Article

RAST: Rapid and energy-efficient network formation in TSCH-based Industrial Internet of Things

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Abstract

The Time Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) mode of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard is expected to revolutionize the Industrial Internet of Things. Indeed, it can achieve high reliability and deterministic latency with a very low duty cycle. Nevertheless, forming a TSCH network with the standard approach might not be as efficient, constituting, thus, one of the TSCH’s major issues. Such a network formation process relies on nodes passively scanning for advertised Enhanced Beacon (EB) frames to join the network. Doing so, a node wishing to join a TSCH network may stay awake randomly scanning for EBs for a considerable period of time, leading to a lengthy formation process with excessive energy consumption. To deal with these issues, this paper presents a practical and effective Radio duty-cycled, Active-Scan based network formation process for TSCH networks (RAST). Our proposal leans on active-scan procedures combined with radio duty cycling mechanisms to shorten joining delays and reduce energy consumption. Obtained results from extensive and realistic simulations show that our solution is efficient and outperforms state-of-the-art solutions, regarding the association time and energy consumption by up to two orders of magnitude.

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... An improved node load balancing is used in [19] to prolong network lifetime. Instead, [20] aims at reducing energy consumption during network formation. Works in [21], [10] suggest practical guidelines and analyze how some communication parameter settings impact on performance indicators, including power consumption. ...
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p>Lifetime of motes in wireless sensor networks can be enlarged by decreasing the energy spent for communication. Approaches like time slotted channel hopping pursue this goal by performing frame exchanges according to a predefined schedule, which helps reducing the duty cycle. Unfortunately, whenever the receiving radio interface is active but nobody in the network is transmitting, idle listening occurs. If the traffic pattern is known in advance, as in the relevant case of periodic sensing, proactive reduction of idle listening (PRIL) noticeably lowers energy waste by disabling receivers when no frames are expected for them. Optimal PRIL operation demands that, at any time, the transmitter and receiver sides of a link have a coherent view of its state (either enabled or disabled). However, this is not ensured in the presence of acknowledgment frame losses. This paper presents and analyzes some strategies to cope with such events. An extensive experimental campaign has been carried out through discrete event simulation to determine what consequences above errors may have from both a functional and performance viewpoint. Results show that, although no strategy is optimal in all circumstances, different solutions can be profitably adopted depending on the specific operating conditions.</p
... An improved node load balancing is used in [19] to prolong network lifetime. Instead, [20] aims at reducing energy consumption during network formation. Works in [21], [10] suggest practical guidelines and analyze how some communication parameter settings impact on performance indicators, including power consumption. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
p>Lifetime of motes in wireless sensor networks can be enlarged by decreasing the energy spent for communication. Approaches like time slotted channel hopping pursue this goal by performing frame exchanges according to a predefined schedule, which helps reducing the duty cycle. Unfortunately, whenever the receiving radio interface is active but nobody in the network is transmitting, idle listening occurs. If the traffic pattern is known in advance, as in the relevant case of periodic sensing, proactive reduction of idle listening (PRIL) noticeably lowers energy waste by disabling receivers when no frames are expected for them. Optimal PRIL operation demands that, at any time, the transmitter and receiver sides of a link have a coherent view of its state (either enabled or disabled). However, this is not ensured in the presence of acknowledgment frame losses. This paper presents and analyzes some strategies to cope with such events. An extensive experimental campaign has been carried out through discrete event simulation to determine what consequences above errors may have from both a functional and performance viewpoint. Results show that, although no strategy is optimal in all circumstances, different solutions can be profitably adopted depending on the specific operating conditions.</p
... An improved node load balancing is used in [19] to prolong network lifetime. Instead, [20] aims at reducing energy consumption during network formation. Works in [21], [10] suggest practical guidelines and analyze how some communication parameter settings impact on performance indicators, including power consumption. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Lifetime of motes in wireless sensor networks can be enlarged by decreasing the energy spent for communication. Approaches like time slotted channel hopping pursue this goal by performing frame exchanges according to a predefined schedule, which helps reducing the duty cycle. Unfortunately, whenever the receiving radio interface is active but nobody in the network is transmitting, idle listening occurs. If the traffic pattern is known in advance, as in the relevant case of periodic sensing, proactive reduction of idle listening (PRIL) noticeably lowers energy waste by disabling receivers when no frames are expected for them. Optimal PRIL operation demands that, at any time, the transmitter and receiver sides of a link have a coherent view of its state (either enabled or disabled). However, this is not ensured in the presence of acknowledgment frame losses. This paper presents and analyzes some strategies to cope with such events. An extensive experimental campaign has been carried out through discrete event simulation to determine what consequences above errors may have from both a functional and performance viewpoint. Results show that, although no strategy is optimal in all circumstances, different solutions can be profitably adopted depending on the specific operating conditions.
... An improved node load balancing is used in [19] to prolong network lifetime. Instead, [20] aims at reducing energy consumption during network formation. Works in [21], [10] suggest practical guidelines and analyze how some communication parameter settings impact on performance indicators, including power consumption. ...
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