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Abstract

Objective The Pedestrian Behaviour Scale (PBS) is a self-report questionnaire that distinguishes five dimensions of pedestrian behaviour: violations, errors, lapses, aggressive behaviours and positive behaviours. This study aimed to meet three objectives: to trace the development of the PBS worldwide from 1997 to 2021, to report on its varied uses and to analyse the scientific validation of the different dimensions of pedestrian behaviour reflected by the PBS and its derivatives. Design/methodology In this systematic literature review, we selected all works that cited the 2013 founding study of the PBS as well as all publications that cited the 2017 US validation of PBS which was frequently replicated around the world. We conducted an online database search using Web of Science, Google Scholar, ResearchGate and PubMed. After excluding duplicates, 116 studies were identified. A total of 30 studies were selected to meet our first two objectives and 14 studies were selected to meet our third objective. Results Over time, the PBS has undergone many changes. Overall, we found differences in the scientific validation of this questionnaire depending on the version used, the validation tests performed and the population studied. The original version of the PBS and its Turkish adaptation proved most appropriate for assessing the transgressions dimension. The American version of the PBS proved a suitable alternative but it is more suited to assessing the two independent dimensions of violations and errors. The Chinese version of the PBS (CPBS) proved unsuitable for assessing the lapses dimension, while the original version of the PBS emerged as the best option for assessing aggressive behaviours. The positive behaviour dimension presented many validation difficulties but its assessment by the CPBS seems to be the most appropriate option. Conclusion As no systematic review of the PBS has been conducted before, researchers can now make an informed choice of methodology quickly and be guided by our recommendations regarding the use and possible improvements of the different validated versions.

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Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the role of pedestrian attitudes and personality traits (social conformity and empathy) on pedestrian behaviors in a Turkish sample. An equally important aim of the study was to examine the association between pedestrian and driver behaviors. Method: The sample included 289 road users including pedestrians and drivers (169 females and 120 males). The participants' age ranged from 15 to 78 years (M = 32.00, SD = 13.89). Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: A regression analysis showed that increased age, high level of satisfaction with traffic infrastructure and environment, safer attitudes toward pedestrian violations, and empathy were negatively related to risky pedestrian behaviors, whereas social conformity was positively related. Attitudes were the strongest predictor of pedestrian behaviors. In addition, bivariate correlation analysis showed that all dimensions of pedestrian and driver behaviors were positively correlated with each other, which indicates that a tendency to take risks remains the same regardless of the road user role (i.e., driver vs. pedestrian). Conclusions: Attitudes are strong predictors of pedestrian behaviors. A tendency to take risks as a pedestrian and as a driver is correlated. Results are discussed for their implications to traffic safety campaigns targeting increased pedestrian safety.
Article
Introduction: Current signage at intersections is designed for attentive pedestrians who are looking ahead. Such signage may not be sufficient when distracted by smartphones. Illuminated in-ground LED lights at crossings are an innovative solution to alert distracted pedestrians. Method: We conducted a field study at a railway crossing equipped with in-ground lights to assess whether distracted pedestrians (N = 34, Mean age 33.6 ± 8.6 years) could detect these lights and how this impacted on their visual scanning and crossing behaviour. This involved a 2 × 3 repeated measures design exploring the impact of the presence (treatment) or absence (control) of in-ground lights (treatment) at a crossing, and a distractor task presented through a mobile device (none, visual, and audio) on eye movements recorded using an eye tracker, and verbal reporting of when participants detected the lights. Results: Participants engaged in the distraction tasks as evidenced by their accuracy and reaction times in all conditions. With both the audio and visual distraction tasks, participants looked at the in-ground LEDs and detected their activation as accurately as when not distracted (95%). While most participants detected the lights at their activation, visual distraction resulted in 10% of the detections occurring as participants entered the rail corridor, suggesting effectiveness in gaining pedestrians' attention. Further, participants were significantly less likely to check for trains when visually distracted (70%), a 10% reduction compared to the no or audio distractor conditions (80% and 78% respectively). The introduction of the in-ground lights resulted in appropriate scanning of the rail tracks (77% and 78% for the visual and auditory distractor tasks respectively) similar to that of non-distracted participants for the crossing without lights (80%). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that illuminated in-ground lights could be useful in attracting the attention of distracted pedestrians at railway level crossings, and possibly at other road intersections. Practical Applications: Illuminated in-ground lights can be installed at rail and road intersections with known pedestrian distraction as a countermeasure. Further research is necessary to understand their long-term effects.
Article
Developing countries have a high frequency of traffic incidents involving pedestrians. Given the vulnerability of pedestrians, many of these incidents result in serious or fatal injuries. The present study aimed to validate a pedestrian behavior questionnaire in Iran to investigate Persian pedestrian behaviors and to understand the relationship of these behaviors with demographic and mobility variables. A total of 520 participants (292 males and 228 females) completed a survey containing behavioral items and demographic questions. A principal component analysis showed that the data best fit in four factors of transgressions (including violations and errors), lapses, aggressive behaviors, and positive behaviors. In this study, the association of behavioral dimensions with crash history as a driver, crash history as a pedestrian, the severity of an experienced pedestrian-related crash, and the participant’s relative’s crash history as a pedestrian were also investigated. The present study confirms that PBQ is a useful tool with adequate reliability for investigating Persian pedestrians' safety-related behaviors. These findings revealed the need for intervention programs and improving infrastructures through the evaluation of pedestrian behaviors, which may lead to decreasing pedestrian-related crash frequency.
