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Two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps reported for the first time in Belgium and the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

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Abstract and Figures

The advent of citizen science, the free availability of information and literature, and even social media, have greatly advanced our knowledge on insect fauna in the Low Countries. However, this information is often dispersed and does not always end up being reported in entomological literature. With this paper we want to close this gap for Ichneumonidae, by listing 205 species and nineteen genera first reported in Belgium and the Netherlands. Furthermore, several remarks with more profound morphological and/or ecological relevance are added. For more obscure species like Diadegma cinnabaritor Aubert, 1970, Diphyus restitutor (Wesmael 1859), Ichneumon freyi Kriechbaumer, 1880, Javra opaca (Thomson, 1883), Lissonota pleuralis Brischke, 1880, Meloboris collector (Thunberg, 1824), Micromonodon tener (Kriechbaumer, 1893), Perilissus holmgreni Habermehl, 1925, Piogaster pillosator (Aubert, 1958), Spilothyrateles illuminatorius (Gravenhorst, 1820) and Vulgichneumon trifarius (Berthoumieu, 1892) we provide a more elaborate description and figures. New parasitic relations are mentioned for Acrodactyla degener (Haliday, 1839), Heterischnus debilis (Gravenhorst, 1829) and Nippocryptus vittatorius (Jurine, 1807). An appendix provides the reader with an overview of Ichneumonidae first reported since 2005 (in total 290 species), paving the way for future checklists. [SUBMISSION DATE: 2 May 2021]
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Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
1
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1–142 (2021) ISSN: 2295-0214
www.srbe-kbve.be
urn: lsid:zoobank.org:pub:025AC25A-D801-4588-A7E2-B6EFC69F57DE
Belgian Journal of Entomology
Two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps
reported for the first time in Belgium and the Netherlands
(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)
Fons VERHEYDE1, Paul HOEKSTRA², Pierre-Nicolas LIBERT3, Hilco MEIJER4, Augustijn DE
KETELAERE5, Thibaud VANDAUDENARD6, Dick BELGERS7 & Edwin BROSENS8
1 Aartshertoginnestraat 58/01, B-8400 Ostend, Belgium. E-mail fonsverheyde@hotmail.com (Corresponding
author)
2 Radio Oranjelaan 6, 1318AX Almere, the Netherlands.
3 ULiège, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Unité d’Entomologie fonctionnelle et évolutive. Passage des Déportés 2cr,
B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium.
4 Boekweitkamp 15, 9203HE Drachten, the Netherlands.
5 Noendreef 7, B-8730 Beernem, Belgium.
6 Rue Joseph Joppart 5, B-1300 Wavre, Belgium.
7 Nassauweg 6, 6703CH, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
8 Lange Hei 9, 4714RE, Sprundel, the Netherlands.
Published: Brussels, 02 December, 2021
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
2
Citation: VERHEYDE F. et al., 2021. - Two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps reported for the first time
in Belgium and the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Belgian Journal of Entomology, 122: 1–142.
ISSN: 1374-5514 (Print Edition)
ISSN: 2295-0214 (Online Edition)
The Belgian Journal of Entomology is published by the Royal
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established on April 9, 1855.
Head office: Vautier street 29, B-1000 Brussels.
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Front cover: Piogaster pilosator (Aubert, 1958), female. © Thibaud Vandaudenard.
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
3
Two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps
reported for the first time in Belgium and the Netherlands
(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)
Fons VERHEYDE1, Paul HOEKSTRA², Pierre-Nicolas LIBERT3, Hilco MEIJER4, Augustijn DE
KETELAERE5, Thibaud VANDAUDENARD6, Dick BELGERS7 & Edwin BROSENS8
1 Aartshertoginnestraat 58/01, B-8400 Ostend, Belgium. E-mail fonsverheyde@hotmail.com (Corresponding
author)
2 Radio Oranjelaan 6, 1318AX Almere, the Netherlands.
3 ULiège, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Unité d’Entomologie fonctionnelle et évolutive. Passage des Déportés 2cr,
B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium.
4 Boekweitkamp 15, 9203HE Drachten, the Netherlands.
5 Noendreef 7, B-8730 Beernem, Belgium.
6 Rue Joseph Joppart 5, B-1300 Wavre, Belgium.
7 Nassauweg 6, 6703CH, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
8 Lange Hei 9, 4714RE, Sprundel, the Netherlands.
Abstract
The advent of citizen science, the free availability of information and literature, and even social
media, have greatly advanced our knowledge on insect fauna in the Low Countries. However,
this information is often dispersed and does not always end up being reported in entomological
literature. With this paper we want to close this gap for Ichneumonidae, by listing 205 species
and nineteen genera first reported in Belgium and the Netherlands.
Furthermore, several remarks with more profound morphological and/or ecological relevance
are added. For more obscure species like Diadegma cinnabaritor Aubert, 1970, Diphyus
restitutor (Wesmael 1859), Ichneumon freyi Kriechbaumer, 1880, Javra opaca (Thomson,
1883), Lissonota pleuralis Brischke, 1880, Meloboris collector (Thunberg, 1824),
Micromonodon tener (Kriechbaumer, 1893), Perilissus holmgreni Habermehl, 1925, Piogaster
pillosator (Aubert, 1958), Spilothyrateles illuminatorius (Gravenhorst, 1820) and
Vulgichneumon trifarius (Berthoumieu, 1892) we provide a more elaborate description and
figures. New parasitic relations are mentioned for Acrodactyla degener (Haliday, 1839),
Heterischnus debilis (Gravenhorst, 1829) and Nippocryptus vittatorius (Jurine, 1807).
An appendix provides the reader with an overview of Ichneumonidae first reported since 2005
(in total 290 species), paving the way for future checklists.
Keywords: biodiversity, citizen science, Darwin wasps, Ichneumonidae, parasitoid wasps
Samenvatting
De opkomst van burgerwetenschap, de vrije beschikbaarheid van literatuur en informatie en
zelfs sociale media hebben een grote impact gehad op de toename van onze kennis over
insectenpopulaties in de Lage Landen. Een reëel gevaar is dat de informatie vaak verstrooid
geraakt en niet doorsijpelt tot in de wetenschappelijke literatuur. In deze paper melden we
tweehonderd en vijf soorten sluipwespen (Ichneumonidae) en negentien genera als nieuw voor
België en Nederland en proberen we zo dit hiaat te dichten.
Verder maken we bij verschillende soorten enkele aanvullingen betreffende hun morfologie en
ecologie. Bij meer obscure soorten zoals Diadegma cinnabaritor Aubert, 1970, Diphyus
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
4
restitutor (Wesmael 1859), Ichneumon freyi Kriechbaumer, 1880, Javra opaca (Thomson,
1883), Lissonota pleuralis Brischke, 1880, Meloboris collector (Thunberg, 1824),
Micromonodon tener (Kriechbaumer, 1893), Perilissus holmgreni Habermehl, 1925, Piogaster
pillosator (Aubert, 1958), Spilothyrateles illuminatorius (Gravenhorst, 1820) en
Vulgichneumon trifarius (Berthoumieu, 1892) is er een meer uitgebreide beschrijving,
aangevuld door foto’s. Nieuwe parasitaire relaties worden gemeld voor Acrodactyla degener
(Haliday, 1839), Heterischnus debilis (Gravenhorst, 1829) en Nippocryptus vittatorius (Jurine,
1807).
Een appendix geeft de lezer een overzicht van alle sluipwespen gemeld sinds 2005, in totaal
290 soorten.
sumé
L’arrivée des “sciences citoyennes”, de l’accès libre à l’information et à la littérature
scientifique, voire même des médias sociaux, a permis une avancée importante dans la
connaissance de la faune entomologique en Belgique et aux Pays-Bas. Néanmoins,
l’information est souvent dispersée et elle n’est pas toujours publiée dans la littérature
entomologique. Avec cette publication, nous voulons combler en partie les lacunes pour les
Ichneumonidae en listant environ deux cents espèces et dix-neuf genres rapportés pour la
première fois de Belgique et/ou des Pays-Bas.
De plus, plusieurs commentaires détaillés sont fournis sur les aspects morphologiques et/ou
écologiques de certaines espèces. Pour des espèces moins connues comme Diadegma
cinnabaritor Aubert, 1970, Diphyus restitutor (Wesmael 1859), Ichneumon freyi
Kriechbaumer, 1880, Javra opaca (Thomson, 1883), Lissonota pleuralis Brischke, 1880,
Meloboris collector (Thunberg, 1824), Micromonodon tener (Kriechbaumer, 1893), Perilissus
holmgreni Habermehl, 1925, Piogaster pillosator (Aubert, 1958), Spilothyrateles
illuminatorius (Gravenhorst, 1820) et Vulgichneumon trifarius (Berthoumieu, 1892), nous
fournissons une description et une discussion plus approfondies ainsi que des photos. De
nouvelles relations parasites/hôtes sont mentionnées pour Acrodactyla degener (Haliday,
1839), Heterischnus debilis (Gravenhorst, 1829) et Nippocryptus vittatorius (Jurine, 1807).
Une annexe présente au lecteur un aperçu des “Guêpes de Darwin” rapportées comme nouvelles
depuis 2005, montrant ainsi le chemin vers de nouvelles listes d’espèces.
Introduction
The aim of this paper is providing a firm base for future ichneumonid research in the Low
Countries. As an introduction we make a short sketch of the history of ichneumonid research in
both Belgium and the Netherlands. Strengths and weaknesses are identified, and we try to
explain how some of our collections grew and some of our knowledge gaps (species-wise) were
filled.
However, the main part of this study consists of summing up more than two hundred species
previously unreported. It should indeed be read as a compilation, and the product of many
observers linked to many projects and localities. Provenance is more profoundly discussed in
the “Material and methods” section, where we also discuss the integration of species based on
photographic evidence. In this context one aspect that is crucial for this paper should already
be mentioned, namely the advent of citizen science portals (in casu: waarnemingen.be and
waarneming.nl) in the last decade. Its vast expanse led to an information gap between ‘the
entomological world’, writing more technical in their own journals; and ‘the greater public’,
taking pictures as a hobby and posting them on open platforms.
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
5
One example is the most reported ichneumonid species Ichneumon xanthorius Förster, 1771
with 554 unique records for 2020 in Belgium and 900 in the Netherlands (numbers generated
on 13/04/2021). Countrywide this is the highest density of data on Ichneumonidae in the world.
Indeed, migratory or imported species are reported faster on these portals, with more localities,
and often with some kind of evidence. As a consequence, many of the ‘first reported’ species
already have many records on the citizen science portals (for example Aritranis director
(Thunberg, 1824) or Echthrus reluctator (Linnaeus, 1758) both with more than hundred
records), while not being reported officially in entomological journals. This study functions as
a bridge to close this gap and provides researchers with a more complete view on the present
biodiversity, which gives them some space to focus on historical collections and even explore
the option to say something about trends. In order to maximize results, the first author validated
over 75.000 records of Ichneumonidae on the abovementioned citizen science portals.
Furthermore, we also take a closer look at some projects and areas where several new
Ichneumonidae were recorded for Belgium or the Netherlands. If possible, figures are provided,
especially for some rarer species with little to no images available worldwide. Lastly, two tables
are added: Table 1, summarizing findings between 2005 and 2020 (findings from 2021 have
not been included in this publication) and Table 2 with reported parasite/host relations. This is
a first step for an updated checklist for Belgium, which was written in 2005, and the
establishment of an updated checklist for the Netherlands.
Table 1. Ichneumonidae species first reported since 2005 in Belgium and the Netherlands.
New = species’ presence has been reported in a publication since 2005. New* = species’ presence is reported in
this publication. Unreported = species’ presence has not yet been reported in a publication. Confirmed = species’
presence has been confirmed and reported since 2005. Unconfirmed = species’ presence has not been confirmed
and reported since 2005. Species reported since 2005 (the entire appendix): 290 (Belgium: 166; the Netherlands:
186). Species reported in our publication: 205 (Belgium: 110; the Netherlands: 138).
