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Ghana’s pineapple innovation history: An account from stakeholders in Nsawam Adoagyiri Municipal Assembly

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Abstract

Despite the pineapple fruit contributing significantly towards Ghana’s non-traditional export, the empirical space deficiently accounts for innovations within the sector. This article addresses prime questions that beg answering such as: the origin of innovations, when, how, what conditions facilitate adoption intensity or otherwise, what type of innovations are systematically associated with pineapple production. This study fills this lacuna by chronicling the main pineapple innovations using innovation history methodology embedded in an agricultural innovation system conceptual framing. Relying on a qualitative approach, the findings showed the emergence of two varieties – smooth cayenne and sugar loaf, overtaken by the MD2 variety. Degreening, forcing, and global Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) dominate. The Millennium Development Authority programme consolidated business plan development, efficient marketing, record keeping, and farming as a business. Successes were recorded in some instances with the transfer of technology extension model, but this article argues that the agricultural innovation system can be prioritized given the plurality of actors. The innovation history is trivialized, but it is essential for learning and co-learning in building stronger partnerships. This article underscores a radical use of innovation history both as a methodological tool and means of documenting innovations, particularly in the global south, where copious record-keeping remains rare.

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... Secondly, the selected municipal represents a site typical for pineapple production -a frontier for pineapple production that started in the early 1950s (Ankrah, 2014(Ankrah, , 2021Ankrah & Freeman, 2021). Third, we note that even though the production of food crops existed, pineapple remained the main source of income (Ankrah, 2014;Ankrah & Freeman, 2021). ...
... The export of pineapples in Ghana started in 1950 with a rapid increase in the 2000s and a decline after 2004 (Ankrah, 2021). The industry had cumulative growth of 172% between 1994 to 2004 (Williams et al., 2017). ...
... engaged in crop farming(GSS, 2012). The pineapple crop is the first non-traditional export crop cultivated in the Eastern, Central, Greater Accra and Volta regions of Ghana in the 1950s(Ankrah, 2021;Kleemann et al., 2014;Krumbiegel et al., 2020;Williams et al., 2017). The Ghana Living Standard Survey indicated that a small proportion (2%) of households cultivate pineapple(GLSS, 2008). ...
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The Covid-19 pandemic has changed attitudes of English households towards food consumption at home and when eating out. Little academic research has however examined the scope and the scale of these changes, especially in the context of foodservice provision. This mixed methods study explores the effect of Covid-19 on food consumption in English households at home and away. It reveals increased frequency and variety of cooking during lockdown as a driver of household food wastage. The study demonstrates public hesitance towards eating out post-Covid-19. Foodservice providers are expected to re-design their business settings and adopt protective and preventative measures, such as frequent cleaning and routine health checks, to encourage visitation. After the pandemic, increased preference towards consuming (more) sustainable food at home, but not when eating out, is established. These insights can aid grocery and foodservice providers in offering more tailored products and services in a post-pandemic future.
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CONTEXT As a direct link between farmers and manufacturers of technologies, the characteristics and activities of input suppliers can be expected to play an important role in the generation and diffusion of innovations in agricultural systems. While the agricultural innovation systems (AIS) literature recognises the importance of input suppliers, there are few studies from the Global South assessing the nature and implications of their activities. OBJECTIVE The aim of this paper is to improve the understanding of how input suppliers can influence the functioning and development of AIS in the Global South. METHODS We first adapt the ‘functions of innovation systems’ framework to examine the role of these private-sector actors in an AIS, identifying three activity categories, through which input suppliers can influence the AIS: market creation for technological innovations, the creation and dissemination of knowledge, and influence on technology priorities. We then apply the framework to a case study of the small-scale irrigation sector in Kenya. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION The case study documents the emergence of a new cohort of irrigation-equipment suppliers during the period of strong growth in the market for small-scale irrigation technologies since 2000, and examines how they affect the small-scale irrigation agricultural innovation system (SIAIS). We find that Kenyan irrigation-input suppliers perform important activities and roles in the SIAIS aside input supply, notably provision of advisory services, improvement of the supply chain for irrigation technologies, introduction and adaptations of new types of irrigation equipment, and facilitation of access to farm credit. Irrigation-input suppliers in Kenya thus play an important role in the functionality of the SIAIS, particularly regarding knowledge creation and dissemination. SIGNIFICANCE The novelty of the paper lies in its empirical assessment of input suppliers in the small-scale irrigation sector and its application of the functions framework. The paper shows that input suppliers can become effective agents of knowledge diffusion once the market has reached a sufficient size and documents how they contributed to knowledge development as they develop, adapt and test specific irrigation equipment. The paper also emphasises that input suppliers can form a key link between national AIS and foreign companies, as they bring in foreign expertise (know-how) to the market along with agricultural technologies. We therefore suggest that policy interventions in support of smallholder irrigation should seek leverage from the growth and capacities of input suppliers as a complement to public research and extension.
