Chapter

Hypertext as a Lens into Interactive Digital Narrative

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Interactive Narrative is blessed with a myriad of forms, this richness makes it hard to compare IDN systems or to develop general theories and tools as each example can seem like a special case. We take the approach of using hypertext as a method of inquiry to explore the similarities of different IDN forms. Using the Interactive Process Model to scope our analysis we systematically examine IDN from the perspective of hypertext structure. We show that hypertext can coherently explain the transition functions (the parts of the system that manages narrative state) across calligraphic, sculptural (storylets), adaptive, database driven, parser, and game narratives. In doing so we define a Hypertext Lens, made of layers of lexia state, story state, world model, and story engine. We also show how sculptural systems, parser fiction, and game narratives make use of interaction and presentation engines that complement and build upon these structures. Rather than trying to reconcile hypertext and IDN our approach instead presents hypertext as a useful thought pattern for approaching IDN that can bridge the gap between IDN forms and clarify their relationships to one another. Our analysis clearly shows a fluidity of form, encourages experimentation, and provides a mechanism through which theory can be applied widely.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the launch and popularity of Bandersnatch (2018), interactive storytelling reached a mass audience in a different way to earlier works. However, as a narrative experience, Bandersnatch belongs to a particular class of Interactive Digital Narratives (IDNs): highly restrictive, nonlinear, branching structure films that offer limited agency and, in many ways, have less to offer than more sophisticated IDNs. While the simple format is appealing to new audiences, there is clearly scope for improvement. In this paper, Bandersnatch is examined as a representative of its format in an attempt to identify alternative design choices for improved agency, as well as assessing the choices' suitability for the format. The methodology for the analysis is Hartmut Koenitz's SPP model as well as its extension, the hermeneutic strip, which is applied to understand and assess the experienced agency. The final reflection on alternative design recommendations for Bandersnatch type works demonstrates that, by implementing features of invisible agency, the overall feeling of control of the player could be improved without losing narrative momentum. The improvements could be achieved by maintaining state of the behavioural tendencies (e.g., risk-taking behaviour) of the audience in their decision-making process and screening plotlines or endings that match their assessed tendencies.
Article
Full-text available
Transmedia storytelling involves telling a story using multiple distinct media. The remit of stories that fall under this broad definition is vast, consequently causing theorists to examine different phenomena using tools that are not suitable for all forms of transmedia storytelling. The lack of critical tools means we are unable to describe, compare and analyse different experiences using common language. In this paper, we present our model that can be used to identify the fundamental structural features of a variety of transmedia storytelling forms. We illustrate its usage with twenty case studies and discuss how three groups of patterns emerge which can be identifiable in all transmedia stories. These patterns can be used to extend transmedia language and help form taxonomies, by identifying common patterns and their usages amongst various forms of transmedia stories.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Links are the most important new punctuation mark since the invention of the comma, but it has been years since the last in-depth discussions of link poetics. Taking inspiration Raymond Queneau'sExercices De Style, we explore the poetics of contemporary link usage by offering exercises in which the same piece of text is divided and linked in different ways. We present three different exercises---varying the division of a text into lexia, varying links among lexia, and varying links within lexia---while pointing toward potential aesthetic considerations of each variation. Our exercises are intended descriptively, not prescriptively, as a conversational starting point for analysis and as a compendium of useful techniques upon which artists might build.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Historically, there has been a tendency to consider hypertext as a type of system, perhaps characterized by provision of links or other structure to users. In this paper, we consider hypertext as a method of inquiry, a way of viewing arbitrary systems. In this view, what are traditionally called "navigational hypertext systems" might be considered as information retrieval systems, "spatial hypertext systems" as brainstorming systems, etc., while their "hypertext" nature results from the way in which such systems are conceived, developed, and/or presented. The benefit of such a shift is the ability to apply this hypertextual method of inquiry to systems not normally considered part of the hypertext community. In this paper, we specifically apply this view to artificial intelligence, and examine how this application can be productive.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Netflix production Bandersnatch represents a potentially crucial step for interactive digital narrative videos, due to the platform's reach, popularity, and ability to finance costly experimental productions. Indeed, Netflix has announced that it will invest more into interactive narratives-moving into romance and other genres-which makes Bandersnatch even more important as first step and harbinger of things yet to come. For us, the question was therefore how audiences react to Bandersnatch. What are the factors driving user's enjoyment and what factors might mitigate the experience. For example, novelty value of an interactive experience on Netflix might be a crucial aspect or the combination with the successful series Black Mirror. We approach these questions from two angles-with a critical analysis of the work itself, including audience reactions and an initial user study using Roth's measurement toolbox (N = 32).