Record
Status BE
Status NL
Source
ACAENITINAE
Coleocentrus soleatus (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New*
New*
ADELOGNATHINAE
Adelognathus nigriceps Thomson, 1888
Unreported
New*
Adelognathus pusillus Holmgren, 1857
New*
New*
ALOMYINAE
Alomya punctulatae (Schellenberg, 1802)
Unreported
New
M
OL
, 2020
ANOMALONINAE
GRAVENHORSTIINI
Aphanistes bellicosus (Wesmael, 1849)
Confirmed
New*
Barylypa propugnator (Förster, 1855)
Confirmed
New*
Barylypa uniguttata (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Confirmed
New*
Erigorgus melanops (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Confirmed
New*
Erigorgus procerus (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New*
New*
Parania geniculata (Holmgren, 1857)
New*
Unconfirmed
BANCHINAE
ATROPHINI
Alloplasta plantaria (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Confirmed
New*
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
6
Record
Status BE
Status NL
Source
Lissonota admonternsis Strobl, 1902
New*
Unreported
Lissonota bivittata (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2019a
Lissonota digestor (Thunberg, 1822)
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2019a
Lissonota dormitor Brock, 2017
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2019a
Lissonota luffiator Aubert, 1969
New*
New*
Lissonota pleuralis Brischke, 1880
New*
Unreported
Lissonota rufipes Brischke, 1865
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2019a
Lissonota semirufa (Desvignes, 1856)
New*
New*
Lissonota stigmator Aubert, 1972
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2019a
Lissonota subaciculata Bridgman, 1886
Unreported
New*
Lissonota tenerrima Thomson, 1877
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2019a
Lissonota transversostriata (Smits van
Burgst, 1921) New Unreported LIBERT, 2019a
BANCHINI
Exetastes calobatus Gravenhorst, 1829
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2019a
Exetastes maurus Desvignes, 1856
Unreported
New
M
OL
, 2020
Rynchobanchus flavopictus Heinrich, 1937
New
New*
L
IBERT
, 2019a
GLYPTINI
Glypta caudata Thomson, 1889
Unreported
New*
Teleutaea striata (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New
Confirmed
L
IBERT
, 2019a
BRACHYCYRTINAE
Brachycyrtus ornatus Kriechbaumer, 1880 New New
V
ERHEYDE
&
SOORS, 2018; MOL,
2020
CAMPOPLEGINAE
Bathyplectes curculionis (Thomson, 1887)
Unreported
New*
Bathyplectes tibiator (Gravenhorst, 1820)
Unconfirmed
New*
Campoletis ensator (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Unconfirmed
New*
Casinaria albipalpis (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Unreported
New*
Cymodusa declinator (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Unreported
New*
Diadegma cinnabaritor Aubert, 1970
Unreported
New*
Dusona bicoloripes (Ashmaed, 1906)
New*
New*
Dusona genalis (Thomson, 1887)
New*
Unreported
Dusona minor (Provancher, 1879)
Unreported
New*
Dusona peregrina (Wollaston, 1858)
Unconfirmed
New
M
OL
, 2020
Dusona recta (Thomson, 1887)
New*
Unreported
Dusona thomsoni Hinz, 1963
Unreported
New*
Eriborus obscuripes Horstmann, 1987
New*
Unreported
Eriborus perfidus (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Unreported
New*
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
7
Record
Status BE
Status NL
Source
Gonotypus melanostoma (Thomson, 1887)
New*
New*
Lathrostizus macrostoma (Thomson, 1887)
New*
New*
Meloboris alternans (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Unconfirmed
New*
Meloboris collector (Thunberg, 1824)
Confirmed
New*
Olesicampe alboplica (Thomson, 1887)
Unconfirmed
New*
Olesicampe binotata (Thomson, 1887)
Unconfirmed
New*
Olesicampe fulviventris (Gmelin, 1790)
Unconfirmed
New*
Olesicampe heterogaster (Thomson, 1887)
Unreported
New*
Olesicampe macellator (Thunberg, 1822)
New*
Unreported
Olesicampe patellana (Thomson, 1887)
Unconfirmed
New*
Olesicampe sternella (Thomson, 1887)
New*
Unreported
Phobocampe confusa (Thomson, 1887)
Unconfirmed
New*
Phobocampe horstmanni Sedivy, 2004
New*
Unreported
Rhimphoctona melanura (Holmgren, 1860)
Unconfirmed
New*
Tranosema hyperboreum (Holmgren, 1860)
Unreported
New*
Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Confirmed
New*
CREMASTINAE
Cremastus lineatus Gravenhorst, 1829
New*
Unreported
Cremastus pungens (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New*
Confirmed
CRYPTINAE
APTESINI
Aptesis flagitator (Rossi, 1794)
New*
New*
Cratocryptus subpetiolatus (Gravenhorst,
1829) New Unreported LIBERT, 2010
Cubocephalus annulitarsis (Thomson, 1873)
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2010
Cubocephalus sternocerus (Thomson, 1873)
New*
New*
Javra opaca (Thomson, 1873)
Unreported
New*
Rhembobius perscrutator (Thunberg, 1824)
New
New*
L
IBERT
, 2010
CRYPTINI
Acroricnus stylator (Thunberg, 1824)
New*
Confirmed
Agrothereutes aterrimus (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New*
New*
Agrothereutes leucorhaeus (Donovan, 1810)
Confirmed
New*
L
IBERT
, 2010
Apsilops aquaticus (Thomson, 1874)
Unreported
New*
Aritranis director (Thunberg, 1824)
New
New*
L
IBERT
, 2010
Cryptus armator Fabricius, 1804
New
Confirmed
L
IBERT
, 2010
Cryptus titubator (Thunberg, 1822)
Confirmed
New*
Cryptus tuberculatus Gravenhorst, 1829
New*
Unreported
Echthrus reluctator (Linnaeus, 1758)
New
New*
L
IBERT
, 2010
Gambrus tricolor (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New
New*
L
IBERT
, 2010
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
8
Record
Status BE
Status NL
Source
Giraudia gyratoria (Thunberg, 1822)
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2010
Helcostizus restaurator (Fabricius, 1775)
Confirmed
New*
Hidryta sordida (Tschek, 1871)
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2010
Hoplocryptus bellosus (Curtis, 1837)
Confirmed
New*
L
IBERT
, 2010
Hoplocryptus confector (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New
New*
L
IBERT
, 2010
Hoplocryptus melanocephalus (Gravenhorst,
1829) Unconfirmed New*
Ischnus agitator (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New*
New*
Ischnus alternator (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New*
Confirmed
Listrognathus compressicornis (Gravenhorst,
1829) New* New*
Listrognathus mactator (Thunberg, 1824)
Unreported
New*
Mesostenus funebris Gravenhorst, 1829
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2010
Nematopodius debilis (Ratzeburg, 1852)
Confirmed
New*
L
IBERT
, 2010
Nematopodius formosus Gravenhorst, 1829
New*
Unreported
Nippocryptus vittatorius (Jurine, 1807)
New*
New*
Schreineria populnea (Giraud, 1872)
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2010
Trychosis neglecta (Tschek, 1871)
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2010
Trychosis tristator (Tschek, 1871)
New
Confirmed
L
IBERT
, 2010
Xylophrurus lancifer (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New
Unconfirmed
L
IBERT
, 2010
CTENOPELMATINAE
EURYPROCTINI
Euryproctus bivinctus Holmgren, 1857
Unconfirmed
New
M
OL
, 2020
Euryproctus regenerator (Fabricius, 1804)
Unreported
New
M
OL
, 2020
Gunomeria macrodactylus (Holmgren, 1856)
Unreported
New*
Hadrodactylus gracilis (Stephens, 1835)
Unreported
New
M
OL
, 2020
Hadrodactylus nigrifemur Thomson, 1883
New*
Confirmed
MESOLEIINI
Alexeter gracilentus (Holmgren, 1857)
New*
Unconfirmed
PERILISSINI
Absyrtus vernalis Bauer, 1961
New*
New
M
OL
, 2020
Bremiella pulchella Kriechbaumer, 1890
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2020
Lathiponus semiluctuosus (Vollenhoven,
1878) New Unconfirmed LIBERT, 2020
Lathrolestes clypeatus (Zetterstedt, 1838)
New*
Unconfirmed
Lathrolestes ensator (Brauns, 1898)
New*
Unconfirmed
Lathrolestes moravicus (Habermehl, 1923) Unreported New
Z
WAKHALS
&
BLOMMERS, 2020
Lathrolestes pleuralis (Thomson, 1883) Unreported New
Z
WAKHALS
&
BLOMMERS, 2020
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
9
Record
Status BE
Status NL
Source
Perilissus albitarsis Thomson, 1883
New*
New
Op.cit.; M
OL
, 2020
Perilissus dissimilitor Aubert, 1987 Unreported New
Z
WAKHALS
&
BLOMMERS, 2020
Perilissus holmgreni Habermehl, 1925
New*
Unreported
Priopoda apicaria (Geoffroy, 1785)
New*
New
M
OL
, 2020
Trematopygodes auriculator Hinz, 1980 Unreported New
Z
WAKHALS
&
BLOMMERS, 2020
PIONINI
Glyptorhaestus periclistor Hinz, 1975
Unreported
New
M
OL
, 2020
Lethades laricis Hinz, 1976
New*
Unreported
CYLLOCERIINAE
Allomacrus arcticus (Holmgren, 1880)
Unreported
New*
Cylloceria caligata (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New*
Confirmed
Cylloceria sylvestris (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Unreported
New*
DIACRITINAE
Diacritus aciculatus (Vollenhoven, 1878)
New
Unconfirmed
L
IBERT
, 2019b
EUCEROTINAE
Euceros albitarsus Curtis, 1837 New Confirmed
L
IBERT
&
HENRARD, 2012
Euceros superbus Kriechbaumer, 1888 New Unreported
L
IBERT
&
HENRARD, 2012
ICHNEUMONINAE
HERESIARCHINI
Coelichneumon erythromerus (Rudow,
1888) Confirmed New* RIEDEL, 2012
Coelichneumon opulentus (Taschenberg,
1871) Unreported New*
ICHNEUMONINI
Cratichneumon armillatops Rasnitsyn, 1981
New*
Unconfirmed
Cratichneumon sexarmillatus
(Kriechbaumer, 1891) New* Unconfirmed
Ctenochares bicolorus (Linnaeus, 1767)
New
New
V
ERHEYDE
, 2019
Diphyus restitutor (Wesmael, 1859)
Unconfirmed
New*
Exephanes riesei (Habermehl, 1916)
New*
Confirmed
Hoplismenus terrificus Wesmael, 1848
Confirmed
New*
Ichneumon freyi Kriechbaumer, 1880
New*
Unreported
Orgichneumon calcatorius (Thunberg, 1822)
Unreported
New*
Spilothyrateles illuminatorius (Gravenhorst,
1820) Confirmed New*
Vulgichneumon trifarius (Berthoumieu,
1892) New* New*
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
10
Record
Status BE
Status NL
Source
LISTRODROMINI
Anisobas rebellis Wesmael, 1845
New*
New*
PHAEOGENINI
Dicaelotus punctiventris (Thomson, 1891)
Unreported
New
M
OL
, 2020
Heterischnus debilis (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New*
Unreported
PLATYLABINI
Ectopoides brevicornis (Kriechbaumer,
1890) Unreported New*
METOPIINAE
Carria paradoxa Schmiedeknecht, 1924
Unreported
New*
OPHIONINAE
Enicospilus adustus (Haller, 1835)
Unreported
New*
Enicospilus cerebrator Aubert, 1966 New Unreported
V
ERHEYDE
et al.,
2020b
Enicospilus inflexus (Ratzeburg, 1844)
New*
New*
Enicospilus myricae Broad & Shaw, 2016 New Unreported
V
ERHEYDE
et al.,
2020b
Eremotylus marginatus (Jurine, 1807)
New*
Confirmed
Ophion brocki Johansson, 2019
Unreported
New*
Ophion confusus Johansson, 2019
Unreported
New*
Ophion crassicornis Brock, 1982
New*
New*
Ophion inclinans Johansson, 2019
New*
Unreported
Ophion ocellaris Ulbricht, 1926
New*
Confirmed
Ophion slaviceki Kriechbaumer, 1892
New*
New*
Ophion splendens Johansson, 2019
New*
Unreported
Ophion variegatus Rudow, 1883
New*
New*
ORTHOCENTRINAE
Aniseres pallipes Förster, 1871
Unreported
New*
Plectiscidea communis (Förster, 1871)
Unreported
New*
Proclitus attentus Förster, 1871
New*
Unconfirmed
Stenomacrus celer (Holmgren, 1858)
Unreported
New*
Stenomacrus meijeri Woelke, Pham &
Humala, 2020 Unreported New
W
OELKE
et al.,
2020
Stenomacrus vafer (Holmgren, 1858)
Unreported
New*
PHYGADEUONTINAE
Aclastus pilosus Horstmann, 1980
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2010
Aclastus solutus (Thomson, 1884)
New
Confirmed
L
IBERT
, 2010
Acrolyta marginata (Bridgman, 1883)
New*
Unreported
Acrolyta nens (Hartig, 1838)
New
New*
L
IBERT
, 2010
Arotrephes perfusor (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New*
New*
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
11
Record
Status BE
Status NL
Source
Atractodes angustipennis Förster, 1876
Unconfirmed
New*
Atractodes arator Haliday, 1838
New*
New*
Atractodes pusillus Förster, 1876
Unreported
New*
Bathythrix aerea (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New
Unconfirmed
L
IBERT
, 2010
Bathythrix claviger (Taschenberg, 1865)
New*
Confirmed
Bathythrix collaris (Thomson, 1896)
New*
Unreported
Bathyrhrix linearis (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2010
Bathythrix spheginus (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New*
Unreported
Charitopes leucobasis Townes, 1983
Unreported
New*
Chirotica decorator (Villers, 1789)
Unreported
New*
Dichrogaster liostylus (Thomson, 1885)
New
Unconfirmed
L
IBERT
, 2010
Dichrogaster modesta (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Unreported
New*
Encrateola laevigata (Ratzeburg, 1848)
New*
Confirmed
Endasys alutaceus (Habermehl, 1812)
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2010
Endasys analis (Thomson, 1883)
New*
Unreported
Endasys plagiator (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New
Unconfirmed
L
IBERT
, 2010
Endasys talitzkii (Telenga, 1961)
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2010
Ethelurgus balearicus (Kriechbaumer, 1894)
New*
Unreported
Gelis albipalpus (Thomson, 1884)
Unreported
New*
Gelis apterus (Pontoppidan, 1763)
Unreported
New*
Gelis festinans (Fabricius, 1798)
New*
Confirmed
Gelis intermedius (Förster, 1850)
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2010
Gelis longicauda (Thomson, 1884)
New*
Confirmed
Gelis mangeri (Gravenhorst, 1815)
New*
Confirmed
Gelis micrurus (Förster, 1850)
Unreported
New*
Gelis spurius (Förster, 1850)
New
Confirmed
L
IBERT
, 2010
Gnotus tenuipes (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Unconfirmed
New*
Lochetica westoni (Bridgman, 1880)
New*
New*
Mastrulus marshalli (Bridgman & Fitch,
1882) New Unreported LIBERT, 2010
Medophron recurvus (Thomson, 1884)
Unconfirmed
New*
Mesoleptus scrutator (Haliday, 1838)
New
Unconfirmed
L
IBERT
, 2010
Mesoleptus vigilatorius (Förster, 1876)
New*
New*
Micromonodon tener (Kriechbaumer, 1893)
New*
New*
Obisiphaga stenoptera (Marshall, 1868)
New*
Confirmed
Orthizema amabile (Hedwig, 1939)
Unreported
New*
Orthizema hadrocerum (Thomson, 1884)
New*
New*
Orthizema nigriventre Horstmann, 1992
Unreported
New*
Phygadeuon dromicus (Gravenhorst, 1815)
Unreported
New*
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
12
Record
Status BE
Status NL
Source
Phygadeuon paradoxus (Bridgman, 1889)
New*
Unreported
Polyaulon paradoxus (Zetterstedt, 1838)
New*
Confirmed
Pygocryptus brevicornis (Brischke, 1881)
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2010
Thaumatogelis audax (Olivier, 1792)
New*
New*
Thaumatogelis gallicus (Seyrig, 1928)
New
New*
L
IBERT
, 2010
Theroscopus fasciatulus Horstmann, 1979
New
Unreported
L
IBERT
, 2010
Theroscopus melanopygus (Gravenhorst,
1829) New Unconfirmed LIBERT, 2010
Theroscopus ochrogaster (Thomson, 1888)
Unreported
New*
Theroscopus pullator (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Unreported
New*
Theroscopus trifasciatus Förster, 1850
New*
New*
Tropistes nitidipennis Gravenhorst, 1829
New*
Unreported
PIMPLINAE
DELOMERISTINI
Pseudorhyssa alpestris (Holmgren, 1860)
New*
New*
Pseudorhyssa nigricornis (Ratzeburg, 1852)
New*
New*
EPHIALTINI
Acrodactyla degener (Haliday, 1839)
New*
New*
Acrodactyla quadrisculpta (Gravenhorst,
1820) Confirmed New
B
ELGERS
et al.,
2013
Dolichomitus messor (Gravenhorst, 1829)
New*
New*
Dolichomitus quercicolus Zwakhals, 2010
New
New
Z
WAKHALS
, 2010
Exeristes roborator (Fabricius, 1793)
Confirmed
New*
Iania pictifrons (Thomson, 1877)
Unreported
New*
Piogaster pilosator (Aubert, 1958)
New*
Unreported
Polysphincta boops (Tschek, 1869)
New*
New
M
OL
, 2020
Polysphincta longa Kasparyan, 1976
New*
Unreported
Polysphincta rufipes Gravenhorst, 1829
New*
New*
Polysphincta tuberosa Gravenhorst, 1829
New*
New*
Scambus puniceus (Schmiedeknecht, 1914)
New*
Unreported
Schizopyga circulator (Panzer, 1800)
New*
Confirmed
Schizopyga flavifrons Holmgren, 1856
New*
Unreported
Schizopyga frigida Cresson, 1870
New*
New*
Sinarachna nigricornis (Holmgren, 1860)
Unconfirmed
New*
Tromatobia variabilis (Holmgren, 1856)
New*
Unreported
PIMPLINI
Pimpla processioneae Ratzeburg, 1849
Unreported
New
Z
WAKHALS
, 2005
THERONIINI
Theronia laevigata (Tschek, 1869)
Unconfirmed
New*
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
13
Record
Status BE
Status NL
Source
POEMENIINAE
POEMENIINI
Neoxorides nitens (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Confirmed
New*
Podoschistus scutellaris (Desvignes, 1856)
Confirmed
New*
RHYSSINAE
Megarhyssa perlata (Christ, 1791) Confirmed New
M
OL
&
ZWAKHALS, 2017
Megarhyssa rixator (Schellenberg, 1802)
New*
New*
Megarhyssa superba (Schrank, 1781) Confirmed New
M
OL
&
ZWAKHALS, 2017
Megarhyssa vagatoria (Fabricius, 1793) New* New
Z
WAKHALS
&
SMITS 2012
STILBOPINAE
Stilbops ruficornis (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Confirmed
New*
TERSILOCHINAE
Allophroides platyurus (Strobl, 1904)
Unreported
New
K
HALAIM
, 2016
Aneuclis brevicauda (Thomson, 1889)
New*
Unreported
Barycnemis alpina (Strobl, 1901)
Unreported
New
M
OL
, 2020
Barycnemis angustipennis (Holmgren, 1860)
New*
Unconfirmed
Barycnemis bellator (Müller, 1776)
New*
Confirmed
K
HALAIM
, 2016
Barycnemis punctifrons Horstmann, 1981
New*
Unreported
Diaparsis carinifer (Thomson, 1889)
Unreported
New
K
HALAIM
, 2016
Heterocola nigrotibialis Horstmann et
Kolarov, 1988 Unreported New KHALAIM, 2016
Phradis interstitialis (Thomson, 1889)
Unreported
New
K
HALAIM
, 2016
Phradis nigritulus (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Unreported
New*
Phrudus monilicornis Bridgman, 1886
New
Unconfirmed
L
IBERT
, 2019b
Probles caudiculatus Khalaim, 2007
Unreported
New
K
HALAIM
, 2016
Probles crassipes (Thomson, 1889)
Unconfirmed
New
K
HALAIM
, 2016
Probles erythrostomus (Gravenhorst, 1829) Confirmed New
Op.cit. 2016; M
OL
,
2020
Probles marginatus (Bridgman, 1986)
Unreported
New
K
HALAIM
, 2016
Probles microcephalus (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Unreported
New
K
HALAIM
, 2016
Probles neoversutus (Horstmann, 1967) Unreported New
Op.cit. 2016; M
OL
,
2020
Probles nigriventris Horstmann, 1971
Unreported
New
M
OL
, 2020
Probles xanthopus (Holmgren, 1860)
Unreported
New
M
OL
, 2020
Sathropterus pumilus (Holmgren, 1860)
New*
New
K
HALAIM
, 2016
Tersilochus caudatus (Holmgren, 1860)
New
New*
K
HALAIM
, 2016
Tersilochus cognatus (Holmgren, 1860)
New*
Confirmed
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
14
Record
Status BE
Status NL
Source
Tersilochus fenestralis (Thomson, 1889)
Unreported
New
K
HALAIM
, 2016
Tersilochus lapponicus Hellen, 1958
Unreported
New*
Tersilochus liopleuris (Thomson, 1889)
Unreported
New
K
HALAIM
, 2016
Tersilochus longicaudatus Horstmann, 1971
Unconfirmed
New
K
HALAIM
, 2016
Tersilochus obscurator (Aubert, 1959)
Unreported
New*
Tersilochus striola (Thomson, 1889)
Unconfirmed
New
K
HALAIM
, 2016
Tersilochus thyridialis Horstmann, 1971
Unreported
New
K
HALAIM
, 2016
TRYPHONINAE
PHYTODIETINI
Netelia fuscicarpus (Kokujev, 1899)
New*
Unreported
Netelia millieratae (Kriechbaumer, 1897) New Unreported
V
ERHEYDE
et al.,
2020b
Netelia thoracica (Woldstedt, 1880)
Unreported
New*
Netelia vinulae (Scopoli, 1763)
New*
Unconfirmed
TRYPHONINI
Cosmoconus meridionator Aubert, 1963
New*
New*
Cosmoconus nigriventris Kasparyan, 1971
Unreported
New*
Cteniscus pedatorius (Panzer, 1809)
New*
New*
Ctenochira genalis (Thomson, 1883)
Unreported
New
M
OL
, 2020
Dyspetes arrogator Heinrich, 1949
New*
New
M
OL
, 2020
Eridolius bimaculatus (Holmgren, 1856)
New*
Unconfirmed
Erromenus analis Brischke, 1871
Unreported
New*
Erromenus plebejus (Woldstedt, 1878)
New*
Unreported
Exenterus tricolor Roman, 1913
Unreported
New*
Exyston pratorum (Woldstedt, 1874)
Confirmed
New*
Grypocentrus cinctellus Ruthe, 1855
Unconfirmed
New
M
OL
, 2020
Polyblastus macrocentrus Thomson, 1888
Unreported
New*
Tryphon latrator (Fabricius, 1781)
Confirmed
New*
XORIDINAE
Odontocolon appendiculatum (Gravenhorst,
1829) Unreported New MOL, 2020
Xorides alpestris (Habermehl, 1903) New* New*
L
IBERT
&
VERHEYDE, 2021
Xorides brachylabis (Kriechbaumer, 1889) New* New*
L
IBERT
&
VERHEYDE, 2021
Xorides csikii (Clement, 1938)
New*
New*
Xorides sepulchralis (Holmgren, 1860)
New*
New*
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
15
Table 2. Trophic relations of Ichneumonidae species. * = relation new to science (based on YU et al., 2016 and
more recent literature); ** = not reared, field observation of parasitism; *** = combination of the above.