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Purpose: This paper argues that large-scale agricultural programmes embedded with the Agricultural Innovations Systems (AIS) thinking helps in facilitating innovations. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study adopted a qualitative approach involving focus group discussions, key informant interviews and secondary document analysis. This approach helped to obtain an in-depth understanding of the processes involved, why and how innovation takes place. Findings: The design and implementation of the MiDA programme had elements of the AIS embedded. This helped to contribute to success in areas that aligned and failures in areas that fell short. Stakeholders encountered implementation challenges that did not ensure reflective learning, conversely, some actors worked independently of others, mimicking linear extension approaches. Practical Implications: The future of extension and research in Ghana should not be prescriptive (top-down) but fully integrate farmers and wider stakeholders in the design and implementation of agricultural investment programmes. This is premised on addressing challenges relating to trust, effective leadership and entrepreneurship. Theoretical Implications: Adds on to the limited use of AIS as a conceptual and operational tool in supporting large-scale agricultural investment in the global south by incorporating AIS thinking in policy formulation and implementation of large-scale programmes. Originality/Value: This article adds to the unbalanced literature in Sub-Saharan Africa on the use of AIS in the design and implementation of large-scale programmes. Additionally, it highlights the use of AIS in extension and research in facilitating innovations.
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In Martinique or La Réunion, French authorities recently banned the use of pesticides for the management of “soil-borne pathogens” on pineapple after several decades of intensive monoculture where the natural balance between beneficial and harmful communities of soil organisms has disappeared. Today, increasing infestation of pineapple by the nematode R. reniformis and other “soil-borne pathogens” causes severe damage to the crop. New cropping systems with innovative ecological nematode management are needed. An eco-friendly cropping system, which comprised rotation of sunn hemp (C. juncea), pineapple, a natural grass fallow and another cash crop, eggplant, consistently reduced the inoculum of nematodes. Nematode populations were reduced by 86.4%, 82% and 46.5% respectively under pineapple, sunn hemp and grass fallow compared to infestations of eggplant (3456 nematodes .100g⁻¹ of soil) after several rotations. Integrating a chemical induction of systemic resistance or application of an endophytic bacteria recovered from pineapple roots, Bacillus sp. GVS2, helped maintain low populations of nematodes during the vegetative cycle. On two pineapple varieties, MD2 and Victoria (Queen), two different treatments were applied monthly in the field, methyl jasmonate (10⁻⁴ M, 10 ml per plant), or a suspension of Bacillus sp. GVS2 (10⁸ CFU ml⁻¹, 10 ml per plant) isolated from pineapple roots. After eight months, the nematode populations were reduced respectively on MD2 and Victoria (Queen) by 58.3% and 50.3% with the methyl jasmonate and by 59.6% and 54.3% with the Bacillus sp. GVS2 compared to controls. Because of the efficiency of sunn hemp in reducing the inoculum of nematodes, no significant differences in vegetative growth were observed using the D leaf weight and the estimated root length densities (RLD). The potential of pest management through eco-friendly cropping systems for pineapple with a biocontrol for nematodes with no pesticide is discussed.
Article
The transformation of global agri-food systems has led to the increased establishment of export-oriented horticultural plantations in developing countries. These labor intense production sites are associated with feminized employment patterns and therefore can provide more paid work opportunities for women in rural areas. The social implications of these developments for women's empowerment remain hardly understood; which is why we investigate empowerment among female workers in the pineapple sector in Ghana, in this paper. Our data set contains primary survey data of 420 married households in Ghana, living in areas of large-scale pineapple plantations. We apply entropy balancing, a new re-weighting technique, and combine this with regression analysis. Our regression results show that female employment has a statistically significant and positive effect on overall household income, female income share, female income and asset ownership and a negative effect on female reproductive workload. We also assess the effect of sole male employment and find that it has a negative effect on female household income share, female income and the female spouse's ability to sell assets and a positive effect on reproductive workload. Neither female nor male employment alone but only joint horticultural employment of both spouses seems to lead to female spouses having more input into household decision-making. Our findings for the pineapple sector in Ghana suggest that large-scale, export-oriented horticultural plantations can contribute to women's empowerment through employment creation for both male and female workers.
