To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.
Many researchers and practitioners consider ethnic segregation in neighborhoods, or schools detrimental to migrants’ acculturation in host societies. Empirically, however, segregation is a “mixed bag” and its effects depend crucially on the investigated acculturation domain (e.g., negative for language skills, positive for well-being). As most prior studies have focused on a restricted spectrum of acculturation, a comprehensive assessment within one single study is needed to establish comparability across different acculturation domains. Among over 8,000 immigrant-background students from four countries, we investigated the association of classroom segregation, defined as opportunities for contact with natives and other migrants, with a broad spectrum of acculturation (academic, attitude-related, identity-related, social, health-related, and psychological criteria). Some findings were consistent (e.g., academic acculturation), some were contrary to prior research (e.g., social acculturation). In sum, our results shed light on the “mixed bag” of segregation and contribute to the understanding of a crucial social issue.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.
... By engaging in both, the young immigrant selected in our study showed to be able to respond to the challenges posed by acculturation. A partially converging suggestion come from studies that highlighted the mixed effects of separation, harmful in some social and personal spheres yet positive in others and helping immigrants to cope with discrimination (Boileau et al., 2021). Moreover, what emerged from the life stories collected is a flexible navigation of the different acculturation strategies. ...
While research frequently points to immigrants’ resilience and, to a lesser extent, their empowerment, these processes are rarely examined together, particularly when referring to the experiences of immigrant youth who face specific challenges. To fill this gap, the present study drew on the Transconceptual Model of Empowerment and Resilience (Brodsky & Cattaneo, American Journal of Community Psychology, 52, 333–346, 2013) to explore how resilience and empowerment sustained a group of young immigrants living in Italy during the acculturation processes. Secondary data were collected, and 32 life stories written by young migrants were used as a corpus of data. The authors were aged from 15 to 22 (M = 18.2, SD = 2.04), while countries of origin and the motives behind the migration differed among them. Analysis revealed that while empowerment and resilience supported very differently the acculturation processes, acculturation strategies were not mutually exclusive and changed over time. Immigrant youth reacted to fundamental risk with actions of resilience aimed at resisting or adapting to the many difficulties they faced, engaging in forms of separation and assimilation. Results suggest that even if resilience may be sufficient to survive the challenges of settling in another country, it is unlikely to promote proper integration by itself. In order for young people to be fully integrated it is crucial to dismantle social barriers that foster discrimination while ensuring them real opportunities for empowerment.
We investigated the role of positive and negative contact on outgroup attitudes, collective action tendencies, and psychological well-being among minority (Kurds) and majority (Turks) group members in a conflict area (N = 527), testing ingroup identification, relative deprivation, and perceived discrimination as potential mediators in these associations. Contrary to recent research studies demonstrating the superiority of negative contact effects, positive contact was generally a stronger determinant of the dependent variables, directly and indirectly, in both groups, although negative contact also had some direct and indirect associations with the outcomes. Findings highlight the need to incorporate the role of positive and negative contact to provide a full understanding of the potential benefits/costs of the contact strategy in conflict settings.
Objective: In multi-ethnic classrooms, acceptance and rejection by classmates of one's own versus other ethnicity is influenced by in-group preference, the societal status of the ethnicities, and composition of classrooms. We aimed at (a) confirming these effects for immigrant versus non-immigrant adolescents in newly formed classrooms, (b) longitudinally studying the change of these effects over the next two years, and (c) studying the longitudinal links between immigrants' acculturation and acceptance/rejection by (non)immigrants.
Method: Multi-level, longitudinal study of 1057 13-year-old students nested in 49 classrooms over the first three years of middle school in Greece. Immigrant composition of classrooms varied strongly (average 44%), and immigrants in a classroom were ethnically homogeneous (78% same-ethnic). Students' acceptance and rejection by Greek and immigrant students were sociometrically assessed every year. Multi-level analyses were conducted for questions (a) and (b), and cross-lagged analyses for question (c).
Results: Initially, immigrants were less accepted and more rejected by their classmates than Greeks. However, in classrooms with more than 66% immigrants, they were more accepted and less rejected. Over time, a) immigrants and Greeks did not differ in being rejected, and b) immigrants in classrooms with few immigrants became increasingly more accepted. Finally, immigrants with higher involvement with the Greek culture were more accepted by their Greek classmates.
Conclusion: Immigrants’ peer relations with Greeks were positively affected by increasing opportunity for intergroup contact and involvement with the Greek culture. Interventions supporting acculturation and intergroup contact may prove beneficial for immigrant students.
This study investigated how students’ ethnic pride was related to variation in ethnic composition between classrooms as well as within the same classroom over time. Predictions derived from Optimal Distinctiveness Theory (ODT) were tested among 13 to 14 year old ethnic majority and minority students (N=1,123). Lending support to ODT, a curvilinear relation between the share of same-ethnicity classmates and students’ ethnic pride was found in a cross-sectional analysis, with ethnic pride peaking in classrooms with approximately 50 percent same-ethnicity classmates. In line with ODT, longitudinal analyses revealed ethnic pride decreased for students who moved away from a share of 50 percent same-ethnicity classmates. Less consistent with ODT, however, ethnic pride also decreased for students who moved closer to this point of optimal distinctivenss.
Intergroup contact represents a powerful way to improve intergroup attitudes and to overcome prejudice and discrimination. However, long-term effects of intergroup contact that consider social network dynamics have rarely been studied at a young age. Study 1 validated an optimized social network approach to investigate intergroup contact (N = 6,457; Mage = 14.91 years). Study 2 explored the developmental trajectories of intergroup contact by applying this validated network approach in a cross-sequential design (four-cohort-four-wave; N = 3,815; 13-26 years). Accelerated growth curve models showed that contact predicts the development of attitudes in adolescence, whereas acquired attitudes buffer against decreasing contact in adulthood. Findings highlight the potential of social network analysis and the developmental importance of early intergroup contact experiences.