Ichneumonid
Host
Acrodactyla degener
(Haliday, 1839)*
Tenuiphantes flavipes
(Blackwall, 1854)
Acrodactyla degener (Haliday, 1839)
Tenuiphantes tenuis (Blackwall, 1852)
Acroricnus stylator (Thunberg, 1824)
Eumenes sp. and Eumenes coarctatus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Agrothereutes leucorhaeus (Donovan, 1810)
Lasiocampa quercus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Barylypa propugnator (Förster, 1855)**
Tyria jacobaeae (Linneaus, 1758)
Cteniscus pedatorius (Panzer, 1809)
Craesus septentrionalis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Gelis albipalpus (Thomson, 1884)
Bucculatrix (ulmella?) (Zeller, 1848)
Heterischnus debilis (Gravenhorst, 1829)*
Amblyptilia acanthadactyla (Hübner, 1813)
Nippocryptus vittatorius (Jurine, 1807)*** Taleporia tubulosa (Retzius, 1783)
Phobocampe confusa (Thomson, 1887)
Aglais io (Linnaeus, 1758)
Polysphincta boops (Tschek, 1869)
Araniella spp.
Polysphincta rufipes Gravenhorst, 1829
Larinioides sclopetarius (Westring, 1851)
Polysphincta tuberosa Gravenhorst, 1829
Araniella spp.
Sinarachna nigricornis (Holmgren, 1860)
Araneidae
Stilbops ruficornis
(Gravenhorst, 1829)**
Nemophora metallica
(Poda, 1761)
Brief history of research on Ichneumonidae
As long as there has been human civilization, people have been wondering about nature and
insects. Describing their behaviour and diversity more systematically is something we
Europeans first connect to ancient Greek society. There is no doubt there were important Asian
traditions as well. However, those traditions have not survived and/or are, even at this stage,
difficult to access from other parts of the world. Some glimpses are the later examples in older
Chinese literature (10th century) on biological control with insects (LIU, 1939) and there is a
famous example for forensic entomology, which has a strong Chinese tradition starting from
the 13th century onwards (TZU & MC KNIGHT, 1981).
However, in the 4th century BC Aristotle was the first to coin the term ‘Ichneumon’ in his Ton
peri ta zoia historion or Historia animalium (VIII: 609). More specifically, he mentions it in
the context of war: “κα χνεύμων κα φάλαγξ· θηρεύει γὰρ τος φάλαγγας χνεύμων” - “At
war are […] And ichneumon and venom-spider; for the ichneumon hunts the spiders.”
(translation from Peck; Loeb-edition). While it is clear Aristotle seems to have used the
expression for other hymenopterans, possibly Pompilidae, the word was recuperated by Early
Modern scholars. Finally, it was the French entomologist Latreille who fixed the term in 1802
in a volume of his Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes.
Ironically, it was also Aristotle’s idea of Generatio Spontaneum (or the Christian recuperation
of this idea) that hindered any conceptualizations of parasitism as a biological phenomenon
(VIDAL, 2005).
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
16
At the end of the 17th century, attention for parasitoids increased in Europe. Not only was field
equipment now largely available (HÜNNINGER, 2018), we also see an increase in literature and
art on the topic. The Netherlands and especially the area of Amsterdam played a pivotal role
with many important scholars (Blankaerts, Goedaert, Swammerdam, Mouffet, Jonston and Van
Leeuwenhoek) and many cabinets of natural history (VIDAL, 2005).
The great taxonomists of the 18th century did definitively pave the way for the following
generations and established the main line of thinking for many decades thereafter. They also
introduced professionalism to the discipline by making sound rules and handbooks for
naturalists, with information on collecting, storing, and preserving. The paradigmatic changes
in perception, systematization and classification of insects were brought about by the
advancement of these Linnaean systematics in zoology and botany around 1750. Another
important tendency that influenced the interest in insects from the second half of the 18th century
onwards, were the expanding numbers of collected specimens in natural history or curiosa
cabinets, compiled through local and global markets or expeditions, which of course can be
linked to (pre-)colonialism (HÜNNINGER, 2018).
Although at least one part of the public used to be a ‘gentlemen’s’ public, mainly interested in
collecting insects during leisure, the professional public kept growing from the 19th century
onwards. An important factor at play here was the rise of the nation-state, and the
professionalization of existing institutions (universities, museums, associations…).
Taxonomic work nowadays has been thoroughly internationalised. Otto Schmiedeknecht was
the last one to deliver a complete overview on all subfamilies in his Opuscula
Ichneumonologica (1902–1904). Around 1970, the American Henry Townes made an
important introduction to the world genera, and in 2018 an updated general introduction to the
subfamilies of Ichneumonidae was published by Gavin Broad, Mark Shaw and Michael Fitton.
However, generally speaking, recent keys and revisions in Ichneumonidae became highly
specialized from the second half of the 20th century onwards. Therefore, researchers often chose
to focus on certain subfamilies, for example Klaus Horstmann and Martin Schwarz on
Campopleginae, Cryptinae and Phygadeuontinae, Dmitriy Kasparyan on Tryphoninae and
Ctenopelmatinae, Jacques Aubert on Banchinae, etc. This tendency is still there today, and
sometimes leads to practical difficulties, for example in projects which require holistic
approaches. Keys nowadays ideally consist of pictures in high resolution and if possible, with
molecular evidence being integrated (for example, JOHANSSON & CEDERBERG, 2019).
The first generation of entomologists in Belgium is represented by Pierre Léonard Vander
Linden (1797–1831), who was mainly specialised in Crabronidae and Sphecidae, and died at a
young age, and Constantin Wesmael (1798–1872), who did extensive work on Ichneumonidae
and Braconidae. Surprisingly, this was not on a professional basis. Wesmael learned about the
natural sciences through self-study and was a teacher in several secondary schools. After
writing several monographs and describing many genera and species new to science, his
collection was donated to the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences in Brussels (PAULY,
2001). Wesmael’s work, as mentioned above, should be seen in a broader international context
where describing species was the prime motivation of many researchers, influenced by Linnean
systematics. Contemporaries (some of them correspondents) were Bondroit, Dahlbom, Gmelin,
Fabricius, Gravenhorst, Kohl, Latreille (see above), Lepeletier, Mayr, Nylander, Panzer,
Schiødte and Westwood (REEMER et al., 2004). From the second half of the 19th century
onwards, and possibly under influence of the ideas of Charles Darwin, a (slow) shift was
induced towards the biology and ecology of the insects.
Charles Darwin himself has an important connection with parasitic wasps. In a famous letter
(no. 2814, to Asa Gray) he says: “I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent and omnipotent
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
17
God would have designedly created the Ichneumonidae with the express intention of their
feeding within the living bodies of caterpillars.” This has led modern scholars to use the term
“Darwin’ wasps” for Ichneumonidae (see BRAECKMAN, 2001; KLOPFSTEIN et al., 2019).
While research in Belgium had been mainly rooted in (descriptive) taxonomy and began rather
early, researchers in Germany and the Netherlands have a larger tradition of this ‘newer’ type
of research. In 1844, the incidence of hyperparasitism was discovered by the German
entomologist Ratzeburg (VIDAL, 2005). S.C. Snellen van Vollenhoven, curator of the
Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden on the other hand, is often cited as the prime
Dutch researcher of insect taxonomy. In 1858, he made a checklist of Hymenoptera with Dutch
names. In his work there is quite a lot of attention already to the biology and ecology of wasps.
His main work, therefore, is not just entitled ‘Insects’, but ‘Insects: their metamorphosis and
behaviour’ (De insecten: hunne gedaantewisseling en levenswijze). It is also one of the first
works written in Dutch, for a somewhat larger public. His major work was the Pinacographia,
which partly appeared between 1875 and 1880 and had the aim of providing illustrations of
more than thousand species to the readers. It was never finished unfortunately (KRIKKEN et al.,
1981).
In the second part of the 19th century and the first part of 20th century, interest in Ichneumonidae
decreased in Belgium. Jules Tosquinet (1824–1902) donated a large collection of ichneumonids
to the natural history museum in Brussels, although he did not describe any species. He had a
function in the health service of the army and was thus able to collect insects from many
different locations. Other researchers also made smaller donations (PAULY, 2001).
Another checklist for the Netherlands appeared around the First World War, written by Smits
van Burgst (SMITS VAN BURGST, 1911). He often reared parasitic wasps (a tradition that is still
much more common in the Netherlands than in Belgium) and also studied the economic
importance (often biological control) of ichneumonids, in close collaboration with the research
centres near Wageningen (SMITS VAN BURGST, 1918). A third checklist for Ichneumonidae was
made by Herman Teunissen (1914-1992) in 1948 and 1972 (TEUNISSEN, 1948 & 1972). He was
specialised on Campopleginae, Ctenopelmatinae and Tryphoninae, not coincidently the more
common groups in relation to rearing (VAN ACHTERBERG, 1992b).
Roughly stated, from the 1960s onwards, tendencies of the preceding decades accumulated in
different forms of entomology: an academic one focusing on biochemical and genetic
processes, sometimes with a connection to agriculture and biocontrol, and a non-academic one
focusing on taxonomy and field biology. Sometimes the two were united, especially for the
people working professionally in Wageningen (for example K.W.R. Zwart and G. Van Rossem,
who made several important contributions to Cryptinae and Orthocentrinae, see also VAN
ACHTERBERG, 1992a). In Belgium there is a similar connection with the ULiège Gembloux
Agro-Bio Tech. Camille Thirion, associate at Gembloux, was first to make a profound checklist
for Belgium in 2005.
In the first two decades of the 21st century research on ichneumonids in the Netherlands has
been mostly done by Kees Zwakhals, providing keys for some genera and reporting several
species new to the Dutch fauna. He is also responsible for the ichneumonids on the platform
Fauna Europaea. Kees van Achterberg also made important contributions (although his main
work is on Braconidae) and acted as co-author for the database Taxapad (YU et al., 2012). For
Belgium there was the project around Somal (see Localities), with many publications (mainly
reporting species new to the Belgian fauna) by Pierre-Nicolas Libert.
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
18
Material and methods
As already mentioned in our Introduction, the main reason for compiling our study was the
presence of many unreported species on citizen science portals with photographic evidence.
Reporting species based on photographic evidence only is rather contested within the
entomological world. One set of arguments is based on identification. Some genera or species
are simple deemed too difficult to identify with any certainty. We acknowledge that this is true
in several cases, but this should not be used as a slippery slope argument. Some deeper issues
are often at play, for example the unavailability of good or reliable keys, or, for example, the
unavailability of clear and validated pictures, which can somehow serve as a proxy of a
reference collection. Furthermore, to limit identification problems, we contacted many experts
across the world to ensure every species (with solely photographic evidence) was validated by
at least two individual researchers.
A more solid argument is made by taxonomists. Some species still have an uncertain status, and
when there are no specimens available to falsify taxonomical changes, we simply cannot know
which species the author reported. We acknowledge this fact, and have excluded genera that
need to be revised profoundly (i.e. Exochus or Mesochorus) or treated with extra care (i.e.
Alexeter, Netelia and Phygadeuon).
While writing this manuscript, many specimens were added from all authors of this paper. Many
of these collected specimens confirmed first reports from the citizen science portals and
elevated the percentage of ‘new’ species in collection. The origin of these specimens is diverse:
malaise traps, light traps, pitfall traps, yellow or white pan traps and finally catches in the field
with or without a sweeping net. Some of these findings are related to projects (Belgium: region
of Bruges, ENDURE-project; The Netherlands: Soesterberg, malaise traps near Tilburg and in
Frisia). With the exception of one historical collection (collection Crèvecoeur; see VERHEYDE
& DEKONINCK (2021), in press.), no historical material (specimens collected before 2000) was
checked. Several projects will be elaborately discussed in specific papers in the future, but here
we briefly want to sketch an overview of some of these important localities.
All eight authors confidently confirm that their own findings and catches were made in
correspondence with the existing legal framework (see THOMAES et al., 2019 for Belgium).
Permits were asked if necessary and we want to state this was explicitly the case for the use of
non-selective traps in nature reserves. As far as we are aware, this was also the case for the
records integrated from other observers and those from citizen science portals. However, we
distance ourselves from any infringements that may have occurred on this end. Observers have
the legal and ethical responsibility to follow the code of conduct as stated on
https://waarnemingen.be/pages/code-of-conduct/ and https://waarneming.nl/pages/code-of-
conduct
Finally, it is important to note that we based our notion of ‘first report’ on all existing literature,
with THIRION (2005) for Belgium and ‘NEDERLANDS SOORTENREGISTER’ for the Netherlands
(species registered on 1 January 2020) as guidance. While writing this paper, we discovered
both these sources have their flaws. In Thirion’s list some species already published are missing
(for example Diadromus collaris (Gravenhorst, 1829) reported by WESMAEL (1844) near
Brussels) and in ‘Nederlands Soortenregister’ some unpublished species are integrated.
LOCALITIES AND INVOLVED PROJECTS
DISCLAIMER: All details (full taxonomic names and sources except explicitly referred to here)
can be found in our ‘Species’ section. This chapter should be seen as a summary with a focus
on some of the localities visited.
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
19
COASTAL AREAS IN BELGIUM AND THE NETHERLANDS
(Fig. 1)
Although it is difficult to say anything definitive without thoroughly revising the historical
collections in Belgium, the coast seems to be rather poorly studied for Hymenopterans (esp.
“Parasitica”). Due to habitat fragmentation, urbanization, the growth of tourism, the agricultural
use of pesticides, etc., many coastal areas have disappeared or shrunk to small patches.
Hobbyists and environmentalists have primarily focused on the Belgian West coast as it is
known to be high on biodiversity.
Additional to citizen science portals, an important and more systematic opportunity to mitigate
this idea was offered by the European project ENDURE, where coastal resilience is studied
around the North Sea. One of the investigated aspects (guided by the UGent, research group
TEREC) was measuring biodiversity on marram grass (Ammophila arenaria). Samples were
taken randomly along the Belgian coast, the Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom. This
was mainly limited to the summer months (July and August).