Article
Fiber is one of the nutrients that are important for health. Adequate fiber intake prevents several diseases such as stroke, colorectal cancer, heart disease, and diabetes mellitus. One of the foods that have high fiber content is Nata. This study is aimed to analyze the total lactic acid bacteria, fiber content, and physical properties of Nata de pina between various parts of honey pineapple variety. This study was a one-factor randomized experimental study with variations of Nata de pina from flesh, peel, and pineapple fruit core. Analysis of total lactic acid bacteria using Total Plate Count (TPC) methods and fiber content using enzymatic-gravimetric methods. The data described the physical properties by thickness using calipers, yield using scales, texture using texture analyzer, and color analysis using digital colorimetry. There were significant differences in the total lactic acid bacteria between the treatment group of Nata fermented water 12th hour (p<0.001), 2nd day (p<0.001), 4th day (p<0.001), 6th day (p=0.007), and 8th day (p=0.047). The highest total soluble and insoluble fiber of Nata de pina from the pineapple peel (1.92% and 0.049%). There were differences in physical properties test that include thickness, yield (p<0.001), and texture. There were differences in a color analysis that include L* (p=0.005), a* (p=0.012), and b* (p=0.002). Various parts of honey pineapple affect total lactic acid bacteria, fiber content, thickness, yield, texture, and color of Nata de pina.
Article
There is a broad consensus that farmers are not simply recipients of promoted techniques: rather, they are also an important source of agricultural innovations. They invent farm tools and equipment, develop new crop varieties, and add value to externally promoted technologies. When scouting, documenting and promoting such farmer-generated innovations, the thorny issue of intellectual property rights (IPRs) often emerges. Using data from 300 farmer-innovators in Kenya, Malawi and Zambia, this study seeks to contribute to a better understanding of farmers' knowledge of and preferences for IPRs and open-access innovation. Results show that more than half of the innovators have no prior knowledge of IPRs. We found evidence that small-scale farmer-innovators prefer their innovations to be open access rather than protected by IPRs, and this is largely driven by altruistic motives. Some of the reasons cited by the farmers for preferring IPR protection include obtaining financial benefits, recouping the money invested in developing the innovation, wanting to be recognized as the original innovator, and preventing piracy. Consistent with the innovators’ stated reasons, results from a bivariate probit regression show that the commercialization potential of and cost incurred in developing an innovation are among the key correlates of the preference for IPRs.
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This article explores how conflict-induced displacement influences agricultural innovation processes and systems, and its implications after the return home or permanent resettlement of smallholder farmers. Results show that high rates of agricultural innovation occurred during displacement in the Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005), many of which were maintained afterwards. Respondents cited the need for adaptation to new social and physical circumstances, changed gender roles, and enhanced inter-household communication as contributing to increased opportunities for knowledge exchange, trade, and importantly, the development of new networks, modes of organisation and social norms. Furthermore, returnees to South Sudan have embodied these changes together with new values, habits and expectations. New linkages continued across borders between returnees and non-returnees, facilitating knowledge exchange and access to resources, markets and sources of ideas. A high degree of autonomous innovation capacity was also evident. Further research is required on the dynamics and processes associated with innovation in conflict-induced displacement. It is important for policy makers to encourage approaches that seek to actively tap into and build on the institutional, human and social capital built during displacement.
Article
Constraint-based innovations, including frugal approaches, have attracted increasing interest across disciplines due to their potential to promote sustainable development while meeting Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP) needs. However, the academic literature to date has resulted in overlapping terminology, lacks a robust theoretical basis and includes few sector-specific studies. This particularly applies to constraint-based innovation in agriculture, a crucial yet under-researched sector. A review of relevant literature from the last 12 years (2007–March 2019) was conducted to identify concepts and current theoretical underpinning. In total, 30 cases were identified and categorized under agricultural machinery, water for irrigation equipment, alternative farming systems, ICTs and mobile phone applications and biomass systems. Our analysis finds that ‘inclusive’ and ‘smallholder’ innovation concepts are used in an agricultural context; and that the innovation networks, direction of the innovation and scale are key attributes. Also that Appropriate Technology (AT) has proved its worth as a suitable outline for discussing lessons learned from unsuccessful innovations. The results also indicate that there is a need for further research on the integration of frameworks, such as the Technology Adoption Model (TAM) and the Sustainable Rural Livelihoods (SRL), to link constraint-based innovations with sustainable development at a local level. Finally, a framework is proposed for practitioners, as a starting point, to identify and research agricultural constraint-based innovations and their potential impact on sustainable development.