Chapter
Full-text available
In this paper, we take up the subject of epiphany in digital games, inspired by Espen Aarseth’s claim in Cybertext that epiphany serves as one half of a “pair of master tropes [that] constitutes the dynamic of hypertext discourse: the dialectic between searching and finding typical of games in general”. This article investigates the continuities and discontinuities between the literary epiphany and the hypertext epiphany, and subsequently theorizes the different types of epiphanies that occur in various digital games. We argue that epiphany in digital games is experienced by the player instead of the fictional protagonist, and that this experience can be brought about by ludic or narrative elements (making either a ‘ludic’ or a ‘narrative epiphany’), or by the collaboration of those elements (a ‘ludonarrative epiphany’). In addition, we distinguish between epiphany on a ‘local’, meaning small-scale and context-specific, and a ‘global’ scale, pertaining to the entirety of the game system. We conclude that an improved understanding of epiphany in digital games contributes to the maturation of digital games as a medium, since it allows both designers and scholars to better understand the medium-specific ways in which games can evoke certain feelings and emotions within their players.
Chapter
Full-text available
The practice of designing Interactive Digital Narratives [IDN] is often described as a challenge facing issues such as the “narrative paradox” and avoid-ing the unintentional creation of “ludonarrative dissonance”. These terms are expressions of a perspective that takes narrative and interactivity as dichotomic ends of a design trajectory, mirroring an enduring discussion in-game studies be-tween positions often cast as ludologists and narratologists. The dichotomy of ludo versus narrative is, in itself, problematic and is often the source of the very conflict it describes. In this paper, we investigate this issue through the example of the cooperative game A Way Out, in which two players team up to break out of prison. The game is designed with a narrative twist, involving the escalation and final resolution of the game’s competitive motif in the final scene. To understand the user experiences of this reveal, and the concomitant consequences, we engage in a discursive analysis of "Let’s Play" videos as a largely untapped re-source for research. By analyzing the interactions and performances in these videos, we can more clearly understand player responses to unsatisfying IDN design. As a result, we introduce the notion of a ‘hermeneutic strip’, extending Koenitz’ SPP model to locate and describe the involved processes of narrative cognition in IDN work.
Article
Full-text available
The Dexter Hypertext Reference model is an attempt to capture, both formally and informally, the important abstractions found in a wide range of existing and future hypertext systems. The goal of the model is to provide a principled basis for comparing systems as well as for developing interchange and interoperability standards. The model is divided into three layers. The storage layer describes the network of nodes and links that is the essence of hypertext. The runtime layer describes mechanisms supporting the user's interaction with the hypertext. The within-component layer covers the content and structures within hypertext nodes. The focus of the model is on the storage layer and the mechanisms of anchoring and presentation specification that form the interfaces between the storage layer and the within-component and runtime layers, respectively.
Article
Full-text available
Adaptive hypermedia is a relatively new direction of research on the crossroads of hypermedia and user modeling. Adaptive hypermedia systems build a model of the goals, preferences and knowledge of each individual user, and use this model throughout the interaction with the user, in order to adapt to the needs of that user. The goal of this paper is to present the state of the art in adaptive hypermedia at the eve of the year 2000, and to highlight some prospects for the future. This paper attempts to serve both the newcomers and the experts in the area of adaptive hypermedia by building on an earlier comprehensive review (Brusilovsky, 1996; Brusilovsky, 1998).