Many uncommon species were found, clearly proving that some nature reserves along the
Belgian Middle and East coast still house rare and specialised ichneumonids. Particularly good
results were reached in Knokke (Het Zwin) and the dunes of Bredene-De Haan-Wenduine
(Fig. 1). For these localities we report five new species in this study: Ischnus agitator,
Lathrostizus macrostoma, Lissonota pleuralis, Scambus puniceus and Tromatobia variabilis.
Seldomly reported were the diplazontine wasps Enizemum ornatum and Woldstedtius
biguttatus. A full list of the findings will be published at the end of the project.
Collected specimens can be allocated to different groups of opportunistic common species and
specialist rare species. Among the latter group are those species we also encounter in the
heathland areas (see ‘Heathlands of Bruges’). They are often specialists of open soils, where
hosts are easy to reach and located near the soil. For this project, the findings of this group
(within Ichneumonidae) were rather low, which probably has to do with the fact that most of
the specimens were caught with a sweeping net on the plants.
Another group consists of parasitoids with specific dune-related hosts (cf. our Results and YU
et al., 2012 for more details on those relations). The prime example is the first reported
Lissonota pleuralis, which is a known parasitoid of the very rare lepidopteran Eudonia lineola
(Curtis, 1827). Tyria jacobaeae is a host for Barylypa propugnator and Virgichneumon
maculicauda. Lissonota cruentator is specialised on the lepidopteran Synaphe punctalis. Also
common was Anomalon cruentatum. There were many diplazontinae wasps like Diplazon
laetatorius, which use the aphid-eating larvae of hoverflies as a host and are often connected to
Rosaceae in the dunes. Another species, Ischnus agitator (first report) is reported to use the
sawflies Hemichroa australis and Euura rufa as hosts, which are respectively strictly
monophagous on Betula pendula and Salix pentandra.
While the coastal nature reserves are splintered and small in Belgium, in the Netherlands bigger
areas can be found. In our study one area contributed with several first reports: Noordhollands
Duinreservaat (province of North Holland) of 5.300 hectares. It consists of a mix of non-specific
and specific ichneumonids.
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
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Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
21
HEATHLANDS OF BRUGES (BELGIUM)
With approximately fifteen new species for the fauna of Belgium, a short description of the area
of Bruges (province of West Flanders) and its projects should not be absent. From 2014 to 2020;
several traps (pitfall traps, yellow pan traps, white pan traps, and malaise traps) were placed by
the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (guided by curator Wouter Dekoninck) in
different nature reserves near Bruges (Sint-Andries, Zedelgem, Assebroek). These nature
reserves mainly consist of mixed forests with small heathland patches, some of them only
recently restored. These patches remind us of the environmental situation in the Middle Ages
and Early Modern Period, where farmers made use of these forests, intensively, for their
livestock. Bruges has a sandy soil, and with the disruption of upper layers, heathlands
sometimes get a chance to grow. The results we formulate here are preliminary and focus on
Ichneumonidae. In a larger article, we analyze all parasitic fauna, the methods used, results for
specific areas, etc. (VERHEYDE & DEKONINCK, in prep.). Approximately 550 specimens
(Parasitica) were caught, of which 315 are Ichneumonidae.
Our first results bear many resemblances to the results from other species groups (see all reports
via https://www.researchgate.net/project/Monitoring-Entomofauna-heathlands-Bruges): most
of our rare findings are those species characteristic for heathlands, dunes and dry, oligotrophic
grasslands. Another crucial factor for the many first reports however is the methods used. Pitfall
traps are not often used for ichneumonid research (or even Hymenoptera as a whole). Not
surprisingly then, many soil-specialists were discovered. No less than 66 specimens of
Barycnemis sp. were caught, with first reports for B. angustipennis, B. bellator and B.
punctifrons. Other groups with good results, caught with a variety of methods, were Trychosis
spp. (29 specimens) and Cylloceria caligata (52 specimens).
As mentioned above, a small but distinguished group can be seen as specialists on sandy and
more open areas, and are de facto often encountered in coastal areas. Most of them have hosts
in or near the soil (e.g., spiders, beetles, lepidopterans…). Examples are mainly found in the
subfamilies Cryptinae and Phygadeuontinae: Agrothereutes abbreviatus, Hidryta fusiventris,
Ischnus alternator, Polyaulon paradoxus (first report) and Theroscopus pedestris.
As striking as the presence of these specialists, is the relatively small proportion of species
connected to woodland. There are more common representatives, mostly from the subfamily
Ichneumoninae (for example Ctenichneumon panzeri, Ichneumon bucculentus), or Stilbops
vetula. A genuinely rare finding was a female specimen of Bioblapsis polita, a parasitoid of
Ferdinandea spp., a hoverfly of which the larvae develop in decaying or wounded hardwood
(VAN ECK & ZWAKHALS, 2015). Well-known migratory species with common distribution and
forest ecology are completely missing. No representatives of the subfamilies of Ophioninae,
Poemeniinae, Rhyssinae or Xoridinae were found. This is surprising, because standing
decaying or dead wood is often encountered in the vicinity of heathland patches. Standing on
the border of the heathland, trees (such as beeches or birches) are often burned by the sun and
start decaying, offering many possibilities for other insects and their parasitoids (VERHEYDE et
al., 2020a). Although the flying behaviour of these groups is extremely flexible, it seems to
suggest these species fly from tree to tree and avoid lower layers of vegetation or open ground,
which could be a defensive strategy to avoid being predated. Generally, many of these wasps
are very large (at least a centimetre) and thus easier to spot.
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
22
NOARDLIKE FRYSKE WÂLDEN (THE NETHERLANDS)
(Fig. 2)
The Noardlike Fryske Wâlden constitutes a unique landscape situated in the northeastern part
of the province of Fryslân or Frisia (the Netherlands), but it is commonly not well-known. It is
a beautiful area with many small landscape elements. In 2004, the area received the status of
‘National Landscapein the Netherlands, because of its special values with respect to landscape,
nature and cultural history. The area is mainly agricultural, but there are some nature reserves
with a species-rich fauna and flora. Especially the old and small landscape elements, which are
owned and managed by the farmers (Fig. 2) in exchange for a fee, play a crucial role in the
ecosystem.
The abovementioned landscape elements are very diverse and consist, for example, of Alnus
glutinosa girth’s, wood banks, hedgerows, ponds and pingo ponds. There are many different
species of trees and plants growing in the different landscape elements that create many
ecological niches, which all attract their specific fauna.
To get an impression of the biodiversity of insects in the area, a monitoring project was
established in 2012. Two malaise traps for flying insects were used and placed at different times
of the year at different localities within the Noardlike Fryske Wâlden. Also, many specimens
were caught in the field with sweeping nets. The main part of the specimens was collected by
Landschapsbeheer Fryslân. Ichneumonid wasps (Ichneumonidae) were found to be the most
abundant family in the traps and more than 20 new species of ichneumonids, for the fauna of
the Netherlands, were discovered in the collected material and integrated in this study. Many
of them are known from neighbouring countries. However, there were also some rare findings
(FAUNA EUROPAEA) known only from a few countries in Western Europe:
Tranosema hyperboreum (Campopleginae): known from Germany and Austria.
Dusona minor (Campopleginae): known from Germany and Austria.
Gunomeria macrodactylus (Ctenopelmatinae): known from Western Europe.
Cylloceria sylvestris 3 ♀♀ (Cylloceriinae): known from Germany.
Phradis nigritulus (Tersilochinae): known from Germany and Denmark.
Habitat loss as a result of isolation and defragmentation of nature reserves, urbanization and the
intensive agricultural use of the landscape can certainly be countered or mitigated by the use of
small landscape elements. There is no doubt that Noardlike Fryske Wâlden can make an
important contribution to the preservation and enhancement of biodiversity in the Netherlands.
The ecosystem can only be maintained by continuing the ongoing collaboration and dialogue
with the farmers, who will ensure the Noardlike Fryske Wâlden will stay as they are right now.
VILLAGE OF SOMAL (BELGIUM)
Somal is a village in Famenne, a natural region in southern Belgium (Wallonia). This territory
has been studied for twenty years by the third author and papers have been published in a series
called “Contribution to the knowledge of entomofauna of a Belgian Famenne village” (see all
reports via https://www.researchgate.net/project/Entomofauna-of-a-belgian-village and the
ones related to ichneumonids explicitly in our Bibliography).
Already published papers cover Banchinae and Cryptinae (Ichneumonidae), sawflies, fungus
gnats and chalcid wasps. The territory itself is about 9 km², centred around the hamlet of Somal.
It covers the places called „La Chavée“ and „La Foulerie“ in the north-west, „Campagne de
Somal“ and „Bois des Aloux“ in the north, „Moulin de Leuze“ in the north-east, the „Château
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
23
de Ramezée“ in the west, the „Bois des Avennes“ in the south-west, the village „Moressée“ in
the south and „Bon Bonî“ in the south-east (IGNB, 1981).
The habitat can be primarily typified as coppiced woodland within high forest. The main tree
species here are Quercus spp., Carpinus betulus but also Corylus avellena, Betula spp. and Acer
pseudoplatanus. On more fertile places it also includes Cornus sanguinea, Acer campestre and
Euonymus europaeus. In areas where the woodland is often accessed, the undergrowth is
reduced to a thicket with thorny vegetation like Crataegus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus spp. The
village is bordered by ‘Eau de Somme’, a stream where natural riparian forests with typical
vegetation (Alnus and Salix spp.) can be found near the borders. Finally, there are also isolated
conifers or coniferous forests, artificially planted in gardens, lanes and on cultivated land
(LIBERT, 2010). If we take a look at the species already reported in past publications (Table I)
and the ones first reported here, some groups can be identified. There are for example forest
and tree specialists with Coleoptera as a host (Coleocentrus soleatus, Echthrus reluctator) or
‘garden’ species with Lepidoptera or Aculeata as hosts (Agrothereutes leucorhaeus,
Hoplocryptus spp., Lochetica westoni, Nematopodius spp…).
Rarer findings are those species which are connected to more local host populations or plants
(most of them are connected to the riparian vegetation, as mentioned above), which are rare in
Flanders and (some) parts of Wallonia, for example Cubocephalus sternocerus, a parasitoid of
the lepidopteran Synanthedon spheciformis; Gambrus tricolor, a known parasitoid of the cephid
sawfly Phylloecus linearis; Gonotypus melanostoma which is related to the rather rare
Coleophora spp. connected to Juncus spp. and Mesostenus funebris Gravenhorst, 1829, a
parasitoid of Zygaena lonicerae (KAŹMIERCZAK & DĄBROWSKI, 2003).
ABBREVIATIONS
Acronyms used for personal collections:
ADK = coll. Augustijn De Ketelaere
AR = coll. Anne Ronse
EB = coll. Edwin Brosens
FV = coll. Fons Verheyde
GL = coll. Gilbert Loos
HM = coll. Hilco Meijer
KZ = coll. Kees Zwakhals
MN = coll. Marc Nachtergaele
MS = coll. Martin Schwarz
PH = coll. Paul Hoekstra
PNL = coll. Pierre-Nicolas Libert
SDR = coll. Samuel de Rycke
TV = coll. Thibaud Vandaudenard
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
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Acronyms used for institutional collections:
MITOX = Eurofins MITOX BV, the Netherlands
NB = Natuurmuseum Brabant, the Netherlands
NMB = Naturhistorisches Museum Basel, Switzerland
RBINS = Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences collection, Belgium.
Abbreviations for Provinces
Belgium
AN = Antwerp
BW = Walloon Brabant
BR = Brussels
HA = Hainaut
LIB = Limburg (Belgium)
LG = Liège
LX = Luxembourg
NA = Namur
OVL = East Flanders
VB = Flemish Brabant
WVL = West Flanders
the Netherlands
DR = Drenthe
FL = Flevoland
FR = Friesland
GE = Gelderland
GR = Groningen
LIN = Limburg (the Netherlands)
NB = North Brabant
NH = North Holland
OV = Overijssel
UT = Utrecht
ZL = Zeeland
ZH = South Holland
The material formatting follows the European guidances on taxonomy from CETAF (BÉNICHOU et al.,
2018). Max. five confirmed findings per record are listed (chronologically oldest, excl. specimens in
collection, which were prioritised). When there is more material available, this is noted with “[…]”.
Taxonomical hierarchy and integration of tribes and genera is based on BROAD et al. (2018).
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
25
Results
Order Hymenoptera Linnaeus, 1758
Suborder Apocrita Gerstaecker, 1867
Superfamily Ichneumonoidea Latreille, 1802
Family Ichneumonidae Latreille, 1802
Subfamily Acaenitinae Förster, 1869
Coleocentrus soleatus (Gravenhorst, 1829) (Fig. 3 A–B)
Coleocentrus spp. are large parasitoids, which can be recognised within the subfamily by their
areolet (triangular) and clypeus (with a median apical tubercle). Ovipositor is 2.0–3.5 as long
as hind tibia (VARGA, 2013).
Both males and females of C. soleatus have red hind trochanters and trochantelli with black
colouration (Fig. 3 A). Females at least have their fore trochanters reddish. The tarsomeres of
the males are only partly white (admittingly, this is more difficult to see on photographic
evidence) and the clypeus is completely yellow (Fig. 3B). This distinguishes it from the
common Coleocentrus excitator (Poda, 1761). C. soleatus is a presumably (very) rare species
in Western Europe, known from only a few records, with Germany being the closest country to
Belgium and the Netherlands. It seems highly probable the species has only recently expanded
its territory from Eastern and Central Europe, thereby following many other ichneumonid wasps
related to the presence of dead wood and forest areas (see VERHEYDE et al., 2020a). Hosts are
unknown (VARGA, 2013). First report for Belgium and the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: • 2 ♀♀; Somal (NA); 25/v/2012; P-N. Libert leg.; coll. PNL; field observation; P-
N. Libert det. • 1 ; Somal (NA); 18/v/2013; P-N. Libert leg.; coll. PNL; field observation; P-
N. Libert det. • 1 ; Londerzeel (VB); 50°59'15"N 4°16'19"E; 20/iv2020; S. De Rycke leg.;
coll. SDR; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 193762942); Fig. 3A–B. • 1 ;
Anderlecht, centrum (BR); 50°50'06"N 4°16'60"E; 22/iv/2020; M. Marblie leg.; field
observation; O. Varga & F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 193762942). • 1 ; Hody (LG); 50°29’05”N
5°30’39”E; 7/v/2020; A. Derouax leg.; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID:
190791292)[…].
THE NETHERLANDS: • 1 ; Udenhout, De Brand (NB); 51°37'35"N 5°06'29"E; 3/v/2020;
J. van de Heuvel leg.; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 190311894). • 1 ; Vlijmen,
Bosje Hooge Bank (NB); 51°40’14”N 5°12’03”E; 8/vi/2020; H. van der Sterren leg.; field
observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 193565619).
Subfamily Adelognathinae Thomson, 1888
Adelognathus nigriceps Thomson, 1888
Adelognathus spp. are interesting parasitoids. They are seldom caught in the field and are
ectoparasitoids of sawfly larvae. They can be recognised by their exposed labrum and fairly
short antennae (approx. 14 to 15 segments) and the presence of a pentagonal areolet in some
species (BROAD et al., 2018).
A. nigriceps is a smaller species of more or less 3 mm. Occipital carina reaches the mandibular
base. The face is yellow and there is a unique groove between the mandibles and eye
(KASPARYAN, 1990). First report for the Netherlands; unreported for Belgium.
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
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MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS: • 1 ; Eastermar (FR); 53°10’40”N 6°05’13”E; 6/v/2012; G.; Tuinstra
leg.; coll. HM; field observation; H. Meijer det.
Adelognathus pusillus Holmgren, 1857 (Fig. 4)
A. pusillus can be identified by the following characteristics: face completely yellow, hind
coxae predominantly yellow and fore wing with 3r-m (weakly) present (Fig. 4). This
ichneumonid species is a parasitoid of the concealed larvae of Phyllocolpa spp. (Symphyta:
Tenthredinidae). Being caught in August it matches known phenological records (FITTON et al.,
1982). First report for Belgium and the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: • 1 ; Wingene, Predikherenbossen (WVL); 51°04’21”N 3°20’01”E; 26/iv/2020;
A. De Ketelaere & L. Lams leg.; coll. ADK; field observation; A. De Ketelaere det. (ObsID:
207730971); Fig. 4.
THE NETHERLANDS: • 1 ; Olterterp (FR); 53°04’11”N 6°06’20”E; 28/viii/2015; H. Meijer
leg.; coll. HM; field observation; H. Meijer det.