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Summary. Even though studies on innovation in agriculture are relatively new, they form part of a longer history of approaches to technical progress and transformations of the agricultural sector. This chapter explores the history of the uses of the notion of innovation in agriculture and reviews the studies in this field, focusing in particular on the contributions of economics and sociology. This history can be divided into three distinct periods: until the Second World War, the notion of innovation did not appear in the literature, even though the subject of technical progress, not included by economists in their analyses, was very present in the agricultural sciences; over the next 40 years, diffusionist approaches to innovation were applied to all sectors, including agriculture, whose modernization was supported by sociologists and economists; finally, starting in the 1980s, criticism started growing of this previous agricultural development model and was accompanied by a new way of thinking about innovation, opening up new perspectives for research on innovation in agriculture and related domains.
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Multiple production and marketing challenges facing smallholder farmers in developing countries have resulted in renewed interests of governments, donor agencies and private agribusiness companies in forming farmer groups to help address these challenges. Using recent survey data of 412 smallholder rice farmers from northern Ghana, we examine the role of farmer groups in improving yield and technical efficiency. Due to self-selection into farmer groups, we use a sample selection stochastic production frontier model to account for potential selection bias arising from observed and unobserved attributes. The empirical results reveal that participation in farmer groups is associated with increased yield and technical efficiency, relative to farmers who produce and market rice individually. Moreover, the yield and efficiency gaps between group members and nonmembers increase significantly when selection bias is taken into account in the analysis.
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We study the role of trust, risk and time preferences for farmers’ contract choices in a discrete choice experiment among Ghanaian pineapple farmers. We find that experimental measures of trust, risk and time preferences can predict preferences for contract attributes. Especially trust has economically important negative effects on the willingness to pay for high transparency in quality controls. Differences in preferences for timing of payment and timing of agreement making are partly explained by trust preferences and partly by time preferences. The importance of risk-sharing in form of lower quality grades accepted by the buyer increases with farmers’ risk-aversion, while risk preferences do not seem to be related to the timing of agreement making. Our results indicate that preferences affect farmers’ participation constraints and argue that a diversification of contract offers might increase the willingness of farmers to participate in contract farming. This has implications for companies who aim at developing stable long-term relationships with farmers.
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Worker welfare and employment conditions in the agri-food-producing and processing sectors in the global south have become an increasing concern for consumers. Sustainability standards, such as Fairtrade, play an important role in agri-food markets of horticultural produce and may be a tool to address these concerns. However, so far the implications of Fairtrade certification for extrinsic and intrinsic employment factors of hired labor on large-scale plantations remain hardly understood. In this paper we assess its effect on workers’ hourly wages and their level of job satisfaction with primary survey data from 325 randomly sampled workers from eight different export-oriented pineapple companies in Ghana. We apply a linear, linear mixed model, and instrumental variable approach to take into account the multilevel characteristics of our data and possible selection bias. Our findings show that both hourly wages and job satisfaction are indeed higher on Fairtrade-certified plantations. Factors of increased job satisfaction are likely driven by higher wages, permanent employment contracts, training opportunities, company services such as medical care and paid leave as well as established labor unions on Fairtrade-certified plantations.