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a narrative theory of games, building on standard narratology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While the significance of hypertext links for the new ways of telling stories has been widely discussed, there has been not many debates about the very elements that are being connected: hypertext nodes. Apart from few exceptions, poetics of the link overshadows poetics of the node. My goal is to re-focus on a single node, or lexia, by introducing the concept of contextual regulation as the major force that shapes hypertext narrative units. Because many lexias must be capable of occurring in different contexts and at different stages of the unfolding story, several compromises have to be made on the level of language, style, plot and discourse. Each node, depending on its position and importance, has a varying level of connectivity and autonomy, which affects the global coherence of text. After focusing on relations between the notion of lexia (as a coherent and flexible unit) and the notion of kernel in narrative theory, an explanation of rules behind contextual regulation is presented, along with the basic typology of nodes. Then an attempt to enhance existing plot pools for hypertext fiction is undertaken. Several suggestions for the new plots, offered by the node-centered approach, are introduced.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Open Hypermedia Systems community has been largely concerned with interoperability between hypertext systems which share the same paradigm. It has evolved a compo- nent based framework for this purpose, in which specific but incompatible middleware components are designed for each hypertext domain, such as navigational hypertext, spatial hy- pertext or taxonomic hypertext. This paper investigates th e common features of these domains and introduces FOHM, a Fundamental Open Hypertext Model, which defines a com- mon data model and set of related operations that are applica- ble for all three domains. Using this layer the paper explore s the possible semantics of linking between different hypert ext domains, and shows that each can introduce features which benefit the other domains.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper addresses the problem of organizing material in mixed digital and physical environments. It presents empirical examples of how people use collectional artefacts and organize physical material such as paper, samples, models, mock-ups, plans, etc. in the real world. Based on this material, we propose concepts for collectional actions and meta-data actions, and present prototypes combining principles from augmented reality and hypermedia to support organising and managing mixtures of digital and physical materials. The prototype of the tagging system is running on digital desks and walls utilizing Radio Frequency IDentifier (RFID) tags and tag-readers. It allows users to tag important physical materials, and have these tracked by antennas that may become pervasive in our work environments. We work with three categories of tags: simple object tags, collectional tags, and tooltags invoking operations such as grouping and linking of physical material. Our primary application domain is architecture and design, thus we discuss use of augmented collectional artefacts primarily for this domain.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years, tagging systems have become increasingly popular. These systems enable users to add keywords (i.e., "tags") to Internet resources (e.g., web pages, images, videos) without relying on a controlled vocabulary. Tagging systems have the potential to improve search, spam detection, reputation systems, and personal organization while introducing new modalities of social communication and opportunities for data mining. This potential is largely due to the social structure that underlies many of the current systems. Despite the rapid expansion of applications that support tagging of resources, tagging systems are still not well studied or understood. In this paper, we provide a short description of the academic related work to date. We offer a model of tagging systems, specifically in the context of web-based systems, to help us illustrate the possible benefits of these tools. Since many such systems already exist, we provide a taxonomy of tagging systems to help inform their analysis and design, and thus enable researchers to frame and compare evidence for the sustainability of such systems. We also provide a simple taxonomy of incentives and contribution models to inform potential evaluative frameworks. While this work does not present comprehensive empirical results, we present a preliminary study of the photo- sharing and tagging system Flickr to demonstrate our model and explore some of the issues in one sample system. This analysis helps us outline and motivate possible future directions of research in tagging systems.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The emerging artistic practice of interactive narrative in digital media marks a profound departure from traditional narrative. The application of traditional narrative theory for interactive narrative is problematic, since the affordances of digital media challenge many underlying assumptions of theories related to non-digital media. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for interactive storytelling, which addresses these concerns by foregrounding system (the digital artifact) and process (the user interacting with the system) over the product-centered view of legacy media. On this basis, protostory, narrative design, and narrative vectors are proposed as new terms to more adequately describe the structure of narrative in interactive digital storytelling. This move is also relevant for practical design given the influence theoretical concepts have on concrete implementations.