Subfamily Anomaloninae Viereck, 1918
Tribe Gravenhorstiini Enderlein, 1912
Aphanistes bellicosus (Wesmael, 1849)
Aphanistes can be recognised by the presence of the distal abscissa in the hind wing CU, frons
below anterior ocellus with a median vertical lamella and the hind tarsal claws pectinate right
to the apex (GAULD & MITCHELL, 1977).
Typical for A. bellicosus is the completely yellow-orange scapus, while the remaining
flagellomeres are mainly black, especially apically (PÉNIGOT 2021, in press).
First report for the Netherlands; confirmed in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: • 1 ; Somal (NA); 18/iv/2007; P-N. Libert leg.; coll. PNL; field observation;
A. Nuzhna det.
THE NETHERLANDS: • 1 ; Rechteren, Rechterensche Veld (OR); 52°29’16”N 6°18’16”E;
27/vii/2019; G. Beersma leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 177056989).
Barylypa propugnator (Förster, 1855)
Just like Aphanistes, Barylypa can be recognised by the presence of the distal abscissa in the
hind wing CU. Additionally, the cubital index is < 0.6 (usually < 0.4) and the pronotum does
not have an impressed medio-dorsal transverse sulcus: it is flat to slightly concave (GAULD &
MITCHELL, 1977).
Barylypa propugnator can be easily identified by its habitus: it is quite large (measuring approx.
8 mm), the metasoma is largely orange with black apical tergites, and most importantly the
temples are reddish. In the Low Countries it is often found from June to August near its common
host Tyria jacobaeae (Linneaus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) or hostplant Senecio spp. The
ichneumonid wasp appears to be slightly more common in coastal or sandy areas, due to the
abundance of the above-mentioned host and host plant. It is highly probable the species has
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
27
been overlooked in the Netherlands the past few decades.
First report for the Netherlands; confirmed in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: • 1 ; Oostduinkerke, Ter Yde (WVL); 51°08’03”N 2°41’53”E; 2/viii/2012;
F. Schoeters leg.; field observation parasitizing Tyria jacobaeae (Linnaeus, 1758); W. Pénigot
det. (ObsID: 70204655). • 1 ; Zwevegem (WVL); 50°49’35”N 3°20’25”E; 25/vi/2013;
L. Clarysse leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 77101175). • 1 ; Bredene, Duinen
Fort Napoleon (WVL); 51°14’23”N 2°56’09”E; 26/vii/2017; P. Vanhauwere leg. [UGent]; coll.
KBIN/RBINS (ENDURE-project, 205_OST_2_N); field observation; F. Verheyde det. • 1 ;
Harelbeke, De Gavers (WVL); 50°50’38”N 3°19’02”E; 21/vii/2020; Y. Gevaert leg.; field
observation, near Tyria jacobaeae; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 196744990). • 1 ; Buggenhout
(OVL); 51°01’56”N 4°12’34”E; 21/vii/2020; L. Verhelst leg.; field observation parasitizing
Tyria jacobaeae; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 196761137) […].
THE NETHERLANDS: • 1 ; Ameland, Buurderduinen (FR); 53°27’37”N 5°49’52”E;
2/ix/2014; T. Kiewiet leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 87684918). • 1 ;
Bernheze, Arboretum (NB); 51°43’25”N 5°32’59”E; 12/vii/2015; H. van den Acker leg.; field
observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 104264719). • 1 ; Axel, Sportpark (ZL); 51°15’20”N
3°55’35”E; 9/vii/2018; M. Kiefer leg.; field observation parasitizing Tyria jacobaeae;
W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 159773753). • 1 ; Dishoek, Duinen en strand (ZL); 51°28’52”N
3°30’44”E; 23/vi/2020; A. van Gilst leg.; field observation parasitizing Tyria jacobaeae;
F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 194805116). • 1 ; Utrecht, Soesterberg Vliegbasis (UT);
52°07’50”N 5°16’50”E; 1/viii/2020; A. Schaftenaar leg.; field observation; F. Verheyde det.
(ObsID: 196226430) […].
Barylypa uniguttata (Gravenhorst, 1829)
In comparison to B. propugnator, B. uniguttata is somewhat smaller, with a more sober
colouration. Its antennae are shorter in length than the total length of the hind wing. The face is
strongly punctured and black, with one yellowish spot centrally. Tegulae yellowish (PÉNIGOT
2021, in press). The species seems to be less abundant, but this could be partly due to its
phenology, being active in early spring (March and April). Especially the males are observed
in the field. Its hosts are not yet known.
First report for the Netherlands; confirmed in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: 2 ♂♂; Moerbeke, Heidebos (OVL); 51°10’47”N 3°54’59”E; 21/iii/2016; B.
Lutin-Smet leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 115658521). • 4 ♂♂; Retie,
Pontforts Heike (AN); 51°15’56”N 5°02’56”E; 29/iii/2019; N. Van Loco leg.; field
observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 169407007). • 1 ; Retie, Pontforts Heike (AN);
51°15’54”N 5°02’59”E; 10/iii/2020; N. Van Loco leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det.
(ObsID: 186402928). • 1 ; Genk, Winterslag Terril (LIB); 50°59’08”N 5°28’59”E;
15/iii/2020; T. Gyselinck leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 186672774). • 1 ;
Westvleteren, Dozinghembos (WVL); 50°53’31”N 2°42’09”E; 16/iii/2020; D. Becuwe leg.;
field observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 186702727) […].
THE NETHERLANDS:1 ; De Rips, Stippelberg (NB); 51°31’56”N 5°47’26”E; 17/iv/2010;
J. Albers leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 47478444). • 1 ; Maarn, Zanderij
(UT); 52°03’46”N 5°21’03”E; 4/iv/2016; C. Witkamp leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det.
(ObsID: 125864005). • 1 ; Woensdrecht, Grenspark Kalmthoutse Heide (NB); 51°24’52”N
4°21’45”E; 13/iv/2016; H. Nouwens leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID:
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
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116461633). • 1 ; Wassenaar, Meijendel (ZH); 52°06’53”N 4°20’22”E; 21/iii/2019; C. van
Heerden leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 168837779). • 1 ex.; Utrecht,
Soesterberg Vliegbasis West (UT); 52°07’50”N 5°15’58”E; 31/iii/2020; T. Zeegers leg.; coll.
FV (Soesterberg-project, 27–31/iii/2020; nr. 39); malaise trap; F. Verheyde det. […].
Erigorgus melanops (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Erigorgus spp. also belong to the group of Anomaloninae that have the distal abscissa present
in the hind wing CU. However, contrary to Aphanistes, their frons is smooth and a median
lamella is missing. The tarsal claws are not completely pectinate (GAULD & MITCHELL, 1977).
Identification from pictures is hard and has to be treated with care, especially because there is
a lot of variability, i.e. in the colouration of the faces of males (PÉNIGOT 2021, in press). More
consistent characteristics are the yellowish hind tarsi and the black coxae. This species is
primarily active in early spring (March and April) and is probably more common than we know,
with a host like Maniola jurtina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).
First report for the Netherlands; confirmed in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM:1 ; Deurne (AN); 51°11’10”N 4°27’11”E; 30/iii/2014; D. Verstraeten leg.; field
observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 82871425). • 1 ; Meensel, Zandgroeve (VB);
50°53’08”N 4°54’46”E; 29/iii/2019; N. Van Loco leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det.
(ObsID: 168832456). • 1 ; Oudenaarde (OVL); 50°50’47”N 3°39’28”E; 18/iv/2020;
G. Groenez leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 188998180).
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Swalmen (LIN), A73; 51°12’59”N 6°01’10”E; 25/iii/2020;
D. Nijskens leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 187210553).
Erigorgus procerus (Gravenhorst, 1829) (Fig. 5)
E. procerus is easier to recognise than E. melanops. The tarsi are yellowish (without any ivory
patterns). The females only have red coxae, but males sometimes tend to have black hind coxae
basally (Fig. 5). Lastly their antennae are largely orange/reddish, turning darker apically
(PÉNIGOT 2021, in press). This species does not seem to be rare. Some host records need to be
further confirmed, but certainly used as a host is Polia nebulosa (Hufnagel, 1766) (Lepidoptera:
Noctuidae) (RUDOW, 1917; pers. comm. W. Pénigot).
First report for Belgium and the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: 2 ♀♀; Somal (NA); 4/v/2010; P-N. Libert leg.; coll. PNL; field observation;
A. Nuzhna det. • 4 ♂♂; Spiere, Spierebos (WVL); 50°43’33”N 3°21’18”E; 25/iv/2011;
L. Clarysse leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 53801638). • 1 ; Evere, Moeraske
(BR); 50°52’46”N 4°23’11”E; 15/iv/2012; B. Hanssens leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det.
(ObsID: 64452858). • 1 ; Ranst, Bos van Ranst (AN); 51°12’47”N 4°33’34”E; 29/iv/2012;
M. Gorrens leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 66897776) • 1 ; Jette (BR);
50°52’24”N 4°20’00”E; 28/iii/2020; T. Vandaudenard leg.; coll. TV; field observation;
W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 188572176); Fig. 5. […].
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Deurne, Deurnse Peel (AN); 51°24’38”N 5°52’30”E;
24/iv/2018; J. Slaats leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 155492673). • 1 1 ;
Echt, De Doort (LIN); 51°05’13”N 5°51’19”E; 11/iv/2019; J. Geraets leg.; field observation in
copula; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 170059413). • 1 ; Delft, Abtswoudse Bos (ZH); 51°58’32”N
4°22’08”E; 5/v/2019; J. van’t Bosch leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID:
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
29
171762528). • 1 ; Wellerlooi, Gertenkamp (LIN); 51°31’11”N 6°09’27”E; 4/iv/2020;
T. Martens leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 187814628).
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Parania geniculata (Holmgren, 1857) (Fig. 6 A–B)
One of the rarer findings of this study. Parania spp. have a unique wing venation: the brachial
cell and the 2nd discal cell are separated by a small portion of the vein 1m-cu (PÉNIGOT 2021,
in press; see also Fig. 6 B).
Overall the species is small, with a fore wing length of 4 mm. With the males the frontal part
of the head and the clypeus is completely yellow. Its mesosoma and the apical tergites are
predominantly black (possibly with yellow markings on the thorax). Its metasoma is red brown
(Fig. 6 A). Our finding took place in a small field where flower mixtures had been sown. Some
of the known hosts are rare, but Gypsonoma aceriana (Duponchel, 1843) (Lepidoptera:
Tortricidae) seems to be the most plausible candidate here (YU et al., 2012).
First report of the species and the genus for Belgium, unconfirmed in the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: 1 ; Beernem, Beverhoutsveld (WVL); 51°10’41”N 3°16’52”E; 6/vii/2020;
A. De Ketelaere leg.; coll. ADK; field observation; W. Pénigot det. (ObsID: 198933657); Fig.
6A–B.
Subfamily Banchinae Wesmael, 1845
Tribe Atrophini Seyrig, 1932
Alloplasta plantaria (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Alloplasta can be easily recognised through the wing venation; the nervellus is intercepted near
or above the middle and the areolet is distinct.
In this species all coxae are black, distinguishing it from A. tomentosa. The tergites are also
black, with a yellowish to whitish apical band and yellow patches on the face, distinguishing it
from A. piceator (KUSLITZKY, 1981). Like many ichneumonids, this species is probably more
common than data would suggest, with Orthosia cerasi (Fabricius, 1775) (Lepidoptera:
Noctuidae) as an extremely common host (BROCK, 2017).
First report for the Netherlands; confirmed in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: 1 ; Mechelen, De Potpolder (AN); 51°00’57”N 4°30’49”E; 26/iv/2020;
G. Duponcheel leg.; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 190133184).
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Zwolle, Westerveldse Bos (OV); 52°32’39”N 6°05’09”E;
29/iii/2012; G. Reitsma leg.; field observation; W. Pénigot & F. Verheyde det. (ObsID:
64020153). • 1 ; Terschelling, Kooibosjes (FR); 53°23’23”N 5°15’25”E; 29/v/2015; J. Vink
leg.; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 102794504). • 1 ; Langerak, Polder
Langerak (ZH); 51°55’14”N 4°55’22”E; 21/v/2019; J. Vink leg.; field observation; F. Verheyde
det. (ObsID: 102794504). • 1 ; Delft, Abtswoudse Bos (ZH); 51°58’10”N 4°22’18”E;
10/v/2020; M. Albers leg.; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 191069277).
Lissonota admontensis Strobl, 1902
Belonging to the Atrophini, Lissonota spp. have their nervellus broken near the middle, their
areolet is small and their metasoma is not laterally compressed. It is a very complex genus for
which identification is hard and undescribed species are still to be discovered (more details see
BROCK, 2017).
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
31
With some hesitation we report this species. It is hard to key and regarding distribution this
finding is odd because it is coined as a mountain or alpine species (however, the species is
present in most of the neighbouring countries; YU et al., 2012). However, it was successfully
identified with all existing keys. L. admontensis is a smaller species (6 to 7 mm) with a black
head and mesosoma. The metasoma is also black except for at least the second and third (and
sometimes fourth) tergite, which are reddish with more or less black patches. Tergites 23 are
finely coriaceous, the rest of the body is matt and covered with silvery hairs. The tarsal claws
are simple and there are no odd patterns anywhere on the body. The ovipositor is almost as long
as the body (AUBERT, 1978; KUSLITZKY, 1981; BROCK, 2017).
First report for Belgium; unreported in the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM:1 ; Buggenhout, Buggenhoutbos (OVL); 50°59’44”N 4°12’23”E; 10/ix/2015;
A. Ronse leg.; coll. AR; field observation; F. Verheyde & T. Robert det. (ObsID: 206558640).
Lissonota luffiator Aubert, 1969
Lissonota luffiator is one of the few species of Lissonota that can be identified quite easily using
macroscopic features. Firstly, it has a short and stout ovipositor, often down-curved distally;
secondly, the colour pattern is striking: the mesonotum extensively reddish with yellow and
black patterning (BROCK, 2017). Due to its visual appearance, we must agree with Brock that
this species is probably rather uncommon. Our own findings on the other hand show the
phenology of this species could be wider than was thought (from April to September), possibly
even with multiple generations in a year. We do know that these ichneumonid wasps are
connected to the lepidopteran family of Psychidae (one finding in the Netherlands was on a tree
trunk where possible hosts were present) and the finding with a light trap in Belgium signals
possible nocturnal activity. First report for Belgium and the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM:1 ; Meerhout (AN); 51°07’43”N 5°05’46”E; 17/iv/2020; M. Mangelschots leg.;
light trap; G. Broad & F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 188836251).
THE NETHERLANDS:1 ; Den Haag (ZH); 52°03’53”N 4°15’38”E; 27/ix/2020; B. Boon
leg.; field observation; G. Broad & F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 200749864).
Lissonota pleuralis Brischke, 1880 (Fig. 7 A–B)
= syn. L. strigifrons Schmiedeknecht, 1900
Lissonota pleuralis has a striking appearance. Both sexes have white or yellow tegulae, in
combination with a yellow clypeus and pair of mandibles. The females have reddish patches on
their mesopleuron and metapleuron. Their scutellum is also reddish. Next to the two lateral
ocelli (on frons/vertex) there is a rather large triangular yellow spot, and sometimes there are
yellow markings on the cheeks. The other parts of the head and the mesosoma (incl.
mesonotum) are black and rather evenly punctuated on a matt surface (Fig. 7 A). The males are
predominantly yellow. Their face, clypeus, frontal orbits and scutellum are completely yellow.
Their pronotum (incl. pronotal collar), mesopleuron and metapleuron have yellow markings.
Usually the upper part of the mesopleuron has a red to red brown stripe. Sometimes the
mesoscutum also has red brown markings. The antennae are orange, at least ventrally. Their
metasoma is black with the apical borders yellow. Their legs are predominantly orange or red
(Fig. 7 B). The body length in our specimens is 7–9 mm for the males and 9–10 mm for the
females. Despite these features, it is necessary to check this species with a microscope to
distinguish it from L. bivittata Gravenhorst, 1829 (especially ssp. -gallicator, with black
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
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mesonotum) which does not have its second and third tergite evenly and densely punctuated
(KUSLITZKY, 1981). Therefore, we cannot assess the presence of the species in the Netherlands
with complete certainty, although it is highly probable taking the distribution and ecology of
both species in mind (see for example ObsID 196467195). The only known host is the rare
lepidopteran Eudonia lineola (Curtis, 1827) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). This explains the local
distribution of the findings, which are all situated in coastal areas.
