ubuntu Server
20.04 LTS aarch64 image [38]. The Pi4 hardware revision
can be checked from [40]. The whole LTE setup can be run
with a USRP B210, a LimeSDR-USB, and a LimeSDR-
Mini, but keeping in mind that when using USRP B210 the
user can create a 2x2 MIMO cell with srsenb and run the
srsepc core network on the Pi too, however, when using
either of the LimeSDRs, the user can only create a 1x1
SISO cell with srsenb and the core network must be run on
a separate device [38]. It should be noted that when using
the SDRs due to their power requirements the user must use
an external power source this can be achieved through the
Y cable as shown in Fig. 27. The LTE setup consists of two
steps, the first is a software set up and the second step is the
hardware setup. In the first step, the user needs to set up the
required software as shown below and then proceed towards
setting up the hardware and running the LTE network.
Step 1: Configuring the software
The user needs to install the SDR drivers and build
srsRAN. For USRP the UHD drivers and for LimeSDRs
the SoapySDR/LimeSuite drivers can be installed as shown
1) sudo apt update
2) sudo apt upgrade
3) sudo apt install cmake
and followed by:
1) sudo apt install libuhd-dev libuhd3.15.0 uhd-host
2) sudo /usr/lib/uhd/utils/
3) ## Then test the connection by typing:
4) sudo uhd_usrp_probe
For SoapySDR:
1) git clone
2) cd SoapySDR
3) git checkout tags/soapy-sdr-0.7.2
4) mkdir build cd build
5) cmake ..
6) make -j4
7) sudo make install
8) sudo ldconfig
For LimeSuite:
1) sudo apt install libusb-1.0-0-dev
2) git clone
3) cd LimeSuite
4) git checkout tags/v20.01.0
5) mkdir builddir cd builddir
6) cmake ../
7) make -j4
8) sudo make install
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Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
FIGURE 28. htop (LTE connection) [38].
9) sudo ldconfig
10) cd ..
11) cd udev-rules
12) sudo ./
13) ## Then test the connection by typing:
14) LimeUtil –find
15) LimeUtil –update
16) SoapySDRUtil –find
Now to compile the srsRAN as,
1) sudo apt install libfftw3-dev libmbedtls-dev
libboost-program-options-dev libconfig++-dev libsctp-
2) git clone
3) cd srsran
4) git checkout tags/release_19_12
5) mkdir build cd build
6) cmake ../
7) make -j4
8) sudo make install
9) sudo ldconfig
10) ## copy configs to /root
11) sudo ./ user
Until this step, the drivers have been installed and now the
user must modify the Pi CPU scaling_governor to ensure
it is running in performance mode as:
1) sudo systemctl disable ondemand
2) sudo apt install linux-tools-raspi
3) sudo nano /etc/default/cpufrequtils
4) * insert:
5) * GOVERNOR="performance"
6) ## reboot
7) sudo cpupower frequency-info
8) * should show that the CPU is running in
performance mode, at maximum clock speed
Step 2: Configuring the hardware
To start the Pi eNB, some configurations must be made
regarding the USRP B210 and LimeSDRs and the choice
is up to the user, which hardware to use the USRP or the
SDR. For this LTE setup, the Pi4 eNodeB was tested with a
3MHz wide cell in LTE B3 (1800MHz band), DL=1878.40
UL=1783.40 [38].
For USRP B210 changes to be made in default enb.conf
1) sudo nano /root/.config/srsran/enb.conf
2) [enb]
3) mcc = <yourMCC>
4) mnc = <yourMNC>
5) mme_addr = ## or
IP for external MME, eg.
6) gtp_bind_addr = ## or local interface
IP for external S1-U, eg.
7) s1c_bind_addr = or local interface
IP for external S1-MME, eg.
8) n_prb = 15
9) tm = 2
10) nof_ports = 2
11) [rf]
12) dl_earfcn = 1934
13) tx_gain = 80 ## this power seems to work best
14) rx_gain = 40
15) device_name = UHD
16) device_args = auto
## does not work with anything other than ’auto’
For LimeSDR-USB or LimeSDR-Mini changes to be
made in default enb.conf file:
1) sudo nano /root/.config/srsran/enb.conf
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Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
2) [enb]
3) mcc = <yourMCC>
4) mnc = <yourMNC>
5) mme_addr = <ipaddr>
## IP for external MME, eg.
6) gtp_bind_addr = <ipaddr> local interface
IP for external S1-U, eg.
7) s1c_bind_addr = <ipaddr> local interface
IP for external S1-MME, eg.
8) n_prb = 15
9) tm = 1
10) nof_ports = 1
11) [rf]
12) dl_earfcn = 1934
13) tx_gain = 60 ## this power seems to work best
14) rx_gain = 40
15) device_name = soapy
16) device_args = auto
## does not work with anything other than ’auto’
And the changes to be made in the default configs of
srsRAN core network:
1) sudo nano /root/.config/srsran/epc.conf
2) [[mme]]
3) mcc = <yourMCC>
4) mnc = <yourMNC>
5) mme_bind_addr = ## or local interface
IP for external S1-MME, eg.