Increasing immigration and school ethnic segregation have raised concerns about the social integration of minority students. We examined the role of immigrant status in social exclusion and the moderating effect of classroom immigrant density among Swedish 14–15-year olds (n = 4795, 51 % females), extending conventional models of exclusion by studying multiple outcomes: victimization, isolation, and rejection. Students with immigrant backgrounds were rejected more than majority youth and first generation non-European immigrants were more isolated. Immigrants generally experienced more social exclusion in immigrant sparse than immigrant dense classrooms, and victimization increased with higher immigrant density for majority youth. The findings demonstrate that, in addition to victimization, subtle forms of exclusion may impede the social integration of immigrant youth but that time in the host country alleviates some risks for exclusion.
Der Beitrag untersucht auf der Grundlage eines allgemeinen theoretischen Modells mit den Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) empirisch die Mechanismen und sozialen Bedingungen der Entstehung und die Effekte der Mehrfachintegration für die Sozial-Integration von Migranten. Der Hintergrund ist die aktuelle Kontroverse zwischen eher pluralistischen und eher assimilationistischen Ansätzen über die (wechselseitige) Bedeutung ethnischer Ressourcen, wie Sprache, Netzwerke und Identifikation, für die Integration der Migranten, insbesondere auch in Hinsicht auf ihre Arbeitsmarktchancen. Es zeigt sich, dass Mehrfachintegrationen, wie die Bilingualität, ethnisch gemischte Netzwerke oder Hybrid-Identitäten über die „Assimilation“ in der jeweiligen Eigenschaft hinaus keinerlei oder eher sogar negative Einflüsse auf die Integration in das Aufnahmeland, speziell auch auf dem Arbeitsmarkt haben und die ethnische Segmentation immer von Nachteil ist. Mindestens in dieser Hinsicht scheint kaum etwas für die Hypothesen der pluralistischen Positionen zu sprechen.
Immigrants and ethnic minorities tend to have lower life
satisfaction than majority populations. However, we have only a limited understanding of the drivers of these gaps. Using a rich, nationally representative data set with a large sample of ethnic minorities and matched neighbourhood characteristics, we test whether first and second
generation minorities experience lower life satisfaction once accounting for compositional differences and whether, specifically, neighbourhood deprivation impacts their wellbeing. We further investigate whether a larger proportion of own ethnic group in the neighbourhood improves
satisfaction. We find life satisfaction is lower among ethnic minorities, and especially for the second generation, even controlling for individual and area characteristics. Neighbourhood concentration of own ethnic group is, however, associated with higher life satisfaction for Black Africans and UK born Indians and Pakistanis. The effect for Black Africans may stem from selection into areas, but findings for Indians and Pakistanis are robust to sensitivity tests.
Ethnically diverse settings provide opportunities for interethnic friendship but can also increase the preference for same-ethnic friendship. Therefore, same-ethnic friendship preferences, or ethnic homophily, can work at cross-purposes with policy recommendations to diversify ethnic representation in social settings. In order to effectively overcome ethnic segregation, we need to identify those factors within diverse settings that exacerbate the tendency toward ethnic homophily. Using unique data and multiple network analyses, the authors examine 529 adolescent friendship networks in English, German, Dutch, and Swedish schools and find that the ethnic composition of school classes relates differently to immigrant and native homophily. Immigrant homophily disproportionately increases as immigrants see more same-ethnic peers, and friendship density among natives has no effect on this. By contrast, native homophily remains relatively low until natives see dense groups of immigrants. The authors’ results suggest that theories of interethnic competition and contact opportunities apply differently to ethnic majority and minority groups.
This study examines how classroom and neighborhood ethnic diversity affect adolescents' tendency to form same- versus cross-ethnic friendships when they enter middle school. Hypotheses are derived from exposure, conflict, and constrict theory. Hypotheses are tested among 911 middle school students (43 classrooms, nine schools) in the Netherlands. Multilevel (p2) social network analyses show that students were more likely to engage in same-ethnic rather than cross-ethnic friendships. In line with conflict theory, greater classroom and neighborhood diversity were related to stronger tendencies to choose same-ethnic rather than cross-ethnic friends, among both ethnic majority and minority students. Diversity did not hamper reciprocity, as students in more ethnically diverse classrooms were even more likely to reciprocate friendships.
Recent developments in evolutionary psychology suggest that living among others of the same ethnicity
might make individuals happier and further that such an effect of the ethnic composition on life satisfaction
may be stronger among less intelligent individuals. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of
Adolescent Health showed that White Americans had significantly greater life satisfaction than all other
ethnic groups in the US and this was largely due to the fact that they were the majority ethnic group;
minority Americans who lived in counties where they were the numerical majority had just as much life
satisfaction as White Americans did. Further, the association between ethnic composition and life satisfaction
was significantly stronger among less intelligent individuals. The results suggest two important
factors underlying life satisfaction and highlight the utility of integrating happiness research and evolutionary
Although numerous studies have emphasized the role evaluations by others play for people’s self-esteem, the perspective of others and the social diversity of real-life contexts have largely been ignored. In a large-scale longitudinal study, we examined the link between adolescents' self-esteem and their self- and peer-perceived popularity in socially diverse classrooms. First, we tested the competing directions of effects predicted by sociometer theory (i.e., peer-perceived popularity affects self-esteem, mediated by self-perceived popularity) and the self-broadcasting perspective (i.e., self-esteem affects peer-perceived popularity). Second, we examined differential effects of popularity in the own social group ("us") versus others ("them") in terms of immigrants versus host-nationals. We examined 1,057 13-year old students in three annual waves. Cross-lagged analyses revealed that popularity among peers of the ingroup but not among peers of the outgroup prospectively predicted self-esteem, which was mediated by self-perceived popularity. Self-esteem in turn prospectively predicted self- but not peer-perceived popularity. In sum, the findings provide support for sociometer theory and a conscious sociometer mechanism but no support for the self-broadcasting perspective. The findings further demonstrate that the sociometer was more responsive to popularity in immigrant status in- than out-groups. In conclusion, the findings underscore the need to consider the perspective of others and their social group memberships to better understand the complexities of the link between self-esteem and popularity.
