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Challenges in Kazakh Auxiliary Selection

Authors:

Abstract

This paper proposes an account for the four auxiliaries in Kazakh that express the imperfective aspect. The main factors – the auxiliary, the main verb, their inflections and the aspectual specifications reveal a complicated system, which can be captured with an appropriate monotonic, multiple inheritance type hierarchy using online-type construction with the implementation of Pāṇinian competition. This analysis sheds light to a very different auxiliary system that we find in Indo-European languages.
Challenges in Kazakh Auxiliary
Selection
David Gyorfi
University of Surrey
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on
Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar
Online (Berlin/Seattle)
Stefan Mu
̈ller, Anke Holler (Editors)
2020
Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications
pages 68–87
Keywords: HPSG, Online type construction, Kazakh, auxiliary verbs
Gyorfi, David. 2020. Challenges in Kazakh Auxiliary Selection. In Stefan Mu
̈ller
& Anke Holler (eds.), Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Head-
Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, Online (Berlin/Seattle), 68–87. Stanford, CA:
CSLI Publications. DOI: 10.21248/hpsg.2020.4.
Abstract

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  !"
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1 Factors in interaction – empirical observations
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&'
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              

 (        )
*+,  %-   
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    
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% #          . ,
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69
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   
$
)&-A

)&- )=&>%'B%%C-
5 D  5
*,,6*,+.* *78)- /%/<)#E,#6$E*FFG-
1#0


 *+,    
 *+,   
/%H);-

);-

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






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5
,+..
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*78)-
5
*9:
:9< 1I
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,+.*
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# L+ 1MIN
MN0
1.1 Aspect
L, )%COHB;-1 
   0#  
*+,
1
0)F&>>PB%QO-
B  1          0
)&>>OB;>Q-
B10 ),
&>%&BP&C-
70
B
   
&
              
)=&>%'R/&>>&-


1.2 The auxiliary lexeme
           

)Q- )=&>%'B%;&-
 @  35II34
 A,+.. *78)II-*9:;/<) :9<-
1A0
 J 3 35I5
 ,+.. *78)I-*9:;) :9<-
1/I0
 )
&>%%&>%&-#
*=)&>%'-
#
#
)Q-
       

1.3 The lexical verb lexeme
0

#
    )    
-
 

&#
,)&>%&Q%-
71
9   10
,+.*
,+..


*    )'-       
,+..)H-

) !,+..S *78)3--

F
),&>%&R6%CC%-
)'- JJ  35
 F ,+.* *78)-*9:;) :9<-
1)-0
)H- JJ  35
 F ,+.. *78)-*9:;)#E,:-
1)-0
L 10
 1010

9)O-
)O- 234 5 5
23 6* ,+.. *78)-E /;/<)?*.-
1230
1.4 Inflection of the auxiliary verb
*+,0
#*+,

*+,0
J
B

  *     *+,         

72
)P-   J2 
F9,  , 
10
  J5 3J 
F9, ,+.. *78)- , ) :9<- 
1MN0
,
    (        
)/%;-
*+,
,+.*;
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L
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E
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F
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,+.*
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534 ✘ ✓
,+..✓ ✓
,+.*3 ✓ ✓
,+..✓ ✓

#
 J  ,+..  
*+,,+..
 +    )%>-   )%>- 
+ 
)%>-  T55   55T
T*,, 6*,+.* *78)-,+..
 1MN0
;F+,+.*
S*78,+..&;F+,+.*S *78L#E#$ )
&>>Q-
73
  J 5
F9, ,+.* *78)-E=FK;/<6*
J 
  /;/<
1/II0
1.5 Inflectional class and aspect
##
#1
 0        

  *=   


L        0     J    
  J0
)   55  5 344  34-
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"#$%Q
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*+,
Q,A
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+() 5 
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  
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)%&-
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23   F9, E /;/<)?*.-
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)
 - #  


)%Q-  23J 55J 5
23 F9, *9:;/<) :9<-
 1230
75
)=&>%'B%CC-
 V 3V5 3
  *9:;/<)L7-
1#0
 ZJ 3V5 3
  *9:;/<)L7IY :9<-
1#0)B1#0-

*+,#

*=
*=
)%'-  J 5  34
  ,+.. *78)-*9:;/<) :9<-
1MN0
 YJ 5  34
  ,+.. *78)-E /;/<)Y :9<-
B1MN0
)%H-  Y T  35
T ,+.. *78)-*9:;/<)Y?*.-
B1/MNT0
  T  35
T ,+.. *78)-E /;/<)?*.-
1/MNT0
1.6 Arguments that AVCs are periphrastic
*+,)-
)  -    #    #      
*+,
L**+,
0
*+,
* 

10WG
10X
    ?         
     
