The modern goal of English language teaching should be how to equip learners with the knowledge and critical awareness of how globalization defines and positions their use of the language. Consequently, teachers of English as a second language need to adopt methodologies that will envision English language teaching within the context of globalization. This paper sets out to discuss the need to reposition ESL pedagogy for learner autonomy in the context of globalization. The paper contends that exposing learners to Received Pronunciation, and regarding the Received Pronunciation as a universal norm and a desirable target in English instruction means neglecting the realities of second language use and users. It posits that second language users' cultural content and their sense of appropriate use of English should be the key factors to consider in English pedagogy, while encouraging and accepting learners' ideas and initiatives to enable them to achieve autonomy in learning. In line with global practices, the paper advocates for the use of Computer Assisted Language Learning to expose learners maximally to new technologies which will propel them into achieving autonomy.
When faced with hardship, how do we emotionally appraise the situation? Although many factors contribute to our reasoning about hardships, in this article we focus on the role of linguistic metaphor in shaping how we cope. In five experiments, we find that framing a person’s cancer situation as a “battle” encourages people to believe that that person is more likely to feel guilty if they do not recover than framing the same situation as a “journey” does. Conversely, the “journey” frame is more likely to encourage the inference that the person can make peace with their situation than the “battle” frame. We rule out lexical priming as an explanation for this effect and examine the generalizability of these findings to individual differences across participants and to a different type of hardship—namely, an experience with depression. Finally, we examine the language participants produced after encountering one of these metaphors, and we find tendencies to repeat and extend the metaphors encountered. Together, these experiments shed light on the influential role of linguistic metaphor in the way we emotionally appraise hardship situations.
The use of metaphors in political discourse has been constantly researched through the
decades. Primarily, metaphors act as a rhetorical device in political discourse aimed at
characterising political figures, opponents, events and citizens in persuading them towards a specific point of view. This study discovers the various types of conceptual metaphors employed in the tweets of the Malaysian Prime Minister Dato’ Seri Najib Razak (henceforth, Najib) and the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi (henceforth, Modi) throughout their election campaign in their respective countries. The Metaphor Identification Procedure (MIP) as proposed by Pragglejazz Group has been adopted for examining the election tweets in-depth and to indicate possible metaphorical linguistic expressions (MLEs). Furthermore, the cognitive metaphor framework by Lakoff and Johnson has been employed in analysing the emerging conceptual metaphorical themes in the tweets of both the political premiers. Results from the analysis have portrayed fascinating underlying conceptual metaphors and metaphorical linguistic expressions in the tweets of both the political figures. The findings revealed that the use of conceptual metaphors in the political tweets induces specific understanding of how political activities throughout the election are conceptualised and expressed in denoting particular ideological stances.
The present paper attempts to discuss the semantic history of a handful of terms of endearment (aka pet names, sweet talk, affectionate talk, soft words, terms of affection or sweet words) and the role of the cognitive mechanisms in the changes of their meaning. We focus the reader’s attention on a few lexical items which represent such mechanisms as foodsemy (e.g. honey, sugar), which seems to be one of the most prolific ones, plantosemy (pumpkin) or zoosemy (pet). Furthermore, we trace the semantic development of terms which from the beginning of their existence have been employed as pet names (sweetheart), words which are no longer endearments, because they underwent the process of meaning amelioration or pejoration (mopsy, bully) and – last but not least – nouns whose semantic shift is based on the pattern (POSITIVE) EMOTIONS → ENDEARMENTS (joy).