While existing evidence strongly suggests that immigrant students underperform relative to their native counterparts on measures of mathematics, science, and reading, country-level analyses assessing the homogeneity of the immigrant achievement gap across different factors have not been systematically conducted. Beyond finding a statistically significant average achievement gap, existing findings show considerable variation. The goal of this quantitative synthesis was to analyze effect sizes which compared immigrants to natives on international mathematics, reading, and science examinations.
We used data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), and the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS). We investigated whether the achievement gap is larger in some content areas than others (among mathematics, science, and reading), across the different types of tests (PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS), across academic grades and age, and whether it has changed across time. Standardized mean differences between immigrant and native students were obtained using data from 2000 to 2009 for current Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries.
Statistically significant weighted mean effect sizes favored native test takers in mathematics
, and science
. Effects of moderators differed across content areas.
Our analyses have the potential to contribute to the literature about how variation in the immigrant achievement gap relates to different national-level factors.
Maximum likelihood or restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimates of the
parameters in linear mixed-effects models can be determined using the lmer
function in the lme4 package for R. As for most model-fitting functions in R,
the model is described in an lmer call by a formula, in this case including
both fixed- and random-effects terms. The formula and data together determine a
numerical representation of the model from which the profiled deviance or the
profiled REML criterion can be evaluated as a function of some of the model
parameters. The appropriate criterion is optimized, using one of the
constrained optimization functions in R, to provide the parameter estimates. We
describe the structure of the model, the steps in evaluating the profiled
deviance or REML criterion, and the structure of classes or types that
represents such a model. Sufficient detail is included to allow specialization
of these structures by users who wish to write functions to fit specialized
linear mixed models, such as models incorporating pedigrees or smoothing
splines, that are not easily expressible in the formula language used by lmer.
Some members of ethnic minority groups respond to identity threat in ways that are detrimental to their school career, while others persist despite an unwelcoming school environment. It was hypothesized that ethnic and national identities, as combined in “separated,” “assimilated,” or “dual identity” strategies, moderate consequences of identity threat for minority school performance and that the adaptive value of different identity strategies depends on the intergroup context. Random samples of Turkish Belgian young adults (N = 576) were interviewed about their school performance (i.e., high, middle, or low success) and past experiences of discrimination in school as an indicator of identity threat. Results revealed that Turkish Belgians with “separated” or “assimilated” identity strategies were less likely than “dual” identifiers to disengage from school when perceived threat was high. Conversely, dual identifiers were most successful when perceived threat was low. Implications of the up- and downsides of dual identity for minority school performance are discussed.
Biculturalism (having two cultures) is a growing social phenomenon that has received considerable attention in psychology in the last decade; however, the issue of what impact (if any) biculturalism has on individuals’ adjustment remains empirically unclear. To answer this question, we conducted a meta-analysis that included 83 studies, 322 rs, and 23,197 participants. Results based on the random-effects approach show a significant, strong, and positive association between biculturalism and adjustment (both psychological and sociocultural). This biculturalism- adjustment link is stronger than the association between having one culture (dominant or heritage) and adjustment. Thus, our results clearly invalidate early sociological accounts of this phenomenon, which portrayed bicultural individuals as “marginal” and stumped between two worlds. Analyses also indicate that the association between biculturalism and adjustment is moderated by how acculturation is measured, the adjustment domain, and sample characteristics.
The authors examine whether school segregation is related to pupils’ global self-esteem and whether this association is mediated by teacher–pupil relationships. Multilevel analyses based on a survey of 2,845 pupils (aged 10 to 12) in 68 primary schools in Belgian urban areas reveal that, for native-Belgian pupils, a higher proportion of immigrants at school is associated with increasing self-esteem. Initially no such association was found for immigrant pupils, as the effect of schools’ ethnic composition on their self-esteem was suppressed by teacher–pupil relationships. For both groups, experiences of supportive relationships with teachers were largely associated with selfesteem.
Linear mixed-effects models (LMEMs) have become increasingly prominent in psycholinguistics and related areas. However, many researchers do not seem to appreciate how random effects structures affect the generalizability of an analysis. Here, we argue that researchers using LMEMs for confirmatory hypothesis testing should minimally adhere to the standards that have been in place for many decades. Through theoretical arguments and Monte Carlo simulation, we show that LMEMs generalize best when they include the maximal random effects structure justified by the design. The generalization performance of LMEMs including data-driven random effects structures strongly depends upon modeling criteria and sample size, yielding reasonable results on moderately-sized samples when conservative criteria are used, but with little or no power advantage over maximal models. Finally, random-intercepts-only LMEMs used on within-subjects and/or within-items data from populations where subjects and/or items vary in their sensitivity to experimental manipulations always generalize worse than separate F1 and F2 tests, and in many cases, even worse than F1 alone. Maximal LMEMs should be the ‘gold standard’ for confirmatory hypothesis testing in psycholinguistics and beyond.
