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A Two-stage Privacy Preservation and Secure Peer-to-Peer Energy Trading Model using Blockchain and Cloud based Aggregator - Implementation of Published Article in IEEE Access

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Abstract

Local energy trading has attracted the attention of many researchers as a result of its promising benefits. These benefits include minimizing gas emission, reducing power shortage , and establishing a competitive energy market. However, the energy trading between several prosumers causes trust, security, and privacy challenges in energy systems. On the other hand, a single point of failure and an increase in overall system cost occur when the energy system is managed using a centralized model. Therefore, to tackle the mentioned issues, this work proposes a two-layered secure Peer-to-Peer (P2P) energy trading model based on blockchain. The proposed model has two layers: authentication, and secure energy trading. In the authentication layer, in order to protect the proposed model from impersonation attacks, a mutual authentication process is implemented. In the energy trading layer, a new consensus mechanism is proposed to minimize the number of malicious validators. Afterwards, an incentive-punishment algorithm is introduced to motivate energy prosumers to contribute more energy in the model. Next, a dynamic contract theory based on supply-demand ratio pricing scheme is proposed. The purpose of the proposed pricing scheme is to solve the issues associated with the existing pricing schemes. It also preserves the privacy of the actual energy consumption behavior of the trading participants. Furthermore, a consensus mechanism validators' selection model is proposed. The aim of the proposed work is to have an efficient and secure P2P energy trading platform. Simulations are executed to show the performance of the proposed model in terms of communication and computational costs, reputation, energy contributed, reward, and prices. The results for the authentication process show 7.45 ms computational cost and 1152 bits communication cost, which are better than the existing works. In the consensus process, 66.67% of the validators are selected to conduct the consensus for every transaction. This selection efficiently improves the consensus process and minimizes the number of malicious validators. In the proposed model, the increase in reward is observed for increased energy contribution, decreased non-malicious transactions and adjustment of energy consumption. The proposed model shows a satisfactory performance in terms of trust, security, and privacy.

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Blockchain is increasingly being used to provide a distributed, secure, trusted, and private framework for energy trading in smart grids. However, existing solutions suffer from a lack of privacy, processing and packet overheads, and reliance on trusted third party (TTP) to secure the trade. To address these challenges, we propose a secure private blockchain (SPB) framework. SPB enables energy producers and consumers to directly negotiate the energy price. To reduce the associated overheads, we propose a routing method which routes packets based on the destination public key (PK). SPB eliminates the reliance on TTP to ensure both energy producer and consumer commit to their obligations by introducing atomic meta-transactions. The latter consists of two transactions: first the consumer generates a CTP transaction, committing to pay the energy price to the producer. On receipt of the energy, the smart meter of the consumer generates an energy receipt confirmation (ERC) which triggers a smart contract to transfer the committed price in CTP to the energy producer. To verify that the ERC is generated by a genuine smart meter, SPB supports authentication of anonymous smart meters to prevent malicious nodes from linking ERC transactions and thus enhance the user privacy. Qualitative security analysis shows the resilience of SPB against a range of attacks. Implementation results demonstrate that SPB reduces monetary cost and delay compared to existing solutions.
Article
Currently, blockchain technology has been widely used due to its support of transaction trust and security in next generation society. Using Internet of Things (IoT) to mine makes blockchain more ubiquitous and decentralized, which has become a main development trend of blockchain. However, the limited resources of existing IoT cannot satisfy the high requirements of on-demand energy consumption in the mining process through a decentralized way. To address this, we propose a decentralized on-demand energy supply approach based on microgrids to provide decentralized on-demand energy for mining in IoT devices. First, energy supply architecture is proposed to satisfy different energy demands of miners in response to different consensus protocols. Then, we formulate the energy allocation as a Stackelberg game and adapt backward induction to achieve an optimal profit strategy for both microgrids and miners in IoT. The simulation results show the fairness and incentive of the proposed approach.