First report for Belgium; unreported in the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: 1 ; Oostduinkerke, Schipgatduinen (WVL); 51°07’50”N 2°39’31”E;
18/vii/2017; P. Vanhauwere leg. [UGent]; coll. KBIN/RBINS (ENDURE-project,
150_ODK_BAD_15_M); field observation; F. Verheyde det. • 1 ; Knokke, De Haan,
Duinbossen Wenduine/De Haan (WVL); 51°17’14”N 3°03’03”E; 21/vii/2017; P. Vanhauwere
leg. [UGent]; coll. KBIN/RBINS (ENDURE-project, 176_DHN_K_15_N); field observation;
F. Verheyde det. • 1 ; Knokke, Het Zwin - Zwinbosjes (WVL); 51°21’49”N 3°20’30”E;
25/vii/2017; P. Vanhauwere leg. [UGent]; coll. KBIN/RBINS (ENDURE-project,
203_ZWN2_8_N); field observation; F. Verheyde det.; Fig. 7 A. • 1 ; Oostende, Duinen Fort
Napoleon (WVL); 51°14’26”N 2°56’11”E; 22/vii/2020; E. Devos & F. Verheyde leg.; coll. FV;
field observation; A. De Ketelaere, T. Robert & F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 196821118). • 1 ;
Wenduine, Duinbossen Wenduine/De Haan (WVL); 51°17’44”N 3°04’06”E; 26/vii/2020;
A. De Ketelaere leg.; coll. ADK; field observation; T. Robert &A. De Ketelaere det. (ObsID:
205393239); Fig. 7 B.
Lissonota semirufa (Desvignes, 1856)
Should not be confused with L. semirufa Strobl, 1902, which was synonymised with L. bivittata
Gravenhorst, 1829; reported in Belgium only recently (LIBERT, 2019a; see Table 1) and
unreported in the Netherlands. Morphologically it is easily distinguished from related species.
Its head and thorax are black with yellow patches on their vertex and pronotum. All legs are
reddish. Apically the metasoma is black, but the other segments are (dark) red with black
patches. Additionally, the first flagellar segment is at least 5× its width and the second and third
tergite are subquadrate to longer than broad (BROCK, 2017). This wasp is mainly active from
May to July and can be found around (standing) dead wood. The habitat range seems to be
somewhat wider than coniferous woodland only (as mentioned in BROCK, 2017). Our
observations are situated on Betula and Fagus spp. in forest areas with smaller patches of
moorland, suggesting the presence of an unknown host.
First report for Belgium and the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: 1 ; Beernem, Bulskampveld Heideveld-Bornebeek (WVL); 51°06’31”N
3°17’45”E; 6/v/2020; A. De Ketelaere leg.; coll. ADK; field observation on Fagus sylvatica;
A. De Ketelaere det. (ObsID: 191894869).
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Heeze-Leende, Strabrechtste Heide (NB); 51°23’49”N
5°38’15”E; 3/v/2020; Telpost Strabrecht leg.; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID:
190332070). • 1 ; Bloemendaal, Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen (NH); 52°19’59”N
4°33’34”E; 12/vi/2020; J. Duivenvoorden leg.; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID:
194062394).
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
33
Lissonota subaciculata Bridgman, 1886
Another colourful species with yellow patches on its vertex is L. subaciculata. Also yellow are
its face, the orbits along the vertex, the sides of thorax, the coxae and the fore trochanters. The
hind coxae are black with red patches. The remaining parts of the legs and tergites 2-4 are red
(KUSLITZKY, 1981). Additionally, the sculpture on the first tergite is distinctive, with many pre-
apical striae extending diagonally over the median part of the petiole (BROCK, 2017). Its
presence could be expected (and should be expected in Belgium), with the species being very
widely distributed in Western Europe (see FAUNA EUROPAEA). The second specimen was
caught in a lane with oaks where the ‘plague’ moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Linnaeus,
1758) (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) was abundant. This indeed is a known host (AUBERT, 1978).
First report for the Netherlands; unreported in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS:1 ; Drachten-Azeven (FR); 53°06’49”N 6°09’00”E; 11/vii/2020;
H. Meijer leg.; coll. HM; field observation; H. Meijer det. • 1 ; Drachten-Azeven (FR);
53°06’49”N 6°09’00”E; 30/vii/2020; H. Meijer leg.; coll. HM; light trap; H. Meijer det.
Tribe Banchini Wesmael, 1845
Rynchobanchus flavopictus Heinrich 1937 (Fig. 8 A–B)
Rynhobanchus is a remarkable genus within the tribe of Banchini. Its habitus is somewhat
similar to Banchus spp., but it misses the spine on its scutellum and has no trace of posterior
transverse carina on its propodeum. Furthermore, the metasoma is uncompressed (Fig. 8A–B).
On colour R. flavopictus is easily distinguishable from the other European species R. bicolor
Kriechbaumer 1894, which has a predominantly reddish metasoma. R. flavopictus was only
recently reported in Belgium (LIBERT, 2019a) and is probably genuinely rare or at least rather
uncommon. Host records need further confirmation (see also BROCK, 2017), but phenology
suggests an active host in spring (April–May).
First report of the species and of the genus for the Netherlands; confirmed in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: 1 ; Mechelen, Stadsbos Kauwendaal (AN); 51°02’50”N 4°29’27”E;
26/iv/2020; N. Iwens leg.; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 189701657). • 1 ;
Herselt, Blauwberg (AN); 51°02’47”N 4°55’27”E; 4/v/2020; I. Van den Broek leg.; field
observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 190428447).
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Valkenburg, De Kluis (LIN); 50°51’36”N 5°51’25”E;
6/iv/2012; S. Lamberts leg.; field observation; F. Verheyde & W. Pénigot det. (ObsID:
181850552); Fig. 8A–B. • 1 ; Zwolle, Westerveldse Bos (OR); 52°32’46”N 6°05’05”E;
15/iv/2014; G. Reitsma leg.; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 83377666). • 1 ;
Schiedam, Prinses Beatrixpark (ZH); 51°55’57”N 4°23’12”E; 5/v/2019; P. van Santbrink leg.;
field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 171713183).
Tribe Glyptini Cushman & Rohwer, 1920
Glyptini can be quickly identified by the presence of diagonal grooves on (at least) the second
and third tergite. Glypta spp. have the spur of the front tibia shorter than 0.5× basitarsus length
(for other characteristics see BROCK, 2017).
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
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Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
35
Glypta caudata Thomson, 1889
This species belongs to the species group or subgenus Conoblasta with a larger horn on its frons
(between the antennal sockets). The temples are narrowed behind the eyes along their whole
expanse. Its metasoma is completely black. The hind tibiae are entirely pale dorso-medially.
The mandibles are black. Finally, the ovipositor sheaths are as long as the fore wing and the
body length is approximately 7–8 mm (KUSLITZKY, 1981). Its hosts in the Low Countries are
unknown. First report for the Netherlands; unreported in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Twijzel (FR); 53°14’53”N 6°04’56”E; 28/v/2012;
Landschapsbeheer Friesland leg.; coll. HM; malaise trap 215 (24–28); H. Meijer det. • 2 ♂♂;
Oostermeer, (FR); 53°14’47”N 6°05’03”E; 6/vii/2012; Landschapsbeheer Friesland leg.; coll.
HM; malaise trap 193 (29.VI–6.VII); H. Meijer det.
Subfamily Campopleginae Förster, 1869
Bathyplectes curculionis (Thomson, 1887)
Bathyplectes spp. have a typical habitus which make them relatively easy to recognise within
Campopleginae. Most species are (very) robust with an impressive head (width of temples
0.75–1.3× the length of eyes) and a complete (and stalked) areolet (TOWNES, 1970b).
B. curculionis needs to be examined with a microscope for certain identification. It strongly
resembles B. exiguus, but has a shorter ovipositor (HORSTMANN, 1974). Just like other species
in the genus (and as its name suggest), it is a parasitoid of Curculionidae (Coleoptera).
First report for the Netherlands; unreported in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Twijzel (FR); 53°14’53”N 6°04’56”E; 28/v/2012;
Landschapsbeheer Friesland leg.; coll. HM; malaise trap 215 (24–28); H. Meijer det. • 1 ;
Drachten-Azeven (FR); 53°06’48”N 6°09’01”E; 24/vii/2020; H. Meijer leg.; coll. HM; field
observation; H. Meijer det.
Bathyplectes tibiator (Gravenhorst, 1820)
= syn. B. corvinus (Thomson, 1887), synonymized by HORSTMANN (1986: 143)
This species of Bathyplectes is a lot bigger in comparison to the previously mentioned B.
curculionis. The females have more than 23 antennal segments, which is rare within the genus.
Otherwise it has a fine punctuation (next to granulation) on its frons, its mesoscutum and its
mesopleuron. This distinguishes it from B. incisus (HORSTMANN, 1974, 1986).
First report for the Netherlands; unconfirmed in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Twijzel (FR); 53°14’53”N 6°04’56”E; 28/v/2012;
Landschapsbeheer Friesland leg.; coll. HM; malaise trap 215 (24–28); H. Meijer det.
Campoletis ensator (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Typical for this genus is the presence of an acute or obtuse median tooth (but not always).
Additionally, the species are not too small (at least 5 mm), have at least 26 flagellomeres and a
stalked areolet (more details see TOWNES, 1970b; RIEDEL, 2017).
C. ensator has to be collected for identification. Its clypeus has a sharp tooth apically and the
ovipositor sheaths are 0.9–1.1× the length of hind tibiae. These hind tibiae have a specific colour
pattern distinguishing them from the resembling C. postica (Bridgman & Fitch, 1885): basally
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
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yellow-white, subbasally brown and medially yellowish white. Some of the known lepidopteran
hosts (family Noctuidae) are common in Belgium and the Netherlands (RIEDEL, 2017).
First report for the Netherlands; unconfirmed in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS: 3 ♀♀; Oostermeer, (FR); 53°14’47”N 6°05’03”E; 6/vii/2012;
Landschapsbeheer Friesland leg.; coll. HM; malaise trap 193 (29.VI–6.VII); H. Meijer det.
Casinaria albipalpis (Gravenhorst, 1829) (Fig. 9AB)
Superficially, Casinaria spp. resemble Dusona spp., but belonging to the (former) tribe of
Campoplegini the suture on the first tergite is always present, usually at or above mid-height of
this segment. Specific for this genus is the shape of the areolet, with 2m-cu meeting CU (distal
corner of second discal cell) at an acute angle (TOWNES, 1970b).
Overall, this species is black with yellow to white mandibles (Fig. 9 B), tegulae, fore and mid
trochanters/trochantelli. The legs are reddish, with the hind tibiae ivory basally and externo-
medially (RIEDEL, 2018; see Fig. 9 A). This species can be regarded as ‘opportunistic’ with a
wide host range and phenology (from April to September). It is widely distributed in western
Continental Europe (see FAUNA EUROPAEA) and is just waiting to be found in Belgium. Most
of the collected specimens were caught with light traps, and all of them were found within an
urban context. Host records are uncertain at this moment.
First report for the Netherlands; unreported in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS:1 ; Drachten (FR); 53°05’59”N 6°06’32”E; 18/ix/2019; H. Meijer
leg.; coll. HM; light trap; H. Meijer det. • 1 ; Almere (FL); 52°22’48”N 5°14’19”E;
26/iv/2020; P. Hoekstra leg.; coll. PH; field observation, flying around Chamaecyparis
lawsoniana shrubs; P. Hoekstra det. (ObsID: 190092733); Fig. 9A-B. • 1 ; Drachten (FR);
53°05’59”N 6°06’32”E; 8/v/2020; H. Meijer leg.; coll. HM; light trap; H. Meijer det. • 1 ;
Drachten (FR); 53°05’59”N 6°06’32”E; 15/viii/2020; H. Meijer leg.; coll. HM; light trap;
H. Meijer det. • 1 ; Drachten (FR); 53°05’59”N 6°06’32”E; 30/viii/2020; H. Meijer leg.; coll.
HM; light trap; H. Meijer det.
Cymodusa declinator (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Cymodusa spp. do not have glymmae, the areolet is complete and the lower margins of the eyes
(which are at least sparsely hairy) are converging ventrally (TOWNES, 1970b).
C. declinator belongs to a species complex with C. leucocera Holmgren, 1859.
Characteristically, the females have white bands on their antennae. For C. declinator these are
the basal flagellomeres 46; for C. leucocera 6–10. There are also other differences in its
propodeal carination and its colouration (see HORSTMANN, 2013). The status of both species is
not entirely clear for the Low Countries. Although both species have been validly described,
Horstmann felt the necessity to revise and restate them, and some authors in the 19th century
seem to have made errors and/or even used Campoplex declinator as a synonym. Because of
these issues, we hereby restate the species’ presence in the Netherlands, following the
descriptions by Horstmann. First report for the Netherlands; unreported in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS:1 ; Drachten-Azeven (FR); 53°06’49”N 6°09’00”E; 27/vii/2020;
H. Meijer leg.; coll. HM; field observation; H. Meijer det.
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
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Diadegma cinnabaritor Aubert, 1970 (Fig. 10 A–C)
One of the rarest and more surprising findings in this study. Based on the remarkable red
habitus, it was first identified as Chromoplex picticollis (Gravenhorst, 1829). This monotypic
genus has a rather long (hind) tibial spur, red mesosoma and metasoma with black ovipositor
sheaths and yellow marks on its black face. Its speculum is smooth (HORSTMANN, 1986).
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However, closer examination of our specimen revealed some divergent characteristics. For
example, the hind tibiae were not brown with a medial white band and the spot on the face was
rather red than yellow (HORSTMANN, 1986; MOHAMMADI-KHORAMABADI et al., 2017; see Fig.
10A–B). It was thus considered to be a Diadegma sp. (TOWNES, 1970b). The extend of the
testaceous colouration (both mesosoma and metasoma) is unique within the genus.
AUBERT (1970) described the species. It is closely related to Diadegma grisecens (Gravenhorst,
1829), which is known to be present in Belgium and the Netherlands. HORSTMANN (1973) even
assumed it could be a rufous form of this species. The female holotype from Auberts collection
(see KLOPFSTEIN & BAUR, 2011) was carefully compared to our specimen by Seraina
Klopfstein and it looks nearly identical. This suggests it is a valid species, as it is accepted now,
although future genetic analysis will provide a more decisive judgment. Next to the colouration,
other characteristics (although variable) to distinguish D. cinnabaritor from D. grisescens are
its speculum (shiny, as mentioned above) and its area superomedia (one and a half times as long
as wide and more weakly closed at the apical end; see Fig. 10 C) (HORSTMANN, 1973a). AUBERT
(1976) later added that D. cinnabaritor is slightly larger and more robust, with 38 instead of 33
antennal segments. Its head is deemed to be more transverse, the ocelli bigger, distanced from
the compound eyes by only just their diameter. The apical margin of its clypeus is densely
punctuated. Its malar space is shorter and the mandibles are narrowed apically. Finally, the
radial cell is longer and the nervellus is postfurcal.
This specimen was gifted to the first author by the initial observer. He donated it to the
Naturhistorisches Museum Basel, where it will be analysed genetically and is integrated in a
forthcoming key on Campopleginae. As far as we know, our finding constitutes the third report
and specimen of this species in collection, worldwide.
First report for the Netherlands; unreported in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Nieuwkoop, Nieuwkoopse Plassen (ZH); 52°08’57”N
4°48’57”E; 3/viii/2016; B. Koese leg.; coll. NMB; malaise trap (28.VII3.VIII); S. Klopfstein
det. (ObsID: 122316512); Fig. 10 A–C.
Dusona bicoloripes (Ashmead, 1906) (Fig. 11)
Superficially Dusona spp. resemble Casinaria spp., but belonging to the former tribe of
Porizontini the suture on the first tergite is often indistinct or absent.
Dusona bicoloripes belongs to the group with the epipleurum of the third gastral tergite
separated from the tergite. The specimen from Zedelgem (Belgium) measured 11.5 mm and
had 49–50 flagellomeres. There is one diagnostic character, the frons has a small raised point
between its eye and its antennal socket. The metasoma has some of the middle tergites red, the
others black (HORSTMANN, 2009; see Fig. 11). Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus 1758) (Lepidoptera:
Erebidae) is considered to be the main host (SAWONIEWICZ, 1979).
First report for Belgium and the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: 2 ♀♀; Somal (NA); 10/v/2006; P-N. Libert leg.; coll. PNL; field observation;
K. Horstmann det. • 1 ; Zedelgem, Militair domein Vloethemveld - Oud elzen-beuken-
zomereikenbos Perceel 71 (WVL); 22/v/2020; W. Dekoninck et al. (KBIN) leg.; coll.
KBIN/RBINS (project Bruges heathlands); pitfall trap (822); F. Verheyde det.