Growing up in Diverse Societies provides a comprehensive analysis of the integration of the children of immigrants in England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden, based on the ‘Children of immigrants longitudinal survey in four European countries’ (CILS4EU), including harmonised interviews with almost 19,000 14- to 15-year-olds. The book studies the life situation, social relations, and attitudes of adolescents in different ethnic minority groups, and compares these systematically to majority youth in the four countries. The chapters cover a wide range of aspects of integration, all addressing comparisons between origin groups, generations, and destination countries, and elucidating processes accounting for differences. The results challenge much current thinking and simplified views on the state of integration. In some aspects, such as own economic means, delinquency, and mental health, children of immigrants are surprisingly similar to majority youth, while in other aspects there are large dissimilarities. There are also substantial differences between ethnic minority groups, with the economic and cultural distance of the origin regions to the destination country being a key factor. For some outcomes, such as language proficiency or host country identification, dissimilarities seem to narrow over generations, but this does not hold for other outcomes, such as religiosity and attitudes. Remaining differences partly depend on ethnic segregation, some on socioeconomic inequality, and others on parental influences. Most interestingly, the book finds that the four destination countries, though different in their immigration histories, policy approaches, and contextual conditions, are on the whole similar in the general patterns of integration and in the underlying processes.
How relevant are the Big Five in predicting religiosity? Existing evidence suggests that the Big Five domains account for only a small amount of variance in religiosity. Some researchers have claimed that the Big Five domains are too broad and not sufficiently specific to explain much religiosity variance. Accordingly, they speculated that the more specific Big Five facets should predict religiosity better. Yet, such research has generally been sparse, monocultural, descriptive, process-inattentive, and somewhat contradictory in its results. Therefore, we conducted three large-scale, cross-cultural, theory-driven, and process-attentive studies. Study 1 (N = 2,277,240) used self-reports across 96 countries, Study 2 (N = 555,235) used informant-reports across 57 countries, and Study 3 (N = 1,413,982) used self-reports across 2,176 cities, 279 states, and 29 countries. Our results were highly consistent across studies. Contrary to widespread assumptions, the Big Five facets did not explain substantially more variance in religiosity than the Big Five domains. Moreover, culture was much more important than previously assumed. More specifically, the Big Five facets collectively explained little variance in religiosity in the least religious cultural contexts (4.2%) but explained substantial variance in religiosity in the most religious cultural contexts (19.5%). In conclusion, the Big Five facets are major predictors of religiosity, but only in religious cultural contexts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
Children of immigrants are at risk of underachieving in school with long-lasting consequences for future life-chances. Our research contextualises the achievement gap by examining minority acculturation experiences in daily intergroup contact across different intergroup contexts. Acculturation researchers often find an adaptive advantage for minority youth with an integration-orientation (combining both cultures). But findings from Europe are inconclusive. Looking beyond individual differences in acculturation-orientations, this review shifts focus to the intergroup context of minority acculturation and achievement. We discuss longitudinal, multi-group, multi-level and experimental evidence of the up- and downsides of integration for minority inclusion and success in European societies. Our studies show that both (1) intergroup contact experiences and (2) intergroup ideologies affect achievement – either directly or through the interplay of (3) acculturation-norms, defined as shared views on acculturation in social groups, with individual acculturation-orientations. The findings suggest how schools can reduce achievement gaps through improving intergroup relations.
Individual preferences for same-ethnic friends contribute to persistent segregation of adolescents’ friendship networks. Yet, we know surprisingly little about the mechanisms behind ethnic homophily. Prior research suggests that ethnic homophily is ubiquitous, but a social identity perspective indicates that strong ingroup identification drives ingroup favoritism. Combining a social identity perspective with a relational approach, we ask whether the presumed increased homophily of high identifiers extends to all ingroup members, or whether it is conditional on the strength of same-ethnics’ identification. We propose that the strength of ethnic identification affects not only how much individuals desire same-ethnic friends, but also how attractive they are as potential friends to others. Fitting stochastic actor-oriented models to German adolescent school-based network panel data, we find that ethnic homophily is driven by an interplay of peers’ ethnic identification: high identifiers befriend same-ethnic peers who share their strong ethnic identification, while excluding same-ethnic low identifiers. Low identifiers, in turn, tend to avoid befriending inter-ethnic high identifiers. Our relational approach reveals that ethnic homophily is hardly ubiquitous but requires strong identification of both parties of a (potential) friendship.
Effect sizes are underappreciated and often misinterpreted—the most common mistakes being to describe them in ways that are uninformative (e.g., using arbitrary standards) or misleading (e.g., squaring effect-size rs). We propose that effect sizes can be usefully evaluated by comparing them with well-understood benchmarks or by considering them in terms of concrete consequences. In that light, we conclude that when reliably estimated (a critical consideration), an effect-size r of .05 indicates an effect that is very small for the explanation of single events but potentially consequential in the not-very-long run, an effect-size r of .10 indicates an effect that is still small at the level of single events but potentially more ultimately consequential, an effect-size r of .20 indicates a medium effect that is of some explanatory and practical use even in the short run and therefore even more important, and an effect-size r of .30 indicates a large effect that is potentially powerful in both the short and the long run. A very large effect size (r = .40 or greater) in the context of psychological research is likely to be a gross overestimate that will rarely be found in a large sample or in a replication. Our goal is to help advance the treatment of effect sizes so that rather than being numbers that are ignored, reported without interpretation, or interpreted superficially or incorrectly, they become aspects of research reports that can better inform the application and theoretical development of psychological research.