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses initial progress in the construction of a hypertext short fiction engine using a context based link service. The link service, Auld Leaky, is based around the Fundamental Open Hypermedia Model (FOHM). Context and behaviour are used to provide adaption in the story as well as progressing the narrative.
Article
Full-text available
Not Available
Chapter
Sam Barlow’s story-based video game Telling Lies (2019), like his previous game, Her Story (2015), is based on an interaction mechanic in which the player searches a fixed archive of videoclips using keywords found in the dialog of the fictional characters. This storytelling strategy can be situated within traditions of epistemic narratives in which the interactor navigates through a set of unchanging narrative segments, motivated by the desire to increase knowledge of the story. Such stories offer the pleasure of revelation, and they hinge on hiding information so that it is later revealed in a way that maximizes the experience of dramatic agency. This paper explores the expressive potential of Barlow’s signature database search mechanic for creating the experience of dramatic agency through managed revelation. By mapping our own experience and examining Barlow’s development documents and code, we describe how the artfully gated search mechanic creates temporal disjunctions that provide glimpses of narrative situations that pique curiosity while suppressing explanatory revelations. Using Telling Lies as an example, we identify some characteristic design challenges and opportunities afforded by the constrained database search approach and point to unexplored design opportunities that could make this strategy the basis of a more widely-practiced genre.
Chapter
Interaction is central to interactive narrative experiences, but our understanding of player actions remains relatively shallow. Recent works have widened our view of what an action might do, but we still lack a way to identify, compare, and discover different kinds of action that an interactive narrative’s player might perform. In this work, we present a way to model the interaction that occurs in an interactive narrative process, offering a common ground upon which many kinds of action can be distinguished, including kinds that might never have been used. We demonstrate our method on The Ice-Bound Concordance, an interactive narrative system that offers complex actions.
Conference Paper
Locative narrative systems have been a popular area of research for nearly two decades, but they are often bespoke systems, developed for particular deployments, or to demonstrate novel technologies. This has meant that they are short-lived, the narratives have been constructed by the creators of the system, and that the barrier to creating locative experiences has remained high due to a lack of common tools. We set out to create a platform based on the commonalities of these historic systems, with a focus on hypertext structure, and designed to enable locative based narratives to be created, deployed, and experienced in-the-wild. The result is StoryPlaces, an open source locative hypertext platform and authoring tool designed around a sculptural hypertext engine and built with existing Web technologies. As well as providing an open platform for future development, StoryPlaces also offers novelty in its management of location, including the separation of location and nodes, of descriptions from locations, and of content from pages, as well as being designed to have run-time caching and disconnection resilience. It also advances the state of the art in sculptural hypertext systems delivery through conditional functions, and nested, geographic and temporal conditions. The StoryPlaces platform has been used for the public deployment of over twenty locative narratives, and demonstrates the effectiveness of a general platform for delivering complex locative narrative experiences. In this paper we describe the process of creating the platform and our insights on the design of locative hypertext platforms.
Conference Paper
As large, collaboratively authored hypertexts such as Wikipedia grow so does the requirement both for organisational principles and methods to provide sustainable consistency and to ease the task of contributing editors. Large numbers of (potential) editors are not necessarily a suffcient bulwark against loss of coherence amongst a corpus of many discrete articles. The longitudinal task of curation may benefit from deliberate curatorial roles and techniques. A potentially beneficial technique for the development and maintenance of hypertext content at scale is hypertext transclusion, by offering controllable re-use of a canonical source. In considering issues of longitudinal support of web collaborative hypertexts, we investigated the current degree and manner of adoption of transclusion facilities by editors of Wikipedia articles. We sampled 20 million articles from ten discrete language wikis within Wikipedia to analyse behaviour both within and across the individual Wikipedia communities. We show that Wikipedia makes limited, inconsistent of use of transclusion (as at February 2016). Use is localised to subject areas, which differ between sampled languages. A limited number of patterns were observed including: Lists from transclusion, Lists of Lists, Episodic Media Listings, Tangles, Articles as Macros, and Self-Transclusion. We find little indication of deliberate structural maintenance of the hypertext.