Article
By leveraging the charging and discharging capabilities of Internet of electric vehicles (IoEV), demand response (DR) can be implemented in smart cities to enable intelligent energy scheduling and trading. However, IoEV-based DR confronts many challenges, such as a lack of incentive mechanism, privacy leakage, and security threats. This motivates us to develop a distributed, privacy-preserved, and incentive-compatible DR mechanism for IoEV. Specifically, we propose a consortium blockchain-enabled secure energy trading framework for electric vehicles (EVs) with moderate cost. To incentivize more EVs to participate in DR, a contract theory-based incentive mechanism is proposed, in which various contract items are tailored for the unique characteristics of EV types. The contract optimization problem falls into the category of difference of convex programing, and is solved by using the iterative convex–concave procedure algorithm. Furthermore, we consider the scenario where the statistical knowledge of the EV type is unknown. In such a case, we demonstrate how to derive the probability distribution of the EV type by exploring computational intelligence-based state of charge estimation techniques, e.g., Gaussian process regression. Finally, the security and efficiency performance of the proposed scheme is analyzed and validated.
Article
Smart grid has emerged as a successful application of cyber-physical systems in the energy sector. Among numerous key technologies of the smart grid, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) provides a promising solution to reduce the level of demand-supply mismatch by leveraging the bidirectional energy-trading capabilities of electric vehicles. In this paper, we propose a secure and efficient V2G energy trading framework by exploring blockchain, contract theory, and edge computing. First, we develop a consortium blockchain-based secure energy trading mechanism for V2G. Then, we consider the information asymmetry scenario, and propose an efficient incentive mechanism based on contract theory. The social welfare optimization problem falls into the category of difference of convex programming and is solved by using the iterative convex-concave procedure algorithm. Next, edge computing has been incorporated to improve the successful probability of block creation. The computational resource allocation problem is modeled as a two-stage: 1) Stackelberg leader-follower game and 2) the optimal strategies are obtained by using the backward induction approach. Finally, the performance of the proposed framework is validated via numerical results and theoretical analysis.
Article
Electric vehicles (EVs) have transformed the smart transportation sector by providing diverse energy management solutions to the smart grid. Energy trading among EVs and charging stations (CS) in a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) environment is one of the popular verticals in smart grid. However, processing the energy trading decisions at remote control centers lead to an increase in delay and network overhead. Apart from these issues, the security concerns while trading the energy in such an environment remain persistent. Therefore , to handle the aforementioned issues, this paper presents SURVIVOR: A Blockchain based Edge-as-a-Service Framework for Secure Energy Trading in software defined networking (SDN)-enabled V2G Environment. In the proposed framework, the energy trading decisions are processed closer to the location of EVs through edge nodes. Moreover, for securing the energy trading transactions, blockchain is used wherein the approver nodes are selected amongst all the present nodes on the basis of a utility function and are made responsible for validating the transactions. Once such nodes are selected , a consensus-based blockchain mechanism for secure energy trading in SDN-enabled V2G environment is presented. In this mechanism, edge nodes are responsible for generating proof-of-work puzzles. The proof-of-work is ⇤ Corresponding Author a unique hash value which is computed for each EV and the transactions for which the approver nodes compute the same proof-of-work for each EV are added in the blockchain. The complete scheme is backed by the SDN architecture to reduce the overall latency and increase the throughput of the smart transportation network. The results obtained prove that the proposed scheme is e↵ective for trading the energy between EVs and CS while securing the underlying trading transactions using blockchain. Moreover, the communication and computation cost of the proposed scheme comes out to be small which proves that it can be used in real-world applications. The latency in the complete transportation sector is also greatly reduced by using the SDN-architecture.
Article
Implementing blockchain techniques has enabled secure smart trading in many realms, e.g. neighboring energy trading. However, trading information recorded on the blockchain also brings privacy concerns. Attackers can utilize data mining algorithms to obtain users' privacy, specially, when the user group is located in nearby geographic positions. In this paper, we present a consortium blockchain-oriented approach to solve the problem of privacy leakage without restricting trading functions. The proposed approach mainly addresses energy trading users' privacy in smart grid and screens the distribution of energy sale of sellers deriving from the fact that various energy trading volumes can be mined to detect its relationships with other information, such as physical location and energy usage. Experiment evaluations have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Article
One particular trend observed in healthcare is the progressive shift of data and services to the cloud, partly due to convenience (e.g. availability of complete patient medical history in real-time) and savings (e.g. economics of healthcare data management). There are, however, limitations to using conventional cryptographic primitives and access control models to address security and privacy concerns in an increasingly cloud-based environment. In this paper, we study the potential to use the Blockchain technology to protect healthcare data hosted within the cloud. We also describe the practical challenges of such a proposition and further research that is required.
