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Impact of Internet of Things (IoT) in Smart Agriculture



In today’s world, technology is constantly evolving; various instruments and techniques are available in the agricultural field. And within the agrarian division, the IoT preferences are Knowledge processing. With the help of introduced sensors, all information can be gathered. The reduction of risks, the mechanization of industry, the enhancement of production, the inspection of livestock, the monitoring of environment conditions, the roboticization of greenhouses, and crop monitoring Nearly every sector, like smart agriculture, has been modified by Internet-of-Things (IoT)-based technology, which has shifted the industry from factual to quantitative approaches. The ideas help to link real devices that are equipped with sensors, actuators, and computing power, allowing them to collaborate on a task while staying connected to the Internet, dubbed the “Internet of Things” (IoT). According to the World Telecommunication Union’s Worldwide Guidelines Operation, the Internet of Things (IoT) is a set of sensors, computers, software, and other devices that are connected to the Internet. The paper is highly susceptible to the consequences of its smart agriculture breakthrough.
Impact of Internet of Things (IoT) in Smart
O. Vishali Priya a,1, Dr.R. Sudha a
aDepartment of Computer Science,PSG College of Arts & Science, Coimbatore,
Tamilnadu, India
Abstract. In today's world, technology is constantly evolving; various instruments
and techniques are available in the agricultural field. And within the agrarian
division, the IoT preferences are Knowledge processing. With the help of
introduced sensors, all information can be gathered. The reduction of risks, the
mechanization of industry, the enhancement of production, the inspection of
livestock, the monitoring of environment conditions, the roboticization of
greenhouses, and crop monitoring Nearly every sector, like smart agriculture, has
been modified by Internet-of-Things (IoT)-based technology, which has shifted the
industry from factual to quantitative approaches. The ideas help to link real
devices that are equipped with sensors, actuators, and computing power, allowing
them to collaborate on a task while staying connected to the Internet, dubbed the
"Internet of Things" (IoT). According to the World Telecommunication Union's
Worldwide Guidelines Operation, the Internet of Things (IoT) is a set of sensors,
computers, software, and other devices that are connected to the Internet. The
paper is highly susceptible to the consequences of its smart agriculture
Keywords.: Internet of Things, Smart Farming, Smart Agriculture, Application of
IOT, Benefits of Agriculture, Implications of implementation, Working of
1. Introduction
This theory stems from advancements including the Internet of Things, Big Data, and
Cloud Computing, among others, which have given rise to the concept of smartness.
Farming IoT is a network of monitors, cameras, and computers that can all function
together to help a farmer perform his job more effectively. This computer would be
self-sufficient so that they will be able to interact with one another without the need for
human intervention. To put it another way, the gadgets are pre-programmed with the
knowledge of the moment and the motives for communicating with other instruments
in the scheme.
Several agricultural industries have switched to IoT engineering for smart farming to
increase productivity, performance, global market, and other features such as minimal
human interference, time, and cost, among others. The advancement in technology
ensures that sensors are becoming smaller, more modern, and more affordable. The
O. VISHALI PRIYA, Department of Computer Science, PSG College of Arts & Science, Coimbatore,
Tamilnadu, India
Recent Trends in Intensive Computing
M. Rajesh et al. (Eds.)
© 2021 The authors and IOS Press.
This article is published online with Open Access by IOS Press and distributed under the terms
of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC 4.0).
systems are also easily accessible and all-inclusive, allowing smart farming to be
carried out with complete confidence. The answer to the challenges that this sector is
currently experiencing is keen cultivation, which focuses on empowering advancement
to agriculture. Much of this can be achieved with the aid of mobile phones and IoT
gadgets. A farmer may obtain any need data or information, as well as monitor his
agricultural field.
2. Internet of Things (IoT)
The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most productive and essential methodology for
designing solutions to problems. IoT grows from a number of building blocks, such as
sensors, applications, network elements, and other electronic devices. Furthermore, it
improves the effectiveness of knowledge. IoT allows data to be exchanged across a
network without the need for human intervention.
In the Internet of Things, be prepared to converse with objects in a natural fashion,
rather than in the manner of a regular human being, such as a sensor, a car driver, and
so on. This object has been given an address so that it can transmit data across a
network. According to Gather's study, there would be a 30% increase in connected
computer checks by the end of 2016 relative to 2015. He predicts that by 2020, this
figure will rise to 26 billion.[1].