76
WX
 ,      J
          -& #
*+,
      )*  / &>>QR / &>>%R
+&>%%-
/*+,
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
F*+,
L *
/)&>>Q/ &>%'R
).&>%&--B
%-*+,     
     

&-
*+,J
,
,+..      *+,    ,+.. 
*+,    
))%P--
;-F  *+,
,
0*+,

 (    
*+,#
#
78
2 Modelling in HPSG
2.1 Multiple inheritance with Pāṇinian competition

B
*+,
*
      

**+,
        *+,  )      
-
              

)-
*+,
)..
&>%H-#0
0     
*

,9= /)=4&>%>BH;Q-


).[,&>%HR,[.&>%HR=
%CCP-
2.1.1 Assumed type hierarchy
#
*+,
*+,R
)P-)
-*+,
)%&-)%;-
10*+,0
/%'#
 


),%COH-

79
 
)9/&%;-
)%C- ?
#     #
+L9:=)&>-
J
 


)&>- ?+L9:=
*
  )0--
     
0)%CCCB%;>%;;-

 /   


!
  
1

! 
 

& &
11

!
80
#

)&%- ?
2.1.2 Analysis
/)J
-##
 ). .   &>%HR ,  . &>%H-
 !^? /<
* )&&- -


#    
 0),9= /-*/ )-
#ELF_F#6
&'

F*+,J

!
  
 )-
*/ 
A*+,


#!*+,
 ) / %Q-   !!'  !!*  

    #!!'       )%- 
!!*)H-!/
 `"
       ),    .  &>%HB  ;H;HQ-
    ,+..


 0-
81
##

E
*+,

)/ %&-*
*+,M*/ N
)&&- 6%B*
-
1
!
!!* !/
!!'
[
aux
HD|LID 2
COMPS
1,
[
verb
HD
[
LID 2
VFORM cvb
]
SEM|CONT 3
]
INFL|LID
⟨ ⟩
SEM
[
ASP aspect
CONT 3
]
DTRS verb
]
[
auxipfv
INFL|INFL-CL hapl
SEM|ASP ipfv
]
[
auxcvb .a
COMPS
[
VFORM cvb.a
]
SEM|ASP proghab
]
[
LexV comego
INFL|LID žat
COMPS
[
HD|LID comego
]
]
[

,9= /
[
+L9:= 
]
]
82
2.1.3 The tense dimension - Online-type construction
(
10#
           
            )*   .  &>%OR
.,&>%HR%CCCRU%CCQ-
J
0
)&;-

)-
!+L9:=
!(
            
 


)%C-!
      !!'  !/ #!
!*      F !



?
J

         
    

83
)&;- 6&B
3 Conclusions
       
  /%   
J
               
 *+,

/& *+,
 
   
  
 !^A
!!' !!* !/
!


[
finite
INFL|HD|VFORM finite
DTRS
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auxipfv
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INFL|HD|VFORM aor
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INFL|HD|VFORM npst
SEM|ASP hab
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SEM|ASP incr
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84
)%CCQ-#
L
*+,
4 References
*L  9. &>%OW/ 
=/#X &;;HP 2
34*?E<9
7 
*L</&>>QW  
$B*/:.FX  %%%'O
53F/*//
,*B,/F# 
*<6/&>>Q ##!(
46(B?
.9:6.=&>%HW9 
EL,(X %>Q%&Q -
7*8'9-!-()-
:;),/F# 
.9.,&>%HW=,
.F*<X H>C'H4-
-63*?</,
7 
.9  /&>%' W 6#
 X7:'%)>&-B;&OP&
.6=,<<,< 
 * / &>%& W6 1 0B  EX
3&&)&-B&;;O'
,<&>%&W?<*X P&P'%4<!
--64-#:#.EGB
97 
,.%COH#,B,7 
, ( &>%& =#-(9B 9
7 
, .9.&>%H W+=
#.=X7:'&B;%%;OQ
6  6    <  <  ,  &>%C  W:X :
C')Q-BO%%'>
66%CC%W :*/X:!
HOB'QOH%C
UF&>>QW9E
X46:PB%P>C>
85
* %CCQ W  F :X  &;O&O& 
>&&$'??@%
* :a /36&>>QW#
>Q>P/$)?BII(/$-X!
4
U %CCC:A/B,/F# 
 U   6 U %CCQ W 7
9,FX &O>&P'  B
;:+%;/B,/F# 
I/F*
F:(&>>P)=#-9
B97 
=:%CCPW, 6#X 
&>O&%H-7;)
-!2  ( ) -  )
<.<UA:9
=:&>%'C06=#)F
EGB:
=4/&>%>W , F#
.*X7:QH);-BH>%''
/6b&>>& C06$:B- 3@'D&%
=4BF$
/ * &>>% W c =  =X
4(CCB&OC;%;
/**F]&>%;W,,X %&;'%
3-(6 .=,
<<,9B97 
/*  <  &>%' W  #X
%CO&;>4<--6=.
9B97 
* = &>%% W9 )= L : 
/ ,-B * E   # + =
X ;'PP% 3=A!
===9?
9B97 
*=&>%&W:=9*
,/#+ XB-('B%P;&>O
*&>>OW*=X &P>;;;:
--&&+&)-
    / ,B , 7

+E&>%%WEcL *=
  F  :X Q%O;' 3#!
86
=;A3
==U,/=<=9?9B9
7 
87
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