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Subject area: Agricultural Trade, Farm Management, Economics of Food Safety Study level/applicability: Both undergraduate and postgraduate studies in Agribusiness and Agricultural Economics. Case overview: The pineapple production sector plays a very significant role in the Ghanaian horticultural industry. Production and export of fresh pineapple has been Ghana’s most developed high-value supply chain. However, the introduction of the GlobalGAP food safety standard in 2007 resulted in a fall in smallholder farmers’ participation in exportable pineapple production and subsequently led to declining trends in pineapple exports. The Ghanaian horticultural industry received quite a number of interventions over the years aimed at revitalizing the horticultural export sector and enhancing international competitiveness. However, the pineapple export sub-sector is still constrained with production and market access challenges meaning the sector struggles to survive. Expected learning outcomes: The GlobalGAP standard compliance case is an appropriate way of explaining how smallholder farmers make informed decisions concerning the adoption of new farm practices. The case presents a careful evaluation of technical, institutional and socio-economic factors influencing a farmer’s decision to comply or not to comply with the GlobalGAP standard. Students should be able to apply farm management decision-making concepts and tools such as profit maximization and binary choice modelling techniques to explain a farmers’ final decisions on GlobalGAP standard compliance. This case should enable students to appreciate key factors constraining agricultural export trade performance in developing countries. The case should also contribute to students’ understanding of smallholder farmers’ decisions on food safety standards compliance, particularly GlobalGAP, and the challenges associated with the entire compliance process. Moreover, this case should provide students with possible policy considerations geared towards making food safety standards compliance easier, effective and sustainable in developing countries so as to enhance market access while ensuring food quality and safety along high-value food supply chains. Supplementary materials: Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes. Subject code: CSS 7 Management Science Keywords: Food safety, Food marketing, Regulatory policy Publisher: Emerald Publishing Limited
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Energy scenarios are a tool for exploring possible future developments or states of energy systems. However, traditional energy scenarios mainly concentrate on technological feasibility and economic impacts and lack consideration of social feasibility. Participatory methods, meaning the involvement of external scientists and stakeholders in the scenario development process, can integrate different types of knowledge, perspectives, and values to improve energy scenario development. This paper reports on an approach which is deduced from the strengths and weaknesses of current research applying participatory methods to generate qualitative scenarios. Three different participatory methods - envisioning storylines, futures wheel, and evaluation of narratives - are combined in order to balance the strengths and weaknesses of each of them to create transparent, plausible qualitative scenarios without predisposition. At these three workshops, a total of 25 external and eleven internal participants discussed future developments of the German energy transformation (Energiewende). The paper examines whether this approach overcomes the limitations of current approaches and is ultimately suitable for improving energy scenarios. The findings suggest that a combination of different participatory methods and also a variety of participants help to overcome bias, explore different future pathways in depth, and distinguish between certain and uncertain developments. Link to access the full paper until February 8, 2018: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1WFWc_wSRGVeI
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The linear, top-down, single-source Transfer of Technology model of research and development that focuses only on the production aspects of agriculture is not adequate for dealing with complex rural systems and commodity value chains. As an alternative, this chapter advocates the use of an agricultural innovation systems (AISs) approach to meeting rural challenges and opportunities.
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Export agriculture offers potentially high returns to smallholder farmers in developing countries, but also carries substantial market risk. In this article we examine the intertemporal welfare impact of the timing of a farmer's entry into the export pineapple market in southern Ghana. We examine whether farmers who never cultivated pineapple are better or worse off than farmers who decided to adopt pineapple earlier or later relative to their peers and experienced a significant adverse market shock several years prior to our endline survey. We use a two-stage least squares model to estimate the causal effect of duration of pineapple farming on farmer welfare. Consistent with economic theory, we find that earlier adoption of the new crop brings greater welfare gains than does later uptake. But we find that the gains to later uptake of pineapple—just before the market shock—are small in magnitude, just 0.1 standard deviations of a comprehensive asset index, indicating that the gains to adoption may be precarious and depend on the context, in particular on the severity of prospective market shocks.
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Hybrid rice technology was introduced in Bangladesh to meet the seed crisis caused by a devastating flood in the 1998–1999 cropping season. The rate of acceptance of hybrid rice amongst potential growers demonstrated, however, that getting a new idea adopted, even when it has obvious advantages, is challenging. The rate of adoption continues to be limited. In order to have an insight into the diffusion scenario of hybrid rice technology, we conducted the present research to: (i) identify the channel used for the diffusion of hybrid rice; (ii) determine the diffusion pattern of hybrid rice in Bangladesh and characterize rice farmers by their stage of adoption, following Rogers' model; and to (iii) explore the influence of selected characteristics of the rice growers in influencing farmers' innovativeness. A concurrent embedded design using a cross sectional survey was employed. The study was conducted in five regions of Bangladesh. The population of this study consisted of rice growers of the boro season. A multistage stratified random sampling design was employed in selecting the sample of 425 farmers. Data was collected through face–to–face interviews with the sampled farmers using a pre-tested and back translated questionnaire. Data confirm that the most frequently used channel from which farmers first became informed about hybrid rice was TV, followed by dealer, neighboring farmers and Agricultural Extension Office. The diffusion pattern of hybrid rice approaches a normal distribution or S- shaped cumulative distribution as proposed by Rogers. Adopter categories made in this study differ significantly, confirming to diffusion theory and empirical literature. Regression results show that farm size, availability of the promotional efforts, perception of risk in cultivating hybrid rice, and attitude towards hybrid rice was significant predictors of the farmers' innovativeness. The findings of the study might help planners and extension workers to consider refining their working procedure and policy guidelines for accelerating the rate of the adoption of hybrid rice in Bangladesh and beyond.