Virtual professional development project on secondary teachers’ awareness of race, language, and culture

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This report presents how a National Professional Development grant project team at a Midwestern university prepared and delivered the first phase of virtual professional development (PD) for preservice teachers and clinical faculty in August 2021. The online PD focused on raising teacher awareness of raciolinguistics ideologies (Flores, 2019; Flores & Rosa, 2015: Rosa, 2016), translanguaging (García, 2009, 2011), immigration experiences of The Book of Unknown Americans (Henríquez, 2014), La Frontera (Mills et al., 2018), and introduced content-enhanced language objectives (CELO). Data provided by the College of Education and current course programming indicated that there was a gap in the preparation of secondary preservice teachers (SPTs) when teaching content lessons to emergent bilingual learners (EBLs) compared to the national norms. Thus, the three researchers prepared and implemented Grand Seminar 1 as a way to explore their knowledge of EBL demography and enrich their awareness of EBLs’ race, language, and culture.

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... This fictional account of immigrant stories brings to life such aspects as holistic identities and struggles of Hispanic immigrants as they enter the United States for a myriad of reasons. We introduced this book and led dialogues using collaborative iceberg activities (Weaver, 1986), introducing and crafting content-enhanced language objectives (CELOs) (King et al., 2021), and introducing translanguaging (García, 2009(García, , 2011 lesson activities and assessments. The purpose of the seminars was to help PSTs develop equity-and asset-based translanguaging mindsets, or stances, and practices to support EBLs. ...
... While the city in which this Midwestern University is located and the local schools where PSTs engage in practicum courses are diverse, the majority of PSTs and their course instructors are white and monolingual. Analysis of data from the first Grand Seminar indicated that the PSTs utilized abstract, at times deficit-oriented, discourse when talking about EBLs (King et al., 2021), including diverse, all students, all learners, and/or the student population, without discussing any specific EBLs they had encountered. Survey data on the Teacher Beliefs and Mindsets Survey (TBMS) as part of the CIS (Common Indicator System) (Deans for Impact, 2018) that the PSTs took in 2019 confirmed their lack of understanding of EBLs and relevant pedagogical strategies, particularly secondary PSTs (i.e., Newman et al., 2010). ...
... Then, we led PSTs to notice racial, cultural, and linguistic-seen and In the afternoon, we shifted to pedagogical applications of translanguaging with CELOs (content-enhanced language objectives) for content language teaching. CELOs consist of 1) four language modalities; 2) vocabulary in English and EBLs' home language; 3) measurable and achievable language functions; and 4) translingual and transmodal language learning strategies and supports (King et al., 2021; see also Gottlieb, 2021). After viewing a model lesson video and discussing the components of CELOs, each group was first asked to evaluate and revise sample CELOS to meet the four parameters during a breakout group session. ...
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Understanding and affirming the assets of emerging bilingual learners (EBLs) and resources are often not part of preservice teacher (PST) preparation, particularly for preservice secondary teachers (Newman et al., 2010). The authors of this article designed two Grand Seminars to support PSTs to begin to develop a translanguaging mindset and to help them to apply what they have acquired to content language teaching through reading and reflection on The Book of Unknown Americans. The purpose of the seminars was to prepare PSTs with equity-and asset-based mindsets and practices to support EBLs, such as translanguaging. This study focuses on how the PSTs began to take up translanguaging as a mindset, or stance, yet required more time and development to engage in translanguaging as a pedagogy. One research question guided the design, presentation, and analysis of the data: In what ways do PSTs manifest a translanguaging stance? Implications for TESOL and all educators are provided to support PST understanding of EBL demography at their practicum placements and its connection to pedagogy.
... Based on that foundation, all pedagogical aspects of learning, including materials embedded in the textbooks, tend to design in a cultural context either as a piece of textual information or the serials instruction of learning activities (cf. Byram & Feng, 2004;Byrnes, 2008;Gilmore, 2007;King et al., 2021;Melin, 2010;Risager, 2011;Tomlinson, 2012). Naming this essential idea of the pedagogical circumstance aimed at promoting the cultural aspect of the targeted language, one can explicitly mention it as cross-cultural competence (henceforth CCC). ...
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This paper discusses the integration of cross-cultural competencies in the ISOL teaching programme based on the materials used during learning. ISOL is an Indonesian language learning programme for foreign speakers that often establishes materials on cultural and socio-humanistic aspects of Indonesian culture. The paper data were in the forms of discourse construed in the textbooks as learning materials. The data sources were three textbooks from three well-established ISOL learning institutions in Indonesia. Based on the qualitative content analysis, it can be stated that the incorporation of cross-cultural competence in ISOL was realized not only through the integration of competence in learning materials but also through the aspects of learning preparation as well-designed in the syllabus and teaching goals. In addition, cross-culture competence was also manifested in grammar teaching and skills mentoring activities. There was evidence regarding the evaluation aspect, namely the concept of competence already used as essential guidance in the final project. Moreover, I also extended the discussion of the results concerning the corpus-based approach to determine the way to collect and manage materials that contained cultural value as a part of the programme.