Two studies (N = 126, N = 114) of African Americans supported a model predicting that more racially segregated life contexts are associated with feelings of acceptance by other in-group members and, to a lesser extent, rejection by out-group members. In-group acceptance and out-group rejection in turn influenced identification with the in-group, which was a strong predictor of psychological well-being. Alternative models were not supported. Results suggest that environments that are segregated offer in-group support and acceptance, thereby protecting self-esteem against possible perils of rejection by a powerful out-group. Findings suggest that the improvement of intergroup relations should not be at the expense of intragroup relations.
Despite increased ethnic diversity in more economically developed countries it is unclear whether residential concentration of ethnic minority people (ethnic density) is detrimental or protective for mental health. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis covering the international literature, assessing ethnic density associations with mental health outcomes.
We systematically searched Medline, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science from inception to 31 March 2016. We obtained additional data from study authors. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis taking into account clustering of estimates within datasets. Meta-regression assessed heterogeneity in studies due to ethnicity, country, generation, and area-level deprivation. Our main exposure was ethnic density, defined as the residential concentration of own racial/ethnic minority group. Outcomes included depression, anxiety and the common mental disorders (CMD), suicide, suicidality, psychotic experiences, and psychosis.
We included 41 studies in the review, with meta-analysis of 12 studies. In the meta-analyses, we found a large reduction in relative odds of psychotic experiences [odds ratio (OR) 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76–0.89)] and suicidal ideation [OR 0.88 (95% CI 0.79–0.98)] for each 10 percentage-point increase in own ethnic density. For CMD, depression, and anxiety, associations were indicative of protective effects of own ethnic density; however, results were not statistically significant. Findings from narrative review were consistent with those of the meta-analysis.
The findings support consistent protective ethnic density associations across countries and racial/ethnic minority populations as well as mental health outcomes. This may suggest the importance of the social environment in patterning detrimental mental health outcomes in marginalized and excluded population groups.
This study examines the acculturation, experiences of discrimination and wellbeing of a representative sample of over 3000 adult second generation of immigrants in Canada; 43% were born in Canada, while 57% immigrated before the age of 12 years. Four acculturation profiles were created using two sense of belonging questions: those who have strong sense of belonging to both Canada and own ethnic group (integrated); those who have a strong sense of belonging to Canada only (assimilated); those who have strong sense of belonging to own ethnic group only (separated); and those who have weak sense of belonging to both Canada or own ethnic group (marginalised). In the study sample, 75% are in the integration group, 15% in assimilation, 6% in separation, and 5% in marginalization. Wellbeing is assessed with two questions about life satisfaction and self-rated mental health. Those in the integration group have a significantly higher level on both measures of wellbeing. The experience of discrimination is significantly associated with being in the separation group. The effect of discrimination on wellbeing varied by acculturation profile: marginalization amplifies the effect of discrimination, while assimilation mitigates it. Social and demographic factors also affect wellbeing, particularly having low levels of education, income and employment. Implications for the settlement process are suggested.
The effects of school-based ethnic diversity on student well-being and race-related views were examined during the first year in middle school. To capture the dynamic nature of ethnic exposure, diversity was assessed both at the school-level (n = 26) and based on academic course enrollments of African American, Asian, Latino, and White students (n = 4,302; M = 11.33 years). Across all four pan-ethnic groups, school-level ethnic diversity was associated with lower sense of vulnerability (i.e., feeling safer, less victimized, and less lonely) as well as perceptions of teachers' fair and equal treatment of ethnic groups and lower out-group distance. Underscoring the role of individual experiences, exposure to diversity in academic classes moderated the association between school-level diversity and the two aforementioned race-related views.
Based on the data from six waves of the European Social Survey collected from
18 European countries between 2002 and 2012, we aimed at explaining the variation in
immigrants’ life satisfaction across countries, by focusing on host countries’ characteristics. By adopting the multi-level analysis, we examined the national-level traits from three
aspects: namely, the climate of immigrant reception, the extent of public goods provision
and the level of economic inequality. Our findings suggest that immigrants are likely to be
more satisfied in countries that offer more welcoming social settings. However, this
association is significant only when the social setting is measured by attitudes of the nativeborn towards immigrants, rather than by legal immigration regulations and policies. When
taking into account the extent to which host country is able to provide public goods,
country’s wealth levels seems not to matter for immigrants’ life satisfaction, whereas
countries’ levels of human development is associated with an increase in immigrants’ life
satisfaction albeit only at the 10% significance level. The role of economic inequality
varies with immigrants’ own socio-economic statuses. On average, immigrants are less
satisfied with their lives in host countries with higher levels of economic inequality.
However, highly educated immigrants tend not to perceive economic inequality of the
country as an obstacle of their satisfaction.
This study investigates the relationship between the ethnic classroom composition and interethnic attitudes of adolescents of the native majority and several ethnic minorities in the Netherlands, Germany, England and Sweden. It contributes to prior research by examining the underlying theoretical features of contact opportunities and levels of threat across multiple ethnic groups more accurately, using group-specific measures. Based on Intergroup Contact Theory and Ethnic Group Conflict Theory, contrasting hypotheses on how the ethnic classroom composition affects out-group and in-group attitudes of adolescents are tested with multilevel regression analyses. Across ethnic groups and countries, we consistently find a moderate to substantial relation between ethnic classroom composition and interethnic attitudes in line with Intergroup Contact Theory: a relatively larger out-group size, compared to the in-group, relates positively to out-group attitudes. At the same time, in several cases, a relatively larger in-group size relates to more positive in-group attitudes. The findings point to the significance of balanced ethnic classroom compositions for promoting favourable attitudes between multiple ethnic groups – benefitting especially those who face high levels of prejudice from others and those who are prejudiced towards others – without compromising positive in-group attitudes.