Because of the following considerations, IoT technology is more efficient:
Access to the internet from every laptop.
As little physical effort as possible
Improved Access
Time Management
Communication that effective
3. Smart Agriculture Using IoT
Agriculture is India's economic development's most important pillar. Climate change is
the most important boundary that conventional farming faces. Overwhelming flooding,
the most extreme hurricanes and warm winds reduced rainfall, and other climatic shifts
are among the many consequences. As a consequence of these considerations,
performance suffers greatly. Climate change often has natural effects, such as periodic
shifts in plant lifecycles.
In order to increase productivity and reduce boundaries in the farming sector, creative
creativity and Internet of Things strategies were needed. The Internet of Things (IoT) is
now shifting its focus to the agricultural sector, enabling farmers to face the immense
obstacles they face. Using IoT, farmers may gain access to a wealth of data and
knowledge regarding future trends and innovation.
O. Vishali Priya and R. Sudha / Impact of Internet of Things (IoT) in Smart Agriculture 41
Since global agriculture is becoming more industrialized, it is critical to establish
agricultural interdepartmental cooperation at the same time. Agricultural
intercolumniation has resulted in a positive change in global agriculture.
As far as agricultural improvement is concerned, rural intercolumniation can be a major
impediment to agricultural progress and reform and a cornerstone for sustaining stable
and sustainable economic growth. We've been concentrating on agricultural data gain
and framework improvement for a while now. Exceptional results had been shown in
rural system improvement after several years of challenging efforts [2].
Smart agriculture is a broad term that refers to agricultural and food production
practises that make use of IoT, big data, and advanced analytics. The Internet of Things
refers to the integration of sensing, automation, and analytics technology into present
agricultural processes. The most common IoT applications in smart agriculture are as
Sensor-based systems for monitoring crops, soil, fields, animals, storage
facilities, and just about anything else that has an impact on productivity.
Smart agricultural vehicles include drones, autonomous robots, and actuators.
Connected agricultural settings include smart greenhouses and hydroponics.
Data analytics, visualization, and management systems.
The Internet of Things, like other industries, offers hitherto impossible efficiency,
resource and expenditure savings, automation, and data-driven operations in agriculture.
However, in agriculture, these benefits aren't improvements; they're cures for an entire
sector beset by a host of serious problems [3].
3.1. Extremely efficient
Agriculture is become a competition. With deteriorating soil, dwindling land supplies,
and increasing weather unpredictability, farmers must produce more. IoT-enabled
agriculture allows farmers to monitor their products and conditions in real time. They
have fast perceptions, can predict issues before they arise, and make well-informed
decisions on how to avoid them. Agriculture IoT solutions include automated features
such as demand-based watering, fertilisation, and robot harvesting.
3.2. Expansion
By the time we reach 9 billion people, 70% of the world's population will be living in
cities. IoT-based greenhouses and hydroponic systems, which should be able to feed
these folks with fresh fruits and vegetables, enable short food supply chains. Thanks to
sophisticated closed-cycle agricultural systems, food may be produced in supermarkets,
on the walls and rooftops of buildings, in shipping containers, and, of course, in the
comfort of everyone's home.
3.3. Resources are in short supply.
Many agricultural IoT solutions seek to make the most efficient use of resources like
water, power, and land. Precision farming is based on data acquired from a variety of
sensors in the field, allowing farmers to precisely allocate exactly adequate nutrients to
one plant.
O. Vishali Priya and R. Sudha / Impact of Internet of Things (IoT) in Smart Agriculture42
3.4. Hygienic Procedure
Smart farming using IoT is a tried-and-true method of reducing pesticide and fertiliser
consumption. Precision farming not only saves water and energy and makes farming
more ecologically friendly, but it also drastically decreases the need of pesticides and
fertilisers. In compared to traditional agricultural methods, this technique yields a
cleaner, more organic end product.
3.5. Agility
One of the benefits of using IoT in agriculture is the increased adaptability of
operations. Thanks to real-time monitoring and forecasting technologies, farmers can
react quickly to any significant change in weather, humidity, air quality, or the
condition of any crop or soil in the field. Agriculture specialists can now save crops in
the face of extreme weather changes thanks to new skills.
3.6. The quality of the product has improved.
Data-driven agriculture aids in the production of more and better commodities. Using
soil and crop sensors, overhead drone monitoring, and farm mapping, farmers may gain
a better understanding of the complex relationships between the environment and the
quality of their crops. Using connected systems, they can replicate ideal conditions and
increase the nutritional value of the goods.