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
39
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Drunen, Loonse en Drunense Duinen (NB); 51°38’21”N
5°06’22”E; 11/viii/2014; P. Hoekstra leg.; coll. KZ; field observation; K. Zwakhals det.
(ObsID: 143737056). • 1 ; Wageningen (GE); 51°57’59”N 5°40’24”E; 25/iv/2020; D. Belgers
leg.; coll. KZ; field observation in skylight; K. Zwakhals det. (ObsID: 189675058); Fig. 11. •
1 ; Ameland (FR); 53°27’01”N 5°38’51”E; 24/v/2020; P. Hoekstra leg.; coll. PH; yellow pan
trap (19–24); P. Hoekstra det. (ObsID: 203062104).
Dusona genalis (Thomson, 1887)
This species has to be collected to be identified. Although the excellent key by HORSTMANN
(2009) is quite technical, many species can be excluded based on the amount of flagellomeres
(in casu around 53) and total length (in casu 11 mm). Typical for D. genalis is that its frons has
a rather fine median longitudinal carina, and the femora are completely black. Several hosts are
common lepidopterans in the Low Countries (HORSTMANN, 2011).
First report for Belgium; unreported in the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: 1 ; Steenhuffel (VB); 50°59'57"N 4°16'20"E; 21/iv/2018; S. De Rycke leg.;
coll. SDR; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 155135279). • 1 ; Elverdinge,
Galgenbossen (WVL); 50°52’06”N 2°46’59”E; 2/vi/2019; F. Verheyde leg.; coll. FV; field
observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 173660838).
Dusona minor (Provancher, 1879)
This species has the epipleurum of the third tergite completely fused with the tergite. As its
name suggests it is a smaller species (68 mm) with a smaller amount of flagellomeres (34-37
for females). The ventral part of the prepectal carina is not raised. Characteristically for this
species is that the hind corners of the pronotum are produced to a flange, which projects about
as far as the tegulae and is rounded apically (HORSTMANN, 2009). Our specimen has the hind
tibiae black; its fifth tergite is partly reddish. All the known hosts are quite rare or even
unreported (see HORSTMANN, 2011; YU et al., 2012). Eupithecia lariciata (Freyer, 1841)
(Lepidoptera: Geometridae) seems to be the most plausible candidate (FINLAYSON, 1975).
First report for the Netherlands; unreported in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Twijzel (FR); 53°14’53”N 6°04’56”E; 28/v/2012;
Landschapsbeheer Friesland leg.; coll. HM; malaise trap 215 (24–28); H. Meijer det.
Dusona recta (Thomson, 1887) (Fig. 12)
Dusona recta belongs to the first group of Dusona spp., with the epipleurum of the third gastral
tergite separated from the tergite by a crease. In this case, the crease is clearly black. Our
specimen measured approximately 8 mm and counted at least 39 flagellomeres (some broke
off). Its genal index is 0.1–0.2 and the speculum is coriaceous, rather dull. In front of the
speculum there are fine longitudinal striae medially and ventrally as well as dorsally. The hind
tibiae are largely yellowish but black apically (HORSTMANN, 2009). In our specimen, tergites
3–4 are orange red and the second tergite is partly orange, partly black (Fig. 12). Aethalura
punctulata (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) and Ematurga atomaria (Linnaeus, 1758)
(Lepidoptera: Geometridae) are plausible hosts (HORSTMANN, 2011).
First report for Belgium; unreported in the Netherlands.
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MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: 1 ; Mechelen (AN); 51°01’28”N 4°28’07”E; 8/vii/2017; C. Deschepper leg.;
coll. FV; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 207715788); Fig. 12.
Dusona thomsoni Hinz, 1963
A smaller species of Dusona, measuring approximately 7 to 8 mm and counting 39-42
flagellomeres. The epipleurum of the third tergite is fused with the tergite, its genal carina joins
the oral carina close the base of the mandible (genal index 0.1–0.2) and the ventral part of the
prepectal carina is not distinctly raised. The second tergite is marked black dorsally and the
following tergites are marked with black dorsally and with red laterally (to a variable extent).
The males have reddish brown claspers (HORSTMANN, 2009). Both D. thomsoni and the
abovementioned D. genalis are not often reported, and missing in some countries in Western
continental Europe, but this could be due to the difficulties of identifying them in the first place.
Ematurga atomaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), also mentioned above, is an
abundant possible host in the Low Countries (HORSTMANN, 2011; SHAW et al., 2016).
First report for the Netherlands; unreported in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS:1 ; Drachten (FR); 53°05’59”N 6°06’24”E; 27/iv/2012; H. Meijer
leg.; coll. HM; field observation; H. Meijer det. • 1 ; Drachten (FR); 53°05’59”N 6°06’24”E;
2/v/2012; H. Meijer leg.; coll. HM; field observation; H. Meijer det. • 1 ; Drachten (FR);
53°05’59”N 6°06’24”E; 1/vii/2012; H. Meijer leg.; coll. HM; field observation; H. Meijer det.
• 2 ♂♂; Drachten (FR); 53°05’59”N 6°06’24”E; 3/vii/2012; H. Meijer leg.; coll. HM; field
observation; H. Meijer det.
Eriborus obscuripes Horstmann, 1987 (Fig. 13A–B)
Another genus belonging to the (former) tribe of Porizontini. The hind basitarsus has a
continuous, straight, median ventral row of small very closely-spaced hairs. In the hind wing
the distal abscissa of CU stops before the nervellus (which is vertical). In contrast to
Echthronomas spp. the areolet is absent (TOWNES, 1970b).
Using the key of HORSTMANN (1987) both specimens clearly keyed as this species (e.g. the
entire tarsal claws pectinate, tegulae yellow, temples short and narrowed, ovipositor shorter
than petiole; see Fig. 13 A). However, it is with some caution we make this report. In contrast
to Horstmann’s original description, the mandibles of both specimens are (completely) yellow
(Fig. 13 B). It could thus be an unknown variation or even (sub)species. Hosts are unknown.
First report for Belgium; unreported in the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: 1 ; Westrozebeke, Polderbos (WVL); 50°56’24”N 3°00’35”E; 13/vi/2020;
F. Verheyde leg.; coll. FV; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 193950343). • 1 ;
Sint-Michiels (WVL); 51°11’44”N 3°13’44”E; 18/ix/2020; A. De Ketelaere leg.; coll. ADK;
field observation; A. De Ketelaere & H. Meijer det. (ObsID: 202192182); Fig. 13A–B.
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
41
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
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Eriborus perfidus (Gravenhorst, 1829)
This species is more well known in historical collections. In comparison to other species in the
genus, the ovipositor sheaths are relatively long, reaching the same length as the postpetiole.
Its area superomedia has a typical shape, the length is one and a half times its width, which
distinguishes it from E. braccatus (Gmelin 1790). It is already reported from many countries in
Western Europe (see FAUNA EUROPAEA). Hypena proboscidalis (Linnaeus, 1758)
(Lepidoptera: Erebidae) is an extremely common host.
First report for the Netherlands; unreported in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Eastermar (FR); 53°10’47”N 6°05’39”E; 20/vi/2012;
Landschapsbeheer Friesland leg.; coll. HM; malaise trap 31 (13–20); H. Meijer det.
Gonotypus melanostoma (Thomson, 1887)
A small black species (more or less 4 to 6 mm) with glymmae which are sometimes hard to see
on the first tergite. The ovipositor is very stout, about twice as long as the metasomal maximum
depth (TOWNES, 1970b). Its pterostigma is brownish, the tegulae are white (SCHMIEDEKNECHT
1908). Our findings probably constitute the most southern observations so far. Among its hosts
are rather rare Coleophora spp. (Lepidoptera) connected to Juncus spp. (SHAW et al., 2016).
First report of the species and the genus for Belgium and the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM:1 ; Somal (NA); 27/v/2019; P-N. Libert leg.; coll. PNL; malaise trap (16–27);
P-N. Libert det.
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Drachten-Azeven (FR); 53°06’48”N 6°09’01”E; 2/viii/2020;
H. Meijer leg.; coll. HM; light trap; H. Meijer det.
Lathrostizus macrostoma (Thomson, 1887)
Lathrostizus spp. are relatively hard to recognise and require careful keying and comparison
with other campoplegine genera. There is the presence of an areolet and glymmae; and the hind
wing with the distal abscissa of CU stopping short of the nervellus. Their clypeus is rather wide
and their ovipositor is two to three times as long as the metasomal maximum depth, very
strongly upcurved. Finally, the lower tooth of the mandible is not longer than the upper tooth
(TOWNES, 1970b).
Lathrostizus macrostoma has relatively short ovipositor sheaths, measuring 1.3–1.6× as long as
the first tergite. Its clypeus is black, the postpectal ridge is not remarkable. Our specimens had
approximately 26 flagellomeres (HORSTMANN, 2004). Tergites 2–4 are red brown, the other
tergites are black. All our findings were coastal suggesting there are unknown hosts, although
some of the known ones are common everywhere (see YU et al., 2012).
First report for Belgium and the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: 1 ; Heist, Strand - Duinreep (WVL); 51°20’35”N 3°14’50”E; 16/vii/2017;
P. Vanhauwere leg. [UGent]; coll. KBIN/RBINS (ENDURE-project, 123_DUI_14_N); field
observation; F. Verheyde det. • 2 ♀♀; Oostduinkerke-Bad, Duinen (WVL); 51°07’57”N
2°39’45”E; 16/vii/2017; P. Vanhauwere leg. [UGent]; coll. KBIN/RBINS (ENDURE-project,
142_ODK_BAD_8_N & 144_ODK_BAD_10_N); field observation; F. Verheyde det.
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
43
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Wassenaar, Berkheide (NB); 52°10’15”N 4°21’26”E;
19/ix/2018; coll. KBIN/RBINS (ENDURE-project, HYM_83_N_M); field observation;
F. Verheyde det. • 1 ; Bergen, Noordhollands Duinreservaat (NB); 52°40’03”N 4°37’49”E;
27/vi/2019; coll. KBIN/RBINS (ENDURE-project, HYM_236_N_N); field observation;
F. Verheyde det.
Meloboris alternans (Gravenhorst, 1829)
Just like the abovementioned genus Lathrostizus, Meloboris spp. are relatively hard to
recognise. Their areolet and glymmae are present and the distal abscissa of CU is meeting the
nervellus in the hind wing. Their propodeum is rather long and has a unique carination
(TOWNES, 1970b).
M. alternans has its temples narrowed behind the eyes, while the clypeus is protruding. The
penultimate antennal segment is slender: 1.4 to 1.6× its width. Lastly, the hind femora are 5.0
to 5.8× longer than wide and red (brown), just like at least one abdominal segment. Hosts are
mainly Elachista spp. (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) (HORSTMANN, 2004).
First report for the Netherlands; unreported in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Drachten-Azeven (FR); 53°06’49”N 6°09’00”E; 6/ix/2020;
H. Meijer leg.; coll. HM; field observation; H. Meijer det. • 1 ; Drachten-Azeven (FR);
53°06’49”N 6°09’00”E; 12/ix/2020; H. Meijer leg.; coll. HM; field observation; H. Meijer det.
Meloboris collector (Thunberg, 1824) (Fig. 14A–B)
Surprisingly, M. collector has been rather poorly described in recent literature, although it is
deemed to be the most common species in the genus (see also HORSTMANN, 2004; HORSTMANN,
2013) and has sometimes been treated as a biological agent (KHAN, 1997). In fact, it seems to
be one of the most common ichneumonid wasps all-round in the Low Countries, with many
widespread hosts as Agrotis exclamationis (Linnaeus, 1758) and A. segetum (Denis &
Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). It is often found in gardens, sometimes with
light traps, and seems to have a very wide phenology (March-November). One specimen was
attracted by a pheromone-trap of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, 1808) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
Based on SCHMIEDEKNECHT (1908) (who used the synonym Napiera concinna), HORSTMANN
(2013) and our specimens we hereby give a short description.
The head and mesosoma are black with whitish pubescence, especially on the mesopleuron and
propodeum. The palps and mandibles are yellow (Fig. 14 B). The antennae and scapus are
black, the latter sometimes with yellow stains on the ventral side. The pterostigma is brownish,
tegulae yellowish white. The hind legs have a specific colour pattern: coxae black, trochanters
yellowish white but black basally, femora orange-red and black basally and apically, tibiae also
black basally and apically, but yellowish white medially [exceptionally orange, in specimens
from the UK; see Fig. 14 A] and tarsi black. The front and mid legs are (light) orange with
yellowish white coxae and trochanters. The metasoma is predominantly black with apical
margins reddish brown. The dorsolateral sides are increasingly red apically, superficially
resembling Stilbops vetulus (Gravenhorst, 1829). Length 5–6 mm.
First report for the Netherlands; unreported in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM:1 ; Sint-Andries, Ter Heyde (WVL); 24/vi/2016; W. Dekoninck et al. (KBIN)
leg.; coll. KBIN/RBINS (project Bruges heathlands); yellow pan trap (10-24); F. Verheyde det.
• 1 ; De Haan, Duinengordel tot Bredene - Vosseslag (WVL); 51°16’07”N 3°00’23”E;
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14/vii/2017; P. Vanhauwere leg. [UGent]; coll. KBIN/RBINS (ENDURE-project,
103_DHN1_3_N); field observation; F. Verheyde det. • 1 ; Knokke, Het Zwin - Strand
(WVL); 51°21’57”N 3°21’02”E; 19/vii/2017; P. Vanhauwere leg. [UGent]; coll. KBIN/RBINS
(ENDURE-project, 155_ZWN _5_N); field observation; F. Verheyde det. • 1 ; Snellegem,
Waterwinning (WVL); 21/vi/2019; W. Dekoninck et al. (KBIN) leg.; coll. KBIN/RBINS
(project Bruges heathlands); malaise trap (721); F. Verheyde det. • 1 ; Zeebrugge (WVL);
51°19’13”N 3°10’40”E; 1/vii/2020; A. Beidts leg.; coll. ADK; field observation; A. De
Ketelaere det. (ObsID: 204524959) […].
THE NETHERLANDS: 2 ♂♂; Utrecht, Soesterberg Vliegbasis West (UT); 52°07’50”N
5°15’58”E; 24/v/2019 & 23/vi/2019; T. Zeegers leg.; coll. FV (Soesterberg-project, 21–
24.V.2019 & 21–23.VI.2019; nr. 44 & nr. 46); malaise trap; F. Verheyde det. • 1 ;
Ossendrecht, Meiduinen (NB); 51°24’00”N 4°20’55”E; 5/vii/2019; H. Nouwens leg.; light trap;
F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 175824503). • 1 ; Utrecht, Soesterberg Vliegbasis West (UT);
52°07’50”N 5°15’58”E; 23/iv/2020; T. Zeegers leg.; coll. Naturalis (Soesterberg-project, 20–
23.IV.2020; nr. 36); malaise trap; F. Verheyde det. • 1 ; Wageningen (GE); 51°58’09”N
5°41’18”E; 17/viii/2020; R. Beunen leg.; light trap; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 198614536) •
1 ; Drachten (FR); 53°05’59”N 6°06’32”E; 22/viii/2020; H. Meijer leg.; coll. HM; light trap;
H. Meijer det.
Olesicampe alboplica (Thomson, 1887)
This genus has yet to be revised and was thus treated with care. Keying was done with
SCHMIEDEKNECHT (1908). Olesicampe spp. are not very difficult to recognise. Their fore wing
has a closed areolet, the nervellus is not broken, their clypeus is long, the upper tooth of the
mandibles is (often) shorter than the lower tooth and the ovipositor is fairly short but straight
(more details see SCHMIEDEKNECHT, 1908 and TOWNES, 1970b).
For this species, the dorsolateral carinae and glymmae are present on the petiole. The metasoma
is completely black. The hind tibiae are black apically, the femora are completely black. Some
of the known hosts are said to be the very rare sawflies Aglaostigma nebulosum (Ed. Andre,
1881) and Siobla sturmi (Klug, 1817) (Symphyta: Tenthredinidae) (HINZ, 1961).
First report for the Netherlands; unreported in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Twijzel (FR); 53°14’53”N 6°04’56”E; 28/v/2012;
Landschapsbeheer Friesland leg.; coll. HM; malaise trap 215 (24–28); H. Meijer det.
Olesicampe binotata (Thomson, 1887)
Olesicampe binotata belongs to the species group which does not have dorsolateral carinae and
glymmae on the petiole. Its hind tibiae are (broadly) black apically and the femora are
completely black. Its metasoma is partly red (T12 hind margin, T3–4 completely and T5
partly). The sawfly Tenthredo amoena (Symphyta: Tenthredinidae) is a common host (HINZ,
1961). First report for the Netherlands; unconfirmed in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Twijzel (FR); 53°14’53”N 6°04’56”E; 28/v/2012;
Landschapsbeheer Friesland leg.; coll. HM; malaise trap 215 (24–28); H. Meijer det.