The peer context features prominently in theory, and increasingly in empirical research, about ethnic-racial identity (ERI) development, but no studies have assessed peer influence on ERI using methods designed to properly assess peer influence. We examined peer influence on ERI centrality, private, and public regard using longitudinal social network analysis. Data were drawn from two sites: a predominantly Latina/o Southwestern (SW) school (N = 1034; Mage = 12.10) and a diverse Midwestern (MW) school (N = 513; Mage = 11.99). Findings showed that peers influenced each other's public regard over time at both sites. However, peer influence on centrality was evident in the SW site, whereas peer influence on private regard was evident in the MW site. Importantly, peer influence was evident after controlling for selection effects. Our integration of developmental, contextual, and social network perspectives offers a fruitful approach to explicate how ERI content may shift in early adolescence as a function of peer influence.
This study explores various measures of the ethnic makeup in a classroom and their relationship with student outcomes. We examine whether measures of ethnic diversity are related to achievement (mathematics, reading) and feeling of belonging with one’s peers over and above commonly investigated composition characteristics. Multilevel analyses were based on data from a representative sample of 18,762 elementary school students in 903 classrooms. The proportion of minority students and diversity measures showed negative associations with student outcomes in separate models. Including diversity measures and the proportion of minority students, diversity of minority students mostly lost its significance. However, the results suggest that diversity measures may provide additional information over and above other classroom characteristics for some student outcomes. The various measures of diversity led to comparable results.
Previous research on immigrant economic incorporation has predominantly focused on dimensions of labor market access, while income poverty and its determinants have not yet received as much attention. The present study sets out to address this gap, and it has a particular focus on the relative utility of intra- and interethnic contacts. Applying social capital considerations, we investigate to what extent German first generation immigrants’ relationships in terms of the ethnic composition of their friendships and family size influence their likelihood of income poverty, net of various other factors. We furthermore ask whether the returns on interethnic contacts are dependent on immigrants’ host country language proficiency, a pivotal type of cultural competence. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel Study, we find that both types of social relationships help to reduce poverty, which diverges from previous findings for labor market outcomes. Moreover, the utility of interethnic relationships varies according to language proficiency. These results illustrate the complex interrelations between cultural, social and economic integration, and they help to advance our understanding about the potential benefits of intra- and interethnic social capital by showing that both are useful in averting immigrant income poverty.
The present study was designed to understand differences between unaccompanied refugees who retained or achieved good mental health (healthy or resilient) and those who maintained or developed poor mental health (clinical and vulnerable). Using person-based analyses, the role of pre-migration traumatic exposure and acculturation-related factors in long-term trajectories of psychological adjustment among unaccompanied refugees was explored. This study included three waves of data collection in a population-based sample. The participants were 918 unaccompanied refugees who had received asylum and residence status in Norway. The pattern of change in depression symptoms over time was used to characterize subgroups displaying resilient, vulnerable, clinical or healthy trajectories. Results indicated that the extent of post-migration acculturation hassles and heritage culture competence, as well as pre-migration traumatic events and gender, distinguished the refugee groups in terms of mental health trajectories. The implications for clinical practice and immigration policy are discussed.
Are religious people psychologically better or worse adjusted than their nonreligious counterparts? Hundreds of studies have reported a positive relation between religiosity and psychological adjustment. Recently, however, a comparatively small number of cross-cultural studies has questioned this staple of religiosity research. The latter studies find that religious adjustment benefits are restricted to religious cultures. Gebauer, Sedikides, and Neberich (2012) suggested the religiosity as social value hypothesis (RASV) as one explanation for those cross-cultural differences. RASV states that, in religious cultures, religiosity possesses much social value, and, as such, religious people will feel particularly good about themselves. In secular cultures, however, religiosity possesses limited social value, and, as such, religious people will feel less good about themselves, if at all. Yet, previous evidence has been inconclusive regarding RASV and regarding cross-cultural differences in religious adjustment benefits more generally. To clarify matters, we conducted 3 replication studies. We examined the relation between religiosity and self-esteem (the most direct and appropriate adjustment indicator, according to RASV) in a self-report study across 65 countries (N = 2,195,301), an informant-report study across 36 countries (N = 560,264), and another self-report study across 1,932 urban areas from 243 federal states in 18 countries (N = 1,188,536). Moreover, we scrutinized our results against 7, previously untested, alternative explanations. Our results fully and firmly replicated and extended prior evidence for cross-cultural differences in religious adjustment benefits. These cross-cultural differences were best explained by RASV. (PsycINFO Database Record
Does it matter if your personality fits in with the personalities of the people where you live? The present study explored the links between person-city personality fit and self-esteem. Using data from 543,934 residents of 860 U.S. cities, we examined the extent to which the fit between individuals' Big Five personality traits and the Big Five traits of the city where they live (i.e., the prevalent traits of the city's inhabitants) predicts individuals' self-esteem. To provide a benchmark for these effects, we also estimated the degree to which the fit between person and city religiosity predicts individuals' self-esteem. The results provided a nuanced picture of the effects of person-city personality fit on self-esteem: We found significant but small effects of fit on self-esteem only for openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, rather than effects for all Big Five traits. Similar results and effect sizes were observed for religiosity. We conclude with a discussion of the relevance and limitations of this study.