The whole handle revolves around the gathering of data for farmers and other
collaborators to use. Usually, the most critical feature of the activity. Sensors,
microphones, and fawning pictures are among the gadgets included. The second
segment consists of an agreement that will assist in sharing knowledge provided by the
machines, as previously mentioned. Various types of network advancements, such as
GSM, LTE, Wi-Fi, and 3G, may be used based on connectivity and requirements. The
third section, similar to Cloud administrations, consists of data processing and
computing creativity.
Cloud servers may be made open without any limitations, rendering them suitable for
IoT frameworks. On such servers, knowledge may be stored and processed. Cloud
administrations may be accessed on a pay-per-use basis, although they are becoming
more common for this purpose. The system's final component will be the Big Data
analytics tools, which will sift through the vast amounts of data generated and stored on
cloud storage to find important trends and patterns.
The steps in working of Agriculture IOT:
Smart mobile data collection
Network-based data transfer
Cloud-based data collection and computing
Use large data software to analyze data
O. Vishali Priya and R. Sudha / Impact of Internet of Things (IoT) in Smart Agriculture 43
4. Major Applications
Each aspect of conventional farming strategy can be modified on a very simple level by
implementing the most recent detecting and IoT advances in agriculture practices.
Right now, consistent convergence of wireless sensors and the Internet of Things in
smart agriculture will propel agriculture to previously unimaginable heights[4]. IoT
may help advance the solutions to various typical farming problems, such as dry spell
reaction, surrender optimization, arrive reasonableness, water method, and bother
regulation, by adopting the tenets of savvy agriculture [5].
4.1. Climate Change: Agriculture is significantly impacted by climate change.
Furthermore, a lack of understanding of climate has a substantial influence on
agricultural production quantity and quality. IoT technologies, on the other hand, allow
you to track weather conditions in real time. Sensors have been deployed both within
and outside of agriculture regions. They collect data from the environment, which is
then used to determine which crops are most suited to growing and surviving in the
given climatic conditions. Sensors are used across the Internet of Things ecosystem to
accurately monitor real-time weather factors such as humidity, rainfall, temperature,
and more. There are a variety of sensors available to monitor and customise all of these
factors to fit your smart farming demands. These sensors monitor the health of the
crops as well as the weather conditions around them. When unexpected weather
conditions are found, an alarm is dispatched. The necessity for human presence during
inclement weather is removed, boosting output and allowing farmers to enjoy
additional agricultural advantages.
4.2. Precision Farming: One of the most well-known IoT applications in
agriculture is precision farming, often known as precision agriculture. Animal
monitoring, vehicle tracking, field observation, and inventory monitoring are examples
of smart farming applications that serve to make farming more precise and controlled.
The goal of precision farming is to assess data supplied by sensors and respond
appropriately. Precision farming allows farmers to collect data from sensors and
analyse it to make educated and timely decisions. Irrigation management, livestock
management, vehicle tracking, and other precision agricultural procedures are all vital
in increasing efficiency and effectiveness. Precision farming allows you to evaluate soil
conditions as well as other pertinent data in order to increase operational efficiency.
Not only that, but you may also check water and nutrient levels by monitoring the
associated devices' real-time operational conditions.
4.3. Smart Greenhouse: The Internet of Things has allowed weather stations to
change climatic conditions automatically in response to a set of instructions, allowing
us to make our greenhouses smart. In greenhouses, the integration of IoT has
eliminated the need for human intervention, making the entire process more cost-
effective while also increasing accuracy. Solar-powered Internet of Things sensors, for
example, may be utilised to build modern, low-cost greenhouses. These sensors collect
and transmit real-time data, allowing for precise real-time greenhouse monitoring.
Thanks to the sensors, the water use and greenhouse state may be tracked via emails or
SMS messages. Irrigation is carried out automatically and intelligently via the Internet
of Things. Pressure, humidity, temperature, and light levels may all be measured with
these sensors.