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
45
Olesicampe fulviventris (Gmelin, 1790)
Following the abovementioned O. binotata, this species similarly has no dorsolateral carinae,
nor glymmae, and it is relatively large (around 8 to 9 mm). Specifically for O. fulviventris the
hind tibiae are not black apically and its speculum is matt. There are probably unreported hosts
in existence, or the host record is erroneous, because the supposed host Adscita geryon (Hübner,
1813) (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) (BIGNELL, 1898) is not known from this part of the country.
First report for the Netherlands; unconfirmed in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Twijzel (FR); 53°14’53”N 6°04’56”E; 28/v/2012;
Landschapsbeheer Friesland leg.; coll. HM; malaise trap 215 (24–28); H. Meijer det.
Olesicampe heterogaster (Thomson, 1887)
= syn. Holocremna heterogaster Thomson, 1887, synonymized by FITTON (1982: 41)
This species used to belong to the genus Holocremna, which was synonymised with Olesicampe
but can still be seen as a subgenus. The species from this subgenus have a different head shape
(shorter, not cubiform as in Fig. 16), their clypeus is rounded apically and its teeth-length is
more or less equal. On average the species are also slightly smaller.
Olesicampe heterogaster is more difficult to key. Its femora, mandibles and tegulae are not
completely black, the temples are seldomly narrowed behind the head and its speculum is matt.
The coxae and trochanters are black, except for the hind legs of the males. Known hosts are
Acantholyda erythrocephala (Linnaeus, 1758) (Symphyta: Pamphiliidae) and Diprion pini
(Linnaeus, 1758) (Symphyta: Diprionidae) (SCHEIDTER, 1934; ZAPRYNANOV, 1985).
First report for the Netherlands; unreported in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS:1 ; Drachten-Azeven (FR); 53°06’48”N 6°09’01”E; 30/viii/2020;
H. Meijer leg.; coll. HM; field observation; H. Meijer det. • 1 ; Drachten-Azeven (FR);
53°14’53”N 6°04’55”E; 6/ix/2020; H. Meijer leg.; coll. HM; field observation; H. Meijer det.
Olesicampe macellator (Thunberg, 1822) (Fig. 15)
The teeth of O. macellator are more or less equal in length and its head is not cubic, this species
thus belongs to the abovementioned subgenus Holocremna. It is a very colourful species (see
also Fig. 15). Its mesosoma is mostly black, but the metasoma is predominantly red. The
mandibles and trochanters are white to yellow. The hind femora are red, the hind tibiae as well,
but with a black apical band. The apical flagellomeres are slightly reddish. It measures 7 to 8
mm. Many hosts are known, among them sawflies associated with conifers and lepidopterans
(YU et al., 2012). First report for Belgium; unreported in the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM:1 ; Rijmenam (AN); 22/iv/1944; A. Crèvecoeur leg.; coll. KBIN/RBINS (coll.
Crèvecoeur); F. Verheyde det.; Fig. 15.
Olesicampe patellana (Thomson, 1887)
Just like O. binotata and O. fulviventris this species belongs to the complex which does not
have dorsolateral carinae or glymmae on the petiole. In contrast to the latter species, the hind
tibiae are black apically. Furthermore, the femora are black as well. The shape of the pedicellus
(second antennal segment) is unique; lenticular. The hosts are unknown.
First report for the Netherlands; unconfirmed in Belgium.
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
46
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
47
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS: 3 ♂♂; Oostermeer, (FR); 53°14’47”N 6°05’03”E; 6/vii/2012;
Landschapsbeheer Friesland leg.; coll. HM; malaise trap 193 (29.VI-6.VII); H. Meijer det.
Olesicampe sternella (Thomson, 1887) (Fig. 16)
Olesicampe sternella has a lower tooth of the mandible that is longer than the upper tooth, the
tegulae are white and the dorsolateral carinae and glymmae are present on the first tergite. The
metasoma is partly red, basal and apical tergites are black. The basal flagellomeres are light
brown ventrally. The hind coxae are black, the trochanters yellow, the femora red and the tibiae
yellow brown. Only one host is known: the rather rare lepidopteran Amphipoea oculea
(Linnaeus, 1761) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (TÖLG, 1912).
First report for Belgium; unreported in the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM:1 ; Snellegem, Waterwinning (WVL); 21/vi/2019; W. Dekoninck et al. (KBIN)
leg.; coll. KBIN/RBINS (project Bruges heathlands); malaise trap (721); F. Verheyde det.;
Fig. 16.
Phobocampe confusa (Thomson, 1887) (Fig. 17A–B)
Phobocampe spp. are small but robust wasps which can be recognised by the strongly sloping
fore wing 1cu-a, the apical margin of their clypeus which is truncate or subtruncate, the
thyridium with approximately its own diameter from the base of the second tergite, the
glymmae which are small or obsolescent, their typical propodeal carination and the ovipositor
which is about as long as the metasomal maximum depth in the females (TOWNES, 1970b).
The propodeal carination and the colouration of the legs are mainly used for identification to
species level. It needs to be keyed carefully. P. confusa has its head feebly narrowed behind the
eyes, the propodeal spiracle is oval and the basal transverse carina is V- or U-shaped. Its
postpetiole, second and third tergites have a reddish brown to brown band or blotch. The hind
tibiae are white to yellowish, dark brown to black basally and apically (SEDIVY, 2004; see Fig.
17A-B). Our specimens were reared from Aglais io (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera:
Nymphalidae). The parasitoid wasp is able to cause high mortality in some circumstances. The
relation with its hosts has been studied in depth in recent literature (AUDUSSEAU et al., 2020).
First report for the Netherlands; unconfirmed in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS: 12 ♀♀; Zevenaar, Rosandse Polder (GE); 51°54’39”N 6°04’11”E;
18/viii/2019; R. Soethof leg.; coll. FV (4 ) & KZ; reared ex Aglais io (Linneaus, 1758); K
Zwakhals & F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 181622631); Fig. 17A–B.
Phobocampe horstmanni Sedivy, 2004
Just like P. confusa (see above) this species requires careful keying. Additionally to its typical
propodeal carination (the median longitudinal carinae below costulae are very shortly
constricted then divergent), the petiole has no lateral grooves. The hind tibiae are pale brown
to white, brown subbasally and apically. The second and third tergite have reddish brown lateral
blotches (SEDIVY, 2004). Our specimen measured 5 mm and had 27 flagellomeres. Several
common lepidopterans are known as host (SEDIVY, 2004; SHAW et al., 2016).
First report for Belgium; unreported in the Netherlands.
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
48
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM:1 ; Snellegem, Waterwinning (WVL); 21/vi/2019; W. Dekoninck et al. (KBIN)
leg.; coll. KBIN/RBINS (project Bruges heathlands); malaise trap (721); F. Verheyde det.
Rhimphoctona melanura (Holmgren, 1860)
Another genus belonging to the former tribe of Porizontini. It belongs to the group of genera
with the distal abscissa of CU meeting the nervellus in the hind wing. The lower mandibular
tooth is longer than the upper tooth. The fore wing vein 2m-cu is meeting the areolet distinctly
near the distal end. Their ovipositor is cylindrical, with the ovipositor tip slightly curving
(TOWNES, 1970b; HORSTMANN, 1980a).
Recently the genus was revised by VARGA (2017). R. melanura is distinguished by having the
hind coxae black, the mesoscutum more strongly sculptured, distinct costula on propodeum
(which has the area superomedia wider than area basalis), short temples and a densely
punctuated mesopleuron. These species are ectoparasitoids of wood-boring beetles, mainly
Cerambycidae (VARGA, 2017). Possibly, these parasitoids will become more common,
following the tendency of many ‘dead wood’-ichneumonids migrating from eastern parts of
Europe to the western part (VERHEYDE et al., 2020a).
First report for the Netherlands; unconfirmed in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Wageningen (GE); 51°59’38”N 5°40’06”E; 18/v/2020;
P. Hoekstra leg.; coll. PH; field observation; G. Broad & P. Hoekstra det. (ObsID: 192511518).
Tranosema hyperboreum (Holmgren, 1860)
Tranosema spp. can be recognised by the presence of the glymmae on the first tergite and the
presence of a closed areolet. Their nervellus is broken. The sternite of the first tergite does not
reach the stigma. The posterior mesosternal carina is complete and the thyridium is less than its
own length from the base of the second tergite (TOWNES, 1970b).
Tranosema hyperboreum [hyperborea in HORSTMANN, 1977] has deep glymmae, the hind tibiae
are red brown, its speculum is shiny, the tegulae are black and the length of the femora is 4.5–
5× its width (HORSTMANN, 1977). Only one rare host is known: Eana incanana (Stephens,
1852) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) (SHAW et al., 2016).
First report for the Netherlands; unreported in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Twijzel (FR); 53°14’53”N 6°04’56”E; 28/v/2012;
Landschapsbeheer Friesland leg.; coll. HM; malaise trap 215 (24–28); H. Meijer det.
Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst, 1829) (Fig. 18 A–B)
One of the more straightforward genera within the former tribe of Campoplegini. The genus
consists of more slender species, with the propodeum reaching beyond the middle of the hind
coxa. The propodeal area superomedia and petiolaris may be combined but are not depressed.
The hind wing has the distal abscissa of CU (a faint furrow) nearly always connected to the
nervellus (TOWNES, 1970b; HORSTMANN, 1973b).
V. canescens is by far the commonest species of the genus. Its area superomedia is distinctly
elongated (at least 1.5x its width; see Fig. 18 B), its pterostigma is brown and the metasoma is
(extensively) reddish (VAS, 2019; see Fig. 18 A). Ecology and biology wise it is one of the
more well studied campoplegines or even ichneumonid wasps overall (BROAD et al., 2018). Just
Belgian Journal of Entomology 122: 1142 (2021)
49
like the imported species Ctenochares bicolorus (Linnaeus, 1767) it is one of the few Western
European species that can be found in warehouses or storerooms. It is specialised in finding its
hosts in these places: flour and meal moths from the lepidopteran family Pyralidae. Many of
our reported specimens were found indoors. Some of them were of poor photographic quality
and could not be integrated, but are highly likely to be reliable observations, knowing the
context of these findings. Hypothetically the species has benefitted from the growing economy
or habit of feeding garden birds. It is now widely spread; with the Netherlands being the latest
country in Western Europe to report the species (FAUNA EUROPAEA).
First report for the Netherlands; confirmed in Belgium.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: 1 ; Brugge (WVL); 51°13’10”N 3°13’07”E; 13/vi/2019; J. Vernieuwe leg.;
field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 174350349). • 1 ; Lier (AN); 51°08’42”N
4°36’00”E; 4/iv/2020; L. Vaes leg.; field observation, found in a mix of muesli; F. Verheyde
det. (ObsID: 187941350). • 1 ; Beernem (WVL); 51°06’44”N 3°19’29”E; 8/ix/2020; A. De
Ketelaere leg.; coll. ADK; field observation, indoors; A. De Ketelaere & F. Verheyde det.
(ObsID: 202192627); Fig. 18A–B.
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; Pijnacker (ZH); 52°00’45”N 4°27’00”E; 16/ix/2018; H. van
Yperen leg.; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 162544861). • 1 ; Zwolle,
Stadshagen (OV); 52°00’45”N 4°27’00”E; 7/viii/2020; H. van Riessen leg.; field observation;
F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 197969142). • 1 ; Wageningen, Blauwe Bergen (GE); 51°58’49”N
5°39’39”E; 9/ix/2020; B. De Vries leg.; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID:
199813150). • 1 ; Veenendaal (UT); 52°01’15”N 5°35’09”E; 19/ix/2020; Jochem leg.; field
observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 200346803). • 1 ; Dordrecht (ZH); 51°48’29”N
4°41’20”E; 29/ix/2020; A. van den Ende leg.; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID:
200823044).
Subfamily Cremastinae Förster, 1869
Cremastinae is a smaller subfamily within Ichneumonidae, of which its species are easily
recognised by their prominent hind and mid tibial spurs, which are inserted in separate sockets
(BROAD et al., 2018). Cremastus spp. can be distinguished from the more common other genera
by the absence of the closed areolet, a tooth on the hind femur and the more or less parallel
ventral edges of the first sternite (Fig. 19 B).
Cremastus lineatus Gravenhorst, 1829
The ventral edges of the first sternite are curved in the middle in C. lineatus, which is unique
in the genus. Furthermore, the second recurrent vein is interstitial (or antefurcal) and the first
abdominal segment is nearly as long as the second (KOLAROV, 1997). Our specimen was
predominantly black with yellow markings on the temples and orbits.
First report for Belgium; unreported in the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: 1 ; Oostende, Standsrandbos (WVL); 51°12’19”N 2°56’41”E; 5/viii/2020;
F. Verheyde, E. Devos & J. Devos leg.; coll. FV; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID:
197817164).
VERHEYDE F. et al. New records of two hundred and five ichneumonid wasps in Belgium and the Netherlands
50
Cremastus pungens (Gravenhorst, 1829) (Fig. 19A–B)
Cremastus pungens then, is a smaller species (measuring approx. 5.5 to 6 mm). The first
abdominal segment is nearly as long as the second, the abovementioned (shiny) ventral edges
or margins are running parallel (Fig. 19B), the areola of the propodeum is longer than its width
(but not four times its width), the hind tibiae are not swollen, the prepectal carina is not raised
in the middle, the face has yellowish orbits, the middle tibiae are red brownish to yellow, the
clypeus is moderately convex and the scutellum is black (KOLAROV, 1997; see Fig. 19 A). No
hosts are known. Our findings date from June to July on small patches of (somewhat stony) dry
grassland and moorland. From the European ENDURE project, the first author is aware of
species caught on marram grass in coastal dunes from the UK. This suggests C. pungens could
be thermophilic (just like its yet unknown hosts) and will thus be more common in the future.
First report for Belgium; confirmed in the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: 1 ; Beernem, Bossen Lindeveld (WVL); 51°06’22”N 3°19’12”E; 1/vi/2020;
F. Verheyde & A. De Ketelaere leg.; coll. ADK; field observation; A. De Ketelaere det. (ObsID:
193023764). • 1 ; Antwerpen, Galgenweel (AN); 51°13’04”N 4°21’51”E; 15/vi/2020;
F. Verheyde & A. De Ketelaere leg.; coll. ADK; field observation; A. De Ketelaere det. (ObsID:
194210292); Fig. 19A–B.
THE NETHERLANDS: 1 ; America, Het Meerdal (LIN); 51°27’09”N 5°58’08”E;
8/vii/2020; P. Hoekstra leg.; coll. PH; field observation; P. Hoekstra det. (ObsID: 203290115).
Subfamily Cryptinae Kirby, 1837
Tribe Aptesini Smith & Shenefelt 1955
Aptesis flagitator (Rossi, 1794)
Belonging to the tribe Aptesini, Aptesis spp. have a small triangular projection opposite the
anterior end of the lateromedian carina of the propodeum. The genus is hard to recognise from
pictures (details see TOWNES, 1970a) and still needs a thorough revision.
A. flagitator is a remarkable species with a specific habitus. The colouration is very distinct
within the genus (orange mesoscutum and other parts of thorax orange), although there are other
Cryptinae with a more or less similar colour pattern (pers. comm. M. Schwarz). Other features
are the tricoloured antennae (orange-black-white-black) and a black metasoma with the last two
(often tree) tergites covered by white bands (JONAITIS, 1981). Agonopterix heracliana (Linaeus,
1758) (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae) is a common host (MORLEY, 1907).
First report for Belgium and the Netherlands.
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BELGIUM: 1 ; Somal (NA); 1/ix/2012; P-N. Libert leg.; coll. PNL; field observation;
M. Schwarz det. • 1 ; Overpelt (LIB); 51°12’18”N 5°22’33”E; 19/ix/2012; G. Van Hertum
leg.; field observation; F. Verheyde & M. Schwarz det. (ObsID: 71235386). • 1 ; Burdinne
(LG); 50°35’56”N 5°04’44”E; 27/viii/2019; S. Vincent; field observation; F. Verheyde det.
(ObsID: 205190761). • 1 ; Sint-Agatha-Rode, Huldenberg (VB); 50°47’23”N 4°38’26”E;
14/viii/2020; M. Vandenberghe; field observation; F. Verheyde det. (ObsID: 198456493).
THE NETHERLANDS:1 ; Ooy (GE); 51°54’50”N 6°03’05”E; 22/ix/2018; R. Soethof leg.;
field observation; M. Schwarz det. (ObsID: 164172352).