Article
Generation from distributed renewable energy sources is constantly increasing. Due to its volatility, the integration of this non-controllable generation poses severe challenges to the current energy system. Thus, ensuring a reliable balance of energy generation and consumption becomes increasingly demanding. In our approach to tackle these challenges, we suggest that consumers and prosumers can trade self-produced energy in a peer-to-peer fashion on microgrid energy markets. Thus, consumers and prosumers can keep profits from energy trading within their community. This provides incentives for investments in renewable generation plants and for locally balancing supply and demand. Hence, both financial as well as socio-economic incentives for the integration and expansion of locally produced renewable energy are provided. The efficient operation of these microgrid energy markets requires innovative information systems for integrating the market participants in a user-friendly and comprehensive way. To this end, we present the concept of a blockchain-based microgrid energy market without the need for central intermediaries. We derive seven market components as a framework for building efficient microgrid energy markets. Then, we evaluate the Brooklyn Microgrid project as a case study of such a market according to the required components. We show that the Brooklyn Microgrid fully satisfies three and partially fulfills an additional three of the seven components. Furthermore, the case study demonstrates that blockchains are an eligible technology to operate decentralized microgrid energy markets. However, current regulation does not allow to run local peer-to-peer energy markets in most countries and, hence, the seventh component cannot be satisfied yet.
Article
We propose a localized Peer-to-Peer (P2P) electricity trading model for locally buying and selling electricity among Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) in smart grids. Unlike traditional schemes, that transport electricity over long distances and through complex electricity transportation meshes, our proposed model achieves demand response by providing incentives to discharging PHEVs to balance local electricity demand out of their own self-interests. However, since transaction security and privacy protection issues present serious challenges, we explore a promising consortium blockchain technology to improve transaction security without reliance on a trusted third party. A localized P2P Electricity Trading system with COnsortium blockchaiN (PETCON) method is proposed to illustrate detailed operations of localized P2P electricity trading. Moreover, the electricity pricing and the amount of traded electricity among PHEVs are solved by an iterative double auction mechanism to maximize social welfare in this electricity trading. Security analysis shows that our proposed PETCON improves transaction security and privacy protection. Numerical results based on a real map of Texas indicate that the double auction mechanism can achieve social welfare maximization while protecting privacy of the PHEVs.
Article
With the rapid development of EVs and their penetration in our modern society, the energy management issues in the smart grid integrated with EVs are attracting more and more research interest. Most of the existing literature only involves two-sided interactions between the EVs and the power grid or the smart home/buildings in the DSM investigation. In fact, however, similar to EVs, when equipped with distributed renewable energy sources and electricity storage facilities, SCs can also be regarded as either energy consumers or energy providers with their individual rationality. This can lead to increased?exibility of the energy management and power trading in the power system involving both EVs and SCs. In this article, we propose a three-party architecture for the smart grid integrated with EVs, involving complex and?exible interactions among the power grid, EVs, and SCs. Based on the proposed three-party architecture, we introduce two interesting systems, SC-centered and EV-centered systems, and further propose a schedule-upon-request energy management framework to achieve effective and intelligent energy management in the power system involving both EVs and SCs. Feasible optimization methods for energy management problems in this framework are also summarized.
Conference Paper
In this paper we introduce a new decentralized digital currency, called NRGcoin. Prosumers in the smart grid trade locally produced renewable energy using NRGcoins, the value of which is determined on an open currency exchange market. Similar to Bitcoins, this currency offers numerous advantages over fiat currency, but unlike Bitcoins it is generated by injecting energy into the grid, rather than spending energy on computational power. In addition, we propose a novel trading paradigm for buying and selling green energy in the smart grid. Our mechanism achieves demand response by providing incentives to prosumers to balance their production and consumption out of their own self-interest. We study the advantages of our proposed currency over traditional money and environmental instruments, and explore its benefits for all parties in the smart grid.
Improvement research of PBFT consensus algorithm based on credit
  • Yong Wang
  • Zhe Song
  • Tong Cheng
Wang, Yong, Zhe Song, and Tong Cheng. "Improvement research of PBFT consensus algorithm based on credit." In International Conference on Blockchain and Trustworthy Systems, Springer, Singapore (2020): 47-59.
Two certificateless aggregate signatures from bilinear maps
  • Zheng Gong
  • Yu Long
  • Xuan Hong
  • Kefei Chen
Gong, Zheng, Yu Long, Xuan Hong, and Kefei Chen. "Two certificateless aggregate signatures from bilinear maps." In Eighth ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2007), vol. 3, (2007): 188-193.