O. Vishali Priya and R. Sudha / Impact of Internet of Things (IoT) in Smart Agriculture44
4.4. Data Analytics: IoT device data necessitates more storage than a
conventional database system can supply. Cloud-based data storage and an end-to-end
IoT platform are critical components of the smart agriculture system. These systems are
expected to play a key role in facilitating the execution of better tasks. In the IoT era,
sensors are the primary source of large-scale data collecting. The data is analysed and
transformed into valuable information using analytics tools. Data analytics may be used
to analyse weather, livestock, and agricultural conditions. Using technological
improvements, the knowledge obtained enables for better decision-making. You may
learn about the real-time status of your crops by collecting data from sensors utilising
IoT devices. Predictive analytics can help you gain insight into harvesting decisions
and make better ones. Farmers can utilise trend analysis to forecast upcoming weather
and crop harvesting circumstances. IoT has assisted farmers in preserving crop quality
and soil fertility, resulting in increased production volume and quality in the agriculture
4.5. Aerial Drones in Agriculture: Agricultural operations have almost totally
altered as a result of technology advancements, with the most recent disruption being
the introduction of agricultural drones. Drones are used for agricultural health checks,
crop monitoring, planting, crop spraying, and field analysis on the ground and in the air.
Thanks to suitable strategy and planning based on real-time data, drone technology has
given the agriculture industry a boost and makeover. Drones with thermal or
multispectral sensors detect areas where irrigation has to be adjusted. As the crops
develop, sensors assess their health and calculate their vegetation index. The
environmental impact of smart drones was finally reduced. As a consequence, the
quantity of chemical that reaches the groundwater has decreased significantly [6].
Agriculture facilitated by the Internet of Things has assisted in the adoption of cutting-
edge technology solutions to age-old knowledge. This has helped to close the gap in
output, quality, and yield. Quick reaction and minimum crop damage are ensured by
data obtained by collecting and importing data from multiple sensors for real-time use
or storage in a database. Because to end-to-end intelligent operations and improved
business process execution, produce is processed faster and reaches supermarkets in the
shortest time feasible [7].
5. Implications of Implementation
Agriculture IoT implementation on a wide scale is possible, as it were, with the
government's support [8]. It will aid in the decision-making process by delivering user-
friendly plans and strategies. It can have subsidized gadgets and bases that farmer can't
handle in any other way. Agriculture supply chain flaws must be addressed [9]. To
offer the most severe benefits to farmers and consumers, the position of an agent
should be re- examined and handled [10].
5.1 The apparatus
To build an IoT solution for agricultural, you must first choose the sensors for your
equipment (or create a custom one). The kind of data you want to collect and the
ultimate objective of your solution will guide your selection. In any case, the precision
and dependability of the data obtained will decide the success of your product,
therefore the quality of your sensors is important.
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5.2 The brain
Data analytics should be part of any smart agriculture solution. It'll be pointless if you
can't make sense of the data you've acquired. You'll require advanced data analytics
abilities, as well as prediction algorithms and machine learning, to derive valuable
insights from the acquired data.
5.3 Performing routine maintenance
Maintaining your hardware is a big challenge for IoT devices in agriculture because
sensors are frequently used in the field and can be easily destroyed. As a result, you
must make certain that your hardware is both durable and repairable. You'll have to
replace your sensors more frequently than you'd want if you don't.
5.4 Movement ability
Agricultural applications should be particularly built for use in the field. For a business
owner or farm manager, the information should be available on-site or remotely by
smartphone or desktop computer.Each linked device should also be self-contained and
have enough wireless range to communicate with other devices as well as provide data
to the central server.
5.5 smart-farming-app-development infrastructure.
To ensure that your smart farming application functions well, you'll need a solid
internal architecture (and can manage the data load). Furthermore, your internal
systems must be protected. If you fail to effectively safeguard your system, breaking in,
stealing your data, or even gaining control of your autonomous tractors becomes more
5.6 Interdependence
The necessity for data to be sent across several agricultural locations continues to be a
roadblock to smart farming adoption. Naturally, the connectivity connecting these
facilities must be dependable enough to withstand adverse weather and offer
continuous service [11]. Despite current efforts to develop universal standards in this
area, IoT devices currently use a range of communication protocols. The development
of 5G and technologies like space-based Internet will, hopefully, help to resolve this
5.7 The amount of data collected on a regular basis
Because there are so many different forms of data in the agriculture industry, finding
the optimal data collection frequency may be challenging. Data from field-based, aerial,
and environmental sensors, applications, devices, and equipment, as well as processed
analytical data, are all subject to restrictions and laws. The secure and timely delivery
of this data, as well as its interchange, is one of the most difficult aspects of smart
6. Conclusion
As a result, smart agriculture is needed. The Internet of Things would assist in the
development of smart agriculture. IoT is used in various agricultural domains to
O. Vishali Priya and R. Sudha / Impact of Internet of Things (IoT) in Smart Agriculture46
improve time efficiency, water conservation, crop monitoring, soil management, bug
spray and pesticide safety, and so on. It also eliminates human labor, deconstructs
agricultural methods, and creates a difference in smart farming implementation.