1) sudo nano /root/.config/srsran/user_db.csv
2) * add details of your SIM cards
To keep in mind, when running the srsRAN core network
(srsepc) on an external device like another Pi, the user must
open incoming firewall ports to allow the S1-MME and S1-
U connections from srsenb.
S1-MME = sctp, port 36412 || S1-U = udp, port 2152
If using iptables,
1) sudo iptables -A INPUT -p sctp -m sctp - -dport
36412 -j ACCEPT
2) sudo iptables -A INPUT -p udp -m udp - -dport 2152
Finally, when running the Pi4 eNodeB, the user must
launch the software in separate ssh windows or using a
screen and for SDR an external power source must be used.
When running the srsenb for the first time the user has to
wait a few minutes for it to finish [38].
Now, Launch Pi4 eNodeB as:
1) sudo srsenb /root/.config/srsran/enb.conf
For LimeSDRs, between runs when using the LimeSDR-
USB, the user sometimes needs to physically unplug and
reconnect the SDR to power cycle it. Now, the user can
launch the core network (on a separate device, or the Pi4
eNodeB when using USRP B210) as:
1) sudo srsepc /root/.config/srsran/epc.conf
2) sudo /usr/local/bin/ eth0
From, Fig. 28, we can see the resource utilization when
running the software on the Pi 4B /4GB RAM with x2 UEs
attached to the USRP B210 cell. It is important to note
here that Fig. 28 shows the results of the srsRAN software
running for more than 18 hours without any problems, only
half of the RAM is used, and the CPU cores are sitting at
around 25% [38].
In these three ways, the users can build and run inex-
pensive 4G/5G networks virtually and practically through
using srsRAN and the required hardware. There are many
PC and SDR combinations possible to be able to run the
srsRAN, but for those users, who want to best explore the
functionalities of srsRAN, we list three hardware packages
that can help build the required setup to run srsRAN and
provide information to the users of what they can buy. These
setups are grouped according to price ranging from 400$ to
16000$ [32].
When choosing for the computing hardware, the users can
consider the following criteria given in Table 4:
S. No. Compute Criteria
1Overall cost of the machine.
2Number of cores effect the overall performance.
3CPUs running at lower frequencies may struggle under heavy
computational load.
4Greater cache memory size greater the speed of certain
5Number of threads increase the processor’s execution speed.
This criterion doesn’t include all the features, because
depending upon the use-case, the choice of features may
vary and include features like processor cinebench score,
cooling ability, and portability. For SDR criteria, just the
like commute criteria, there are many features to look for
but depending upon the use-case, the features may vary. In
Table 5, the SDR criteria is given:
S. No. SDR Criteria
1Cost per unit of the SDR.
2The drivers used by SDR (Soapy, UHD, etc).
3The frequency range(s) the SDR operates in.
4Maximum possible bandwidth available.
5Clock rate of the SDR.
6How many channels the SDR support (SISO, MIMO,
6The specifications of the onboard FPGA.
Based on the Tables 4 and 5, the users can decide
on the compute and SDR criteria then compare which
hardware options are more favorable to them. By following
the hardware combinations given below they can directly
use them with srsRAN to build a 4G/5G network, again it
depends upon the use case and the resources available to
the user. Each combination contains an SDR and computer
26 VOLUME 2, 2021
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
hardware section, to run a full end-to-end system at least
two SDRs and two compute platforms are required [32].
TABLE 6. Combination 1
SDR Computer Hardware
Lime SDR mini Raspberry Pi 4
Price: $200 Price: $72
SoapySDR # Cores: 4
Range: 10 Mhz
– 3.5 GHz
Frequency: 1.5 Ghz
RF Bandwidth:
30.72 Mhz Cache Size: 1 MiB
Clock: 30.72
MHz onboard
# Threads: 4
# Channels: 1x1 .
FPGA: Intel Al-
tera MAX 10
Combination 1 shown in Table 6, will enable users to
set up a cheap end-to-end wireless network and just under
650$. To run the full end-to-end system, the user will need
two LimeSDR minis and three Raspberry Pi4 units, each RF
frontend for eNB and UE and a Pi4 for EPC, eNB, and UE.
This combination is highly ideal for demos and testing of
networks and applications due to small size and portability
[32]. Moving to the second combination shown in Table 7:
TABLE 7. Combination 2
SDR Computer Hardware
BladeRF micro
2.0 xA4 HP Omen 15 Intel i5-10300H
Price: $550 Price: $1,049.99
SoapySDR # Cores: 4
Range: 47 Mhz
– 6 GHz
Frequency: 2.4 – 4.5 Ghz
RF Bandwidth:
56 Mhz Cache Size: 8 MiB
Clock: 38.4
MHz onboard
# Threads: 8
# Channels: 2x2 .
FPGA: Altera
Cyclone V (49
The BladeRF micro 2.0 xA4 offers users a 2X2 MIMO
configuration, higher bandwidth, a larger frequency range,
and a larger FPGA. On the other hand, HP Omen 15 is
a gaming notebook, built for high performance and high
CPU load for a certain time length. The intel i5 10300H is
the main focus here, having scored highly in the cinebench
r20 benchmarking test, therefore this combination is an
upgrade over the previous combination 1 in terms of price
and performance [32].