Conference Paper
Contextualised Open Hypermedia can be used to provide added value to document collections or artefacts. However, transferring the underlying hyper structures into a users conceptual model is often a problem. Augmented reality provides a mechanism for presenting these structures in a visual and tangible manner, translating the abstract action of combining contextual linkbases into physical gestures of real familiarity to users of the system. This paper examines the use of augmented reality in hypermedia and explores some possible modes of interaction that embody the functionality of open hypermedia and contextual linking using commonplace and easily understandable real world metaphors.
Conference Paper
Location based narratives are an emerging form of digital storytelling that use location technologies to trigger content on smart devices according to a user's location. In previous work on the Canyons, Deltas and Plains (CDP) model we argued that they are best considered as a form of sculptural hypertext, but sculptural hypertext is a relatively unexplored medium with few examples, and limited critical theory. This means that there is little guidance for authors on what is possible with the medium, and no common authoring tools, both of which impede adoption and experimentation. In this paper we describe our work to tackle this problem by working with creative writing students to create 40 location based sculptural hypertexts using an approach similar to paper-prototyping, and then analysing these for common patterns (structures of nodes, rules, and conditions used for a poetic purpose). We present seven key patterns: Parallel Threads, Gating, Concurrent Nodes, Alternative Nodes, Foldbacks, Phasing, and Unlocking. In doing so we see some overlap with the patterns identified in traditional (calligraphic) hypertext, but in many cases these patterns are particularly suited to sculptural hypertext, and hint at a different poetics for the form. Our findings refine our original CDP model, but also present a starting point for educating writers on how to approach sculptural stories, and form a foundation for future location-based authoring tools.
Conference Paper
The opposition between narrative agency—the ability for readers and players to make meaningful choices—and narrative immersion has been an ongoing conflict in the world of interactive storytelling. Some forms, such as games, have been argued to be more successful at balancing the tension between interactivity and immersion than forms like hypertext fiction [16]. Using these two forms as illustration, this paper will argue for the need for more nuanced understandings of “agency” and “immersion” by introducing definitions of diegetic and extra-diegetic agency alongside definitions of narrative and mechanical immersion. Extending the vocabulary of agency and immersion highlights some key differences in how games and hypertexts have been understood.
Conference Paper
This paper presents a historical view of hypertext looking at pre-web hypertext as a domesticated species bred in captivity, and arguing that on the web, some breeds of hypertext have gone feral. Feral hypertext is no longer tame and domesticated, but is fundamentally out of our control. In order to understand and work with feral hypertext, we need to accept this and think more as hunter-gatherers than as the farmers we have been for domesticated hypertext. The paper discusses hypertext in general with an emphasis on literary and creative hypertext practice.
Conference Paper
Models of human navigation play an important role for understanding and facilitating user behavior in hypertext systems. In this paper, we conduct a series of principled experiments with decentralized search - an established model of human navigation in social networks - and study its applicability to information networks. We apply several variations of decentralized search to model human navigation in information networks and we evaluate the outcome in a series of experiments. In these experiments, we study the validity of decentralized search by comparing it with human navigational paths from an actual information network - Wikipedia. We find that (i) navigation in social networks appears to differ from human navigation in information networks in interesting ways and (ii) in order to apply decentralized search to information networks, stochastic adaptations are required. Our work illuminates a way towards using decentralized search as a valid model for human navigation in information networks in future work. Our results are relevant for scientists who are interested in modeling human behavior in information networks and for engineers who are interested in using models and simulations of human behavior to improve on structural or user interface aspects of hypertextual systems.