This study examines the relation between the proportion of co-ethnics in school and adolescents’ problem behaviour in school (e.g. skipping class and arguing with teachers) and whether friendship patterns are underlying this relationship. We use data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries on ±16,000 students in England, Germany, The Netherlands, and Sweden and find that children display less problem behaviour when the proportion of co-ethnics in school is higher. This relationship is mediated by the characteristics of the friends that students have: the proportion of co-ethnics in school positively relates to students’ proportion of in-school friends and co-ethnic friends in class, which are in turn negatively associated with problem behaviour in school. The strength and significance of these paths depend on students’ ethnicity and country of residence. Implications of this study are discussed in the conclusion.
This paper provides operational procedures for coding internationally comparable measures of occupational status from the recently published International Standard Classification of Occupation 1988 (ISCO88) of the International Labor Office (ILO, 1990). We first discuss the nature of the ISCO88 classification and its relationship to national classifications used around the world and also to its predecessor, ISCO68 (ILO, 1969), which has been widely utilized in comparative research. We argue that comparative research would gain much from adopting ISCO88 as the standard tool of classification and provide guidance on how to do this. We then outline the procedures we have used to generate new standard recodes for three internationally comparable measures of occupational status: Treiman's Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale (SIOPS), Ganzeboom et al.'s International Socio-Economic Index of Occupational Status (ISEI), and Erikson and Goldthorpe's class categories (EGP). To update the SIOPS prestige scores we have directly matched the occupational titles in the SIOPS scale to the categories of the ISCO88 classification. For ISEI scores we have replicated the procedure used to create scores for the ISCO68 categories, employing the same data but using newly developed matches between the underlying national occupational classifications and ISCO88. To construct the EGP class codes we have mapped the ISCO88 occupation categories into a 10-category classification developed by the CASMIN project for a 12-country analysis. To validate these scales, we estimated parameters of a basic status-attainment model from an independent source of data: the pooled file from the International Social Justice Project (a large international data file that combines data from sample surveys in 14 countries). Estimates based on occupational status scales derived from ISCO88 and ISCO68 are highly similar.
The present study aims to map the life satisfaction of adolescents from ethnic minority/immigrant backgrounds in schools with high concentrations of co-ethnic peers by comparing them with their mainstream counterparts in Hong Kong. The life satisfaction of 1,522 students was measured by the validated Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale. Tests of invariance were conducted followed by latent mean analysis. In contrast to the public debates on the undesirability of co-ethnic education, the findings do not suggest negative associations between the ethnic minority or immigrant status of these students and their self-appraised global and specific life satisfaction in school and with friends. This study confirms that a school factor exists and that there are significant differences in the life satisfaction of the student groups under review. Educating students in schools with high concentrations of co-ethnic peers appears to benefit South Asians but not mainland Chinese immigrant students.
Migrant networks are usually regarded as helpful for the labor market integration of recently arrived immigrants. From a general
assimilation perspective, however, it has been questioned whether they are really the right sort of ties to help immigrants
succeed in the host society, or whether, instead, they constitute some sort of mobility trap. Empirical evidence from available
studies is mixed, and a reference to more general social capital theory suggests that the effect might be contingent on the
institutional context of the receiving country, the specific immigrant groups involved, and the particular types of jobs.
In this paper, we study the impact of migrant networks on the labor market integration of recent immigrants from the former
Soviet Union to Germany. This turns out to be a strategic test case, for both theoretical and methodological reasons. Relying
on longitudinal data and using discrete event history models, we show that the findings are different for two distinguishable
groups involved, Ethnic Germans and Jewish Quota Refugees, and that whether the effects are positive or negative further depends
on whether or not these groups seek entry to higher-status jobs in the professional, managerial, or technical occupations.
Ecological factors in psychological acculturation research are often neglected, although recent work suggests that context and acculturation may interact in predicting adaptation outcomes. The ethnic density effect–the protective effect related to a greater proportion of people from the same ethnic group living in a particular neighborhood–might be one such ecological candidate. The current study integrates these constructs by unpacking the perceived ethnic density effect and examining how it is related to acculturation in a diverse sample (N = 146) of immigrant students in Montreal, Canada. It was found that the negative relation between perceived ethnic density and depression was mediated by discrimination but not by social support. Furthermore, a crossover interaction indicated that heritage acculturation was protective against depression for those residing in ethnically concentrated neighborhoods but not for those living in ethnically sparse neighborhoods. This strongly supports an ecology‐acculturation fit, highlighting the need to contextualize acculturation research.
Depression rates rise in adolescence and the prevalence of depression is higher among Latino adolescents than other race/ethnic groups. Ethnic density among immigrant populations is associated with better health and mental health outcomes among adults, but little is known about its effects among adolescents or its mechanisms. This study examines the pathways by which immigrant density may affect mental health outcomes among Latino youth. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we drew a sample of 2,678 Hispanic youth. Multivariate multilevel logistic regression analyses found that Latino immigrant density predicted lower odds of depression among both male and female immigrant but not non-immigrant Latino adolescents. No mediating effects of neighborhood efficacy, perceived safety or perceived contentment were observed in this study. Results reaffirm the need to further explore the mechanisms through which ethnic density exerts its salubrious effect on immigrant youth mental health.
It is widely debated whether immigrants who live among co-ethnics are less willing to integrate into the host society. Exploiting the quasi-experimental guest worker placement across German regions during the 1960/70s as well as information on immigrants' inter-ethnic contact networks and social activities, we are able to identify the causal effect of ethnic concentration on social integration. The exogenous placement of immigrants ‘switches off’ observable and unobservable differences in the willingness or ability to integrate which have confounded previous studies. Evidence suggests that the presence of co-ethnics increases migrants' interaction cost with natives and thus reduces the likelihood of integration.