The combination shown in Table 8 by far offers the most
potential in terms of RF frontends and PC performance.
The Ettus x310 offers users the largest frequency range,
TABLE 8. Combination 3
SDR Computer Hardware
Ettus x310 Dell Precision 3340 Workstation
Intel i7-10700
Price: $7,013.00 Price: $1349.00
Driver: UHD # Cores: 8
Range: DC
- 6GHz (w/
Daughter Cards)
Frequency: 2.9 - 4.8 GHz
RF Bandwidth:
160 MHz (w/
Daughter Cards)
Cache Size: 16 MiB
Configurable # Threads: 16
# Channels: 2x2 .
from DC to 6 GHz with the use of the appropriate daughter
cards, a potential bandwidth of 160 MHz (requires the
correct daughter cards), a multi-cell configuration, and a
powerful Kintex7 FPGA. The 3340 workstation offers an
intel i7-10700 which is capable of high-intensity compu-
tations without a significant drop-off in performance over
sustained periods [32]. The workstation offers 10 Gbps
ethernet connection, which allows users full utilization of
the 10 Gbps connection available on the x310. The full end-
to-end system would cost around $16724.
In this manuscript, we presented a comprehensive tutorial on
how to build a 5G network using open source software and
off-the-shelf hardware. The main purpose of this paper is to
inform and guide individuals on how to build a 5G network,
in a very simple, easy, and straightforward way. We have
compiled this tutorial in such a way, that it clearly explains
the evolution of the wireless systems from closed RAN to
open RAN and why the closed RAN approach is unfruitful.
We further discussed the legacy RANs and the companies
related to them. Then we described in detail the numerous
approaches available to build a 5G network due to the
open RAN concept that includes RAN, CORE, and EDGE
frameworks. These frameworks also highlight the main ideas
and technologies implemented in 5G networks. Then we
demonstrated each technology, software, and application
used in building and simulating the 5G network. There
are three procedures that we illustrated in the paper, that
includes virtually building an end-to-end LTE network on a
single computer by using ZMQ Virtual Radios, a 5G NSA
End-to-End Network using ZMQ, and a 4G LTE Network
using srsRAN on RaspberryPi 4 as a PC and limeSDR
USRP. We have clearly explained these three methods in
the paper with the required assumptions. In the end, we
concluded the paper with recommendations of appropriate
hardware and SDR combinations that will result in the
best experience when building a 5G network according to
relevant usage and resources.
VOLUME 2, 2021 27
Building and Deploying Secure 5G Networks
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SADIQ IQBAL received the B.E. Degree in
Electrical Engineering from QUEST University
Nawabshah, Pakistan in 2016. He is presently
pursuing the Master (M.Sc.) degree in Electrical
and Computer Engineering from Antalya Bilim
University, Antalya, Turkey.
His research interests include physical layer
technology, 5G communication networks, Artifi-
cial Intelligence, Deep Learning, and IoT and its
JEHAD M. HAMAMREH is the Founder and
Director of WISLAB, and A. Professor with the
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Depart-
ment, Antalya Bilim University. He received his
Ph.D. degree in telecommunication engineering
and cyber systems from Istanbul Medipol Univer-
sity, Turkey, in 2018. Previously, he worked as a
Researcher at the Department of Electrical and
Computer Engineering at Texas AM University.
He is the inventor of more than 20+ Patents and
an author of more than 75+ peer-reviewed scientific papers along with
several book chapters. His innovative patented works won the gold, silver,
and bronze medals by numerous international invention contests and fairs.
His current research interests include wireless physical and MAC layers
security, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing and multiple-input
multiple-output systems, advanced waveforms design, multidimensional
modulation techniques, and orthogonal/non-orthogonal multiple access
schemes for future wireless systems. He is a serial referee for various scien-
tific journals as well as a TPC member for several international conferences.
He is an Editor at Researcherstore, RS-OJICT journal, and Frontiers in
Communications and Networks. Email: OR
28 VOLUME 2, 2021
Full-text available
The number of connected devices and the amount of data traffic exchanged through mobile networks is expected to double in the near future. Long Term Evolution (LTE) and fifth generation (5G) technologies are evolving to support the increased volume, variety and velocity of data and new interfaces the Internet of Things demands. 5G goes beyond increasing data throughput, providing broader coverage and reliable ultra-low latency channels to support challenging future applications. However, this comes with a cost. As such, the architectural design of radio access network requires due consideration. This chapter explains why the radio access network is critical to 5G success and how novel trends on edge computing, network slicing and network virtualisation perform a critical role in optimising resources on emerging 5G infrastructures.
CORD is a new design of a telco central office that replaces closed and proprietary hardware with software running on commodity servers, switches, and access devices. It allows network operators to benefit from both the economies of scale (infrastructure constructed from a few commodity building blocks) and agility (the ability to rapidly deploy and elastically scale services) that commodity cloud providers enjoy today. This article introduces the CORD architecture and describes an open reference implementation of CORD that is available for evaluation.
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