Conference Paper
Over the past couple decades, as the term "hypertext" has gained a certain popular currency, a question has been raised repeatedly: "What is hypertext?" Our most respected scholars offer a range of different, at times incompatible, answers. This paper argues that our best response to this situation is to adopt the approach taken with other terms that are central to intellectual communities (such as "natural selection," "communism," and "psychoanalysis"), a historical approach. In the case of "hypertext" the term began with Theodor Holm ("Ted") Nelson, and in this paper two of his early publications of "hypertext" are used to determine its initial meaning: the 1965 "A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate" and the 1970 "No More Teachers' Dirty Looks." It is concluded that hypertext began as a term for forms of hypermedia (human-authored media that "branch or perform on request") that operate textually. This runs counter to definitions of hypertext in the literary community that focus solely on the link. It also runs counter to definitions in the research community that privilege tools for knowledge work over media. An inclusive future is envisioned.
Conference Paper
Storyspace, a hypertext writing environment, has been widely used for writing, reading, and research for nearly fifteen years. The appearance of a new implementation provides a suitable occasion to review the design of Storyspace, both in its historical context and in the context of contemporary research. Of particular interest is the opportunity to examine its use in a variety of published documents, all created within one system, but spanning the most of the history of literary hypertext.
Conference Paper
Annals and chronicles may be the foundation of accounting, but writers of stories and histories have long known that they seldom render a satisfactory account of complex events. In place of a simple chronological list, narrative instead organizes our account in new sequences in order to illuminate the interplay of actors and events. We want hypertext narrative to do things we cannot achieve in print; though we may occasionally use links to introduce variation in presentation or in story; it is now clear that hypertext will most frequently prove useful in changing (or adapting) plot. After discussing the ways in which plot may be varied, I describe the use of stretchtext as a reaction against the perceived incoherence of classic hypertext narrative, demonstrate the limitations that conventional stretchtext necessarily imposes on hypertext narrative, and describe an implemented generalization of stretchtext that matches the expressive and formal capabilities of classical hypertext systems while appearing to be a mere stretchtext and while running within the confines of a Web browser.
Conference Paper
Card Shark and Thespis are two newly-implemented hypertext systems for creating hypertext narrative. Both systems depart dramatically from the tools currently popular for writing hypertext fiction, and these departures may help distinguish between the intrinsic nature of hypertext and the tendencies of particular software tools and formalisms. The implementation of these systems raises interesting questions about assumptions underlying recent discussion of immersive, interactive fictions, and suggests new opportunities for hypertext research.
Conference Paper
The process of building Façade , a first-person, real-time, one-act interactive drama, has involved three major research efforts: designing ways to deconstruct a dramatic n arrative into a hierarchy of story and behavior pieces; engi neering an AI system that responds to and integrates the playe r's moment-by-moment interactions to reconstruct a real-time dramatic performance from those pieces; and understanding how to write an engaging, compelling story within t his new organizational framework. This paper provides an o verview of the process of bringing our interactive drama to life as a coherent, engaging, high agency experience, includi ng the design and programming of thousands of joint dialog behaviors in the reactive planning language ABL, an d their higher level organization into a collection of stor y beats sequenced by a drama manager. The process of iteratively developing the architecture, its languages, authori al idioms, and varieties of story content structures are descr ibed. These content structures are designed to intermix t o offer players a high degree of responsiveness and narrati ve agency. We conclude with design and implementation lessons learned and future directions for creating more generative architectures.
Conference Paper
The design of an interactive narrative begins with the choice of a type of story. In this paper I examine the potential of three kinds of plot for active user participation: the epic plot, which focuses on the struggle of the individual to survive in a hostile world, the dramatic plot, which deals with the evolution of a network of human relations, and the epistemic plot, which is propelled by the desire to solve a mystery. I distinguish two basic types of immersion—ludic and narrative, the latter subdivided into spatial, temporal and emotional variants, and I discuss the ability of the three kinds of plot to generate these various forms of immersion.
