Special Issue “Technologies for Future Distributed Engine
Citation: Przysowa, R. Special Issue
“Technologies for Future Distributed
Engine Control Systems”. Aerospace
2021,8, 379. https://doi.org/
Received: 30 November 2021
Accepted: 1 December 2021
Published: 6 December 2021
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Instytut Techniczny Wojsk Lotniczych, ul. Ksiecia Boleslawa 6, 01-494 Warsaw, Poland;
Current trends in aviation greatly expand the use of highly integrated, increasingly
autonomous air vehicles, with distributed engine control systems (DECS). Such systems
allow for optimizing engine performance by enhancing propulsion control architecture.
The weight of wiring and need for cooling are signiﬁcantly reduced in the engine controlled
by a DECS when compared to the traditional centralized FADEC. Each element of DECS,
such as a sensor, actuator or controller, individually connects to the network and has
This Special Issue includes seven selected papers presented during AVT-357 Research
Workshop on Technologies for future distributed engine control systems (DECS), held
online, 11–13 May 2021 [
]. The event was sponsored by NATO Science and Technology
Organization. The programme covered advanced hardware and software technologies
grouped into the following sessions: Distributed Architectures, Control Systems, Chips
and software, Smart Sensors and Diagnostic and Prognostic Systems. Compelling keynotes
and papers were presented by speakers from universities, government research centres
and industry from nine nations.
The key problems discussed during the meeting included:
Reliability of engine control systems in the face of multi-core processing and the
perceived perfection of consumer electronics;
Balance between innovation and unforgiving demands for safe and rugged operational
availability for military applications;
• Opportunities and limitations of AI-based control and prognostics;
• Standardization and certiﬁcation of new DECS technologies.
This issue of Aerospace presents recent advances in gas-turbine engine control systems.
The articles introduce novel engine control approaches, robust sensing solutions, high-
temperature electronics and open architectures that can be applied in on-board systems.
Their implementation will contribute to ensuring the required engine performance and
reducing the overall cost of ownership.
Lytviak et al. [
] studied the self oscillations of the free turbine governor. The control
system was modelled in two conﬁgurations: with the main rotor and with water brakes.
The simulation results are invaluable for effective adjusting the hydromechanical governor.
De Giorgi et al. [
] used two Nonlinear Autoregressive Neural Networks to predict the
speciﬁc fuel consumption of a degraded turboshaft for several transient ﬂight maneuvers.
Rokicki et al. [
] proposed inductive sensor for measuring blade vibration in high pressure
compressors and turbines and used a rotor rig and turbojet to validate it at elevated
C). Flaszynski et al. [
] discussed turbine stator’s potential effect
on ﬂow in a combustor and the clocking effect on temperature distribution in a nozzle
guide vane (NGV). It was shown that the NGV potential effect on ﬂow distribution at the
combustor–turbine interface located at 42.5% of the axial chord is weak. The clocking effect
due to the azimuthal position of guide vanes downstream of the swirlers strongly affects
the temperature and ﬂow conditions in a stator cascade. Villarreal-Valderrama et al. [
studied the possible advantages of an exhaust gas control through a variable exhaust nozzle
Aerospace 2021,8, 379. https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8120379 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/aerospace
Aerospace 2021,8, 379 2 of 2
in a micro turbojet. It was found that the proposed controller improves the expansion
of the exhaust gas to the ambient pressure for the whole operating range of the turbojet,
increasing the thrust by 14%. Popov et al. [
] demonstrated two designs of a more-electric
turbofan in distributed architecture for small and medium-sized unmanned aerial vehicles.
The pumps and guide vane actuators were electrically driven. Control and monitoring
signals were transmitted via a digital bus. The functional and reliability analyses of each
subsystem were presented. Templalexis et al. [
] compared the life consumption rate of the
AE 3007 turbofan powering the surveillance and passenger variant of the Embraer aircraft
(EMB-145 and EMB-135 LR). The rainﬂow method was used to determine LCF cycles,
whereas the Larson - Miller parameter method was used to determine the consumed life
due to creep of HPT blades. It was found that the engine in the EMB-145 military variant is
much more loaded and has to be closely monitored.
I wish to thank Ms. Monika Vavrikova from AVT Executive Ofﬁce and Dr. William
D.E. Allan, the AVT-357 technical evaluator for their involvement and hard work with
the workshop papers. With great pleasure, I would like to thank and congratulate the
authors of accepted manuscripts who successfully expanded and revised their workshop
papers to be published in this peer-reviewed Special Issue. Furthermore, the invited
reviewers deserve praise and appreciation for their insightful critique and suggestions,
which contributed directly to improving the technical content of the journal articles.
Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. Peter Liu and the editorial team of
Aerospace for offering a possibility to publish a number of workshop papers and for their
continuous support in preparing this Special Issue. I would also like to thank Prof Hany
Moustapha, the AVT-357 co-chair, for his valuable support and advice.
Conﬂicts of Interest: The author declares no conﬂict of interest.
Przysowa, R.; Moustapha, H. (Eds.) Technologies for Future Distributed Engine Control Systems (DECS). STO-MP-AVT-357; NATO
STO CSO: Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, 2021.
Lytviak, O.; Loginov, V.; Komar, S.; Martseniuk, Y. Self-Oscillations of the Free Turbine Speed in Testing Turboshaft Engine with
Hydraulic Dynamometer. Aerospace 2021,8, 114. [CrossRef]
De Giorgi, M.G.; Strafella, L.; Ficarella, A. Neural Nonlinear Autoregressive Model with Exogenous Input (Narx) for Turboshaft
Aeroengine Fuel Control Unit Model. Aerospace 2021,8, 206. [CrossRef]
Rokicki, E.; Przysowa, R.; Kotkowski, J.; Majewski, P. High Temperature Magnetic Sensors for the Hot Section of Aeroengines.
Aerospace 2021,8, 261. [CrossRef]
Flaszynski, P.; Piotrowicz, M.; Bacci, T. Clocking and Potential Effects in Combustor–Turbine Stator Interactions. Aerospace
8, 285. [CrossRef]
Villarreal-Valderrama, F.; Zambrano-Robledo, P.; Hernandez-Alcantara, D.; Amezquita-Brooks, L. Turbojet Thrust Augmentation
through a Variable Exhaust Nozzle with Active Disturbance Rejection Control. Aerospace 2021,8, 293. [CrossRef]
Popov, V.; Yepifanov, S.; Kononykhyn, Y.; Tsaglov, A. Architecture of Distributed Control System for Gearbox-Free More Electric
Turbofan Engine. Aerospace 2021,8, 316. [CrossRef]
Templalexis, I.; Lionis, I.; Christou, N. Comparative Study of a Powerplant Life Consumption Rate When Installed in Two
Different Aircraft Variants. Aerospace 2021,8, 327. [CrossRef]