Agriculture is a profession that has relied on traditional practices and experiences up to
now. However, the passage of time has affected rural traditions, and they have started
to adapt to the flow of change. The usage of the Internet of Things (IoT) in agriculture
would increase yields and help control all cultivate operations. Agriculture must
undergo significant improvements since a substantial portion of the population relies on
it for survival.
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The Internet of Things (IoT) concept has met requirements for security and reliability in domains like automotive industry, food industry, as well as precision agriculture. Furthermore, System of Systems (SoS) expands the use of local clouds for the evolution of integration and communication technologies. SoS devices need to ensure Quality of Service (QoS) capabilities including service-oriented management and different QoS characteristics monitoring. Smart applications depend on information quality since they are driven by processes which require communication robustness and enough bandwidth. Interconnectivity and interoperability facilities among different smart devices can be achieved using Arrowhead Framework technology via its core systems and services. Arrowhead Framework is targeting smart IoT devices with wide applicability areas including smart building, smart energy, smart cities, smart agriculture, etc. The advantages of Arrowhead Framework can be underlined by parameters such as transmission speed, latency, security, etc. This paper presents a survey of Arrowhead Framework in IoT/SoS dedicated architectures for smart cities and smart agriculture developed around smart cities, aiming to outline its significant impact on the global performances. The advantages of Arrowhead Framework technology are emphasized by analysis of several smart cities use-cases and a novel architecture for a telemetry system that will enable the use of Arrowhead technology in smart agriculture area is introduced and detailed by authors.
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Agriculture plays an essential role in to develop any country. Afghanistan depends a lot on agriculture because agricultural reports and statistics show that 80% of the Afghan population work in agriculture and livestock. The contribution of agriculture in Afghanistan's gross domestic product (GDP) is 31%. We can improve the sector of agriculture with the use of the internet of things based Smart Farming techniques it improves the whole agri-business by keeping an eye on the field in real-time. Sensors has a very vital role in for the interconnectivity and data gathering, IoT device not only provided new techniques for the farmers but it also increased the time-management of the farmers. With the use of the IoT's now farmers require lesser time on field as IoT powered devices are working for him/her. It reduced the workload of farmers as well as the wastage of many useful resources like water used for irrigation and electricity usage, as it required for the working of so many electrical appliances. IoT devices can easily be used to monitor the real time applications. IoT has the potential to new shape the world so that agriculture will be smart agriculture. We want to control everything from the far way, for example, irrigation, temperature, etc. so we have to use WSN, Wi-Fi or ZigBee modules for controlling the crops. This paper aims to address the use of Internet of Things in the field of agriculture sector.
The use of Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming increasingly common in agribusiness to increase food production capacity for the expanding global population. Recently, low-power wide-area networks (LPWANs) have been used in the development of IoT applications that require low power consumption and low data transmission rates. LoRaWAN is considered the most suitable communication network for LPWANs for IoT applications in smart agriculture. In this paper, we present an in-depth study of the performance of the LoRaWAN communication network in the context of an IoT application for a pilot farm. We consider several scenarios and analyze simulation results by using Network Simulator 3. We then propose a mathematical model that precisely predicts the successful packet delivery rate for this type of network considering the number of nodes and the transmission interval duration. Finally, we validate the results of our model by comparing them with other simulation results under different scenarios.
Conference Paper
Agricultural productivity is that thing on which Indian Economy highly depends. This is the one of the reasons that disease detection in plants plays an important role in agriculture field, as having disease in plants are quite natural. If proper care is not taken in this area then it causes serious effects on plants and due to which respective product quality, quantity or productivity is affected. Detection of plant disease through some automatic technique is beneficial as it reduces a large work of monitoring in big farms of crops, and at very early stage itself it detects the symptoms of diseases means when they appear on plant leaves. This paper presents an algorithm for image segmentation technique used for automatic detection as well as classification of plant leaf diseases and survey on different diseases classification techniques that can be used for plant leaf disease detection. Image segmentation, which is an important aspect for disease detection in plant leaf disease, is done by using genetic algorithm.