Book
Hypertext/hypermedia systems and user-model-based adaptive systems in the areas of learning and information retrieval have for a long time been considered as two mutually exclusive approaches to information access. Adaptive systems tailor information to the user and may guide the user in the information space to present the most relevant material, taking into account a model of the user's goals, interests and preferences. Hypermedia systems, on the other hand, are `user neutral': they provide the user with the tools and the freedom to explore an information space by browsing through a complex network of information nodes. Adaptive hypertext and hypermedia systems attempt to bridge the gap between these two approaches. Adaptation of hypermedia systems to each individual user is increasingly needed. With the growing size, complexity and heterogeneity of current hypermedia systems, such as the World Wide Web, it becomes virtually impossible to impose guidelines on authors concerning the overall organization of hypermedia information. The networks therefore become so complex and unstructured that the existing navigational tools are no longer powerful enough to provide orientation on where to search for the needed information. It is also not possible to identify appropriate pre-defined paths or subnets for users with certain goals and knowledge backgrounds since the user community of hypermedia systems is usually quite inhomogeneous. This is particularly true for Web-based applications which are expected to be used by a much greater variety of users than any earlier standalone application. A possible remedy for the negative effects of the traditional `one-size-fits-all' approach in the development of hypermedia systems is to equip them with the ability to adapt to the needs of their individual users. A possible way of achieving adaptivity is by modeling the users and tailoring the system's interactions to their goals, tasks and interests. In this sense, the notion of adaptive hypertext/hypermedia comes naturally to denote a hypertext or hypermedia system which reflects some features of the user and/or characteristics of his system usage in a user model, and utilizes this model in order to adapt various behavioral aspects of the system to the user. This book is the first comprehensive publication on adaptive hypertext and hypermedia. It is oriented towards researchers and practitioners in the fields of hypertext and hypermedia, information systems, and personalized systems. It is also an important resource for the numerous developers of Web-based applications. The design decisions, adaptation methods, and experience presented in this book are a unique source of ideas and techniques for developing more usable and more intelligent Web-based systems suitable for a great variety of users. The practitioners will find it important that many of the adaptation techniques presented in this book have proved to be efficient and are ready to be used in various applications.
Article
Contextualised Open Hypermedia can be used to provide added value to document collections or artefacts. However, transferring the underlying hyper structures into a users conceptual model is often a problem. Augmented reality provides a mechanism for presenting these structures in a visual and tangible manner, translating the abstract action of combining contextual linkbases into physical gestures of real familiarity to users of the system. This paper examines the use of augmented reality in hypermedia and explores some possible modes of interaction that embody the functionality of open hypermedia and contextual linking using commonplace and easily understandable real world metaphors.
Article
This technical briefing will provide attendees with an overview of the state of the art of the OHSWG standardisation effort. This covers important areas such as communication interfaces (protocols), reference architectures and data models. The OHSWG is proposing a set of services for different hypermedia domains, published as interface specifications. Several prototypic implementations for retrieving and navigating hypermedia objects using a standardised set of services (named the Open Hypermedia Protocol Navigational Interface, or simply OHP-Nav), are already operable. A first demonstration of interoperability was presented at the ACM Hypertext '98 Conference in Pittsburgh. The aim of this technical briefing is to be present the most recent work of this effort including support for collaboration and dynamic service discovery and invocation allowing multi-user and/or computational systems.
Telling stories with maps and rules: using the interactive fiction language “inform 7” in a creative writing workshop
  • A A Reed
Writing Interactive Fiction with Twine
  • M Ford
Seven issues": revisited, hypertext’91 closing plenary
  • F G Halasz
Here’s a chart of every choice in the walking dead: season 1 (image
  • E Killham
Beyond branching: quality-based, salience-based, and waypoint narrative structure
  • E Short