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This article reports the findings of an action research study on a professional development program and its impact on the classroom performance of in-service English teachers who worked at a language institute of a Colombian state university. Questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, class observations, and a researcher’s journal were used as data collection instruments. Findings suggest that these in-service teachers improved their classroom performance as their teaching became more communicative, organized, attentive to students’ needs, and principled. In addition, theory, practice, reflection, and the role of the tutor combined effectively to help the in-service teachers improve classroom performance. It was concluded that these programs must be based on teachers’ philosophies and needs and effectively articulate theory, practice, experience, and reflection.
Teachers face multifaceted challenges regarding access to quality professional development. Although technology is increasingly utilized to address this concern, access alone does not ensure effective OTPD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine teachers' perceptions of the design and implementation of a job-embedded OTPD experience. Supported by adult learning theory and social constructivism, this qualitative multi-case study utilized within-case and cross-case analysis to examine results. These findings, presented through teachers’ voices, included explicit and empirical evidence of six OTPD design and implementation features that address multiple gaps in the extant literature and contribute to an OTPD framework.
This article examines the racialized relationship between ideologies of language standardization and what I term “languagelessness.” Whereas ideologies of language standardization stigmatize particular linguistic practices understood to deviate from prescriptive norms, ideologies of languagelessness call into question linguistic competence–and, by extension, legitimate personhood–altogether. Throughout the article I show how these ideologies interact with one another, and how assessments of particular individuals' language use often invoke broader ideas about the (in)competence and (il)legitimacy of entire racialized groups. I focus specifically on dimensions of the racialized relationship between ideologies of language standardization and languagelessness in contemporary framings of U.S. Latinas/os and their linguistic practices. I draw on a range of evidence, including ethnographic data collected within a predominantly Latina/o U.S. high school, institutional policies, and scholarly conceptions of language. When analyzed collectively, these sources highlight the racialized ways that ideologies of language standardization and languagelessness become linked in theory, policy, and everyday interactions. In my examination of these data through the lens of racialization, I seek to theorize how ideologies of language standardization and languagelessness contribute to the enactment of forms of societal inclusion and exclusion in relation to different sociopolitical contexts, ethnoracial categories, and linguistic practices.
Online professional development for teachers continues to grow in popularity, as schools and educators look for cheaper, more efficient ways to meet current needs and demands. The number of web sites and other virtual learning opportunities makes it difficult for teachers to make sense of the available opportunities, their content, their quality, and how they fit with their personal learning goals. As providers of online professional development, we know well the dizzying array of opportunities available to educators. Online professional development can sometimes be a good choice with many benefits to teachers, but, at other times, traditional in-person professional development may be a better fit. How can educators make sense of this evergrowing landscape of online professional learning?
In this article, Nelson Flores and Jonathan Rosa critique appropriateness-based approaches to language diversity in education. Those who subscribe to these approaches conceptualize standardized linguistic practices as an objective set of linguistic forms that are appropriate for an academic setting. In contrast, Flores and Rosa highlight the raciolinguistic ideologies through which racialized bodies come to be constructed as engaging in appropriately academic linguistic practices. Drawing on theories of language ideologies and racialization, they offer a perspective from which students classified as long-term English learners, heritage language learners, and Standard English learners can be understood to inhabit a shared racial positioning that frames their linguistic practices as deficient regardless of how closely they follow supposed rules of appropriateness. The authors illustrate how appropriatenessbased approaches to language education are implicated in the reproduction of racial normativity by expecting language-minoritized students to model their linguistic practices after the white speaking subject despite the fact that the white listening subject continues to perceive their language use in racialized ways. They conclude with a call for reframing language diversity in education away from a discourse of appropriateness toward one that seeks to denaturalize standardized linguistic categories.
This article addresses a program model developed to address the professional development needs of content teachers who work with English language learners (ELLs) and offers recommendations for teachers, administrators, school districts, state agencies, and institutions of higher education, to address job-embedded professional development needs. The model is based on the authors' daily work with content and ESL teachers and administrators throughout a Midwestern state that has seen recent growth in ELLs, as well as on findings from the literature and a needs assessment survey they conducted with content teachers. Teachers cite inadequacy of current knowledge and services, a need for specialized professional development, and issues of accessibility. Therefore, those who wish to encourage teacher professional development, create resources to improve teachers' ability to deliver academic content to ELLs, or develop training programs, must take into account teachers' needs vis-à-vis their willingness to engage in professional development.
This paper describes the ways in which New York City schools have responded to the multilingualism of its children in the last 40 years, and suggests changes needed in order to accommodate the greater linguistic heterogeneity of the city. In the predominantly Puerto Rican community of the 1960s and 1970s, traditional bilingual education programs were the best way to educate language minority children. But in the twenty-first century, with the demographic shifts and the technological advances of a globalized world, other understandings of bilingualism in education are needed. The paper ends by suggesting ways in which traditional bilingual education may exist alongside other more dynamic approaches of bilingualism in education that consider the city's growing linguistic heterogeneity, thus constructing a future from the past.
Translanguaging into raciolinguistic ideologies: A personal reflection on the legacy of Ofelia García
  • Flores
Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective
  • O García
The book of unknown Americans
  • C Henríquez
La frontera: El viaje con papa / My journey with papa
  • D Mills
  • A Alva
  • C Navarro