In this study predictors of multiculturalism at the individual and classroom level are tested in a multilevel model. Previous studies attempting to find predictors of multiculturalism focused only on the individual level, possibly risking an attribution error. Multiculturalism is presented in this study as a notion stressing equal opportunities and minimizing discrimination as well as the conviction that the access to other cultures enriches ones own life. Using a sample of 448 adolescents from junior vocational education it was found that more ethnic diversity at the classroom level is positively related to adolescents’ support for multiculturalism. As such, this study supports the intergroup contact theory.
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of migrant density in school on the well-being of pupils with a migrant origin in first as well as second generation.
Cross-sectional analysis of data from a national classroom survey of 15-year-old Swedish schoolchildren. The study population included 76 229 pupils (86.5% participation) with complete data set from 1352 schools. Six dimensions of well-being from the KIDSCREEN were analysed in two-level linear regression models to assess the influence of migrant origin at individual level and percentage of students with a migrant origin at school level, as well as interaction terms between them. Z-scores were used to equalize scales.
A high density (>50%) of pupils with a migrant origin in first or second generation was associated with positive well-being on all six scales for foreign-born pupils originating in Africa or Asia compared with schools with low (<10%) migrant density. The effect sizes were 0.56 for boys and 0.29 for girls on the comprehensive KIDSCREEN 10-index (P<0.001) and 0.61 and 0.34, respectively, for psychological well-being (P<0.001). Of the boys and girls born in Africa or Asia, 31.6% and 34.6%, respectively, reported being bullied during the past week in schools with low (<10%) migrant density.
Pupils born in Africa or Asia are at high risk for being bullied and having impaired well-being in schools with few other migrant children. School interventions to improve peer relations and prevent bullying are needed to promote well-being in non-European migrant children.
This chapter begins with a re-presentation of Allport's classic hypothesis and shows—with reference to recent cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys— laboratory experiments, and meta-analysis, that many of his original propositions have capably withstood the test of time. It examines Brewer and Miller's, and Gaertner and Dovidio's attempts to extend the contact hypothesis, in both of which categorization processes play a key role. This approach sets the stage for the model, first published in 1986 by Hewstone and Brown. In that model, emphasis was given on identifying the conditions that would allow the generalization of attitudes and behavior change beyond the specific context in which the contact occurs. The chapter discusses the developments of contact theory that occurred in the 1980s and reviews the empirical research instigated by the Hewstone–Brown model. It also reviews the progress to date and attempts a theoretical integration of these models in the light of the large volume of research that they have stimulated.
From an intergroup relations perspective, relative group size is associated with the quantity and quality of intergroup contact: more positive contact (i.e., intergroup friendship) supports, and negative contact (i.e., experienced discrimination) hampers, minority identity, and school success. Accordingly, we examined intergroup contact as the process through which perceived relative proportions of minority and majority students in school affected minority success (i.e., school performance, satisfaction, and self-efficacy). Turkish minorities (N = 1,060) were compared in four Austrian and Belgian cities which differ in their typical school ethnic composition. Across cities, minority experiences of intergroup contact fully mediated the impact of perceived relative group size on school success. As expected, higher minority presence impaired school success through restricting intergroup friendship and increasing experienced discrimination. The association between minority presence and discrimination was curvilinear, however, so that schools where minority students predominated offered some protection from discrimination. To conclude, the comparative findings reveal positive and negative intergroup contact as key processes that jointly explain when and how higher proportions of minority students affect school success.
(from the chapter) At the end of chapter 5 we present a factor analysis of the five adaptation variables. The two resulting factors were labeled psychological adaptation and sociocultural adaptation. These two factors are also used in this chapter. The model presented in this chapter specifies the hypotheses regarding the relationships among the four intercultural factors and the two adaptation factors. The central question is whether there are systematic relationships at the individual level between the intercultural experiences of immigrant youth and how well they adapt. That is, using the terms employed in chapter 1, we are seeking an answer to the question, "Does how adolescents acculturate relate to how well they adapt?" In the preceding chapters little attention is paid to countries of settlement or to immigrant groups in the International Comparative Study of Ethnocultural Youth (ICSEY) project. In this chapter we explore whether and to what extent the relationship between acculturation experiences and adaptation outcomes is affected by two country characteristics: their cultural diversity (including level of immigration) and their policies with respect to diversity. In addition, we analyze to what extent the strength of this relationship depends on demographic factors such as age, generation (first- or second-generation immigrants), gender, and socioeconomic status. See record 2006-05033-000 for details of the ICSEY project. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved) (chapter)
Similarity breeds connection. This principle - the homophily principle - structures network ties of every type, including marriage, friendship, work, advice, support, information transfer, exchange, comembership, and other types of relationship. The result is that people's personal networks are homogeneous with regard to many sociodemographic, behavioral, and intrapersonal characteristics. Homophily limits people's social worlds in a way that has powerful implications for the information they receive, the attitudes they form, and the interactions they experience. Homophily in race and ethnicity creates the strongest divides in our personal environments, with age, religion, education, occupation, and gender following in roughly that order. Geographic propinquity, families, organizations, and isomorphic positions in social systems all create contexts in which homophilous relations form. Ties between nonsimilar individuals also dissolve at a higher rate, which sets the stage for the formation of niches (localized positions) within social space. We argue for more research on: (a) the basic ecological processes that link organizations, associations, cultural communities, social movements, and many other social forms; (b) the impact of multiplex ties on the patterns of homophily; and (c) the dynamics of network change over time through which networks and other social entities co-evolve.