Article
Distraction from mobile devices increases pedestrian risks at intersections. Innovative interventions are currently installed at road and rail intersections to alert pedestrians. These interventions will be effective only if pedestrians modify their behaviour. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) posits that behaviour changes as a result of behavioural intention, which is affected by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. However, the link between intention and actual behaviour is often overlooked. The current study aims to investigate this link and apply this theoretical framework to interventions for distracted pedestrians. We conducted a day-time field study at three railway level crossings in New Zealand with such interventions reminding pedestrians to look for trains: in-ground flashing lights located at footpath level, an audio warning message, and in-ground flashing lights combined with the audio warning message. Participants (N = 34, Mean age 33.6, SD = 8.6 years) walked through level crossings while performing a distractor task (visual and auditory distraction) or when not distracted. Actively checking for trains from both sides of the crossing was used as a measure of actual behaviour. All three interventions were perceived as useful (5.1 ± 0.4) and easy to use (5.6 ± 0.2) and resulted in positive intention to use the technology (5.8 ± 0.3). Statistical analyses confirmed that the TAM constructs - particularly perceived usefulness - affected intention, and intentions lead to behavioural change with improved crossing behaviours. This study highlights the importance of perceived usefulness and intentions to use the interventions with reducing distracted pedestrian behaviours.
Article
Internationally, there have been a number of self-reported questionnaires developed to classify pedestrians’ engagement in aberrant behaviours while walking. However, there is yet to be consensus regarding the most appropriate factor structure for these models. Furthermore, to our knowledge, a pedestrian behaviour questionnaire (PBQ) has not been validated to investigate Australian pedestrians. As such, the aim of this research was to build on the previous international instances of pedestrian behaviour questionnaires and validate a questionnaire for a cohort of Australians. Nine hundred and sixty eight participants (80.8% female) completed an online survey which included 128 items describing pedestrian behaviour, identified in international versions of PBQs. A split half analysis was conducted to determine the most appropriate configuration of the scale. Exploratory Factor Analysis conducted on half of the sample identified a 32-item four factor model of pedestrian behaviour. These factors broadly described unintentional errors, deliberate violations, aggression and engagement with technology. Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the remaining sample confirmed the proposed factor structure. Across the four factors, pedestrians reported low mean scores for all items; indicating that errors, violations, technology engagement and aggression were rarely exhibited behaviours. The highest mean scores were for engagement with technology. While the least common pedestrian behaviours were errors while walking. Male participants were found to self-report higher rates of all behaviours, while age was negatively associated with violations, errors and technology engagement. Overall, the research presents a validated measure of aberrant pedestrian behaviour in Australia.
Article
Objectives Sick leave imposes large costs on society, and job strain is one of the factors leading to sick leave. A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies was conducted to address job strain and its association with sick leave. Study design This is a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods PubMed and Scopus databases were reviewed, in addition to searches in Google Scholar and ResearchGate to ensure the inclusion of any grey literature articles. After screening the studies, using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses principles, articles with longitudinal design were found desirable for meta-analysis. The risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated, and publication bias was examined. Results Eighteen longitudinal cohort studies were selected. Job strain and sick leave were found to be associated, and the RR of this association was equal to 1.44. Risk of sick leave based on job strain in men and women was equal to 1.66 (95% CI: 1.15–2.40) and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.08–1.24), respectively. The results showed no publication bias as per Begg's test. Conclusions Job strain was associated with an increased risk of sick leave. Occupational conditions have significant effects on the risk of sick leave—one of which is job strain. Therefore, improving organisational conditions can have a significant impact on reducing sick leave.
Article
It has recently been demonstrated that metrics of structural validity are severely underreported in social and personality psychology. We comprehensively assessed structural validity in a uniquely large and varied data set ( N = 144,496 experimental sessions) to investigate the psychometric properties of some of the most widely used self-report measures ( k = 15 questionnaires, 26 scales) in social and personality psychology. When the scales were assessed using the modal practice of considering only internal consistency, 88% of them appeared to possess good validity. Yet when validity was assessed comprehensively (via internal consistency, immediate and delayed test-retest reliability, factor structure, and measurement invariance for age and gender groups), only 4% demonstrated good validity. Furthermore, the less commonly a test was reported in the literature, the more likely the scales were to fail that test (e.g., scales failed measurement invariance much more often than internal consistency). This suggests that the pattern of underreporting in the field may represent widespread hidden invalidity of the measures used and may therefore pose a threat to many research findings. We highlight the degrees of freedom afforded to researchers in the assessment and reporting of structural validity and introduce the concept of validity hacking ( v-hacking), similar to the better-known concept of p-hacking. We argue that the practice of v-hacking should be acknowledged and addressed.
Article
This study compared pedestrian behaviors in five countries (Estonia, Greece, Kosovo, Russia, and Turkey) and investigated the relationships between these behaviors and values in each country. The study participants were 131 pedestrians for Estonia, 249 for Greece, 112 for Kosovo, 176 for Russia, and 145 for Turkey. The principal component analyses revealed that the four-factor structure of the Pedestrian Behavior Scale (PBS) was highly consistent across the five countries. ANCOVA results revealed significant differences between countries on the PBS items and scale scores. Specifically, Greek and Turkish participants reported transgressive pedestrian behaviors more frequently than Estonian, Kosovar, and Russian pedestrians while Kosovar participants reported transgressive pedestrian behaviors less frequently than Estonian pedestrians. In addition, Turkish and Russian pedestrians reported lapses and aggressive behaviors more frequently than Estonian, Greek, and Kosovar pedestrians. Finally, Turkish and Estonian pedestrians reported positive behaviors more frequently than Kosovar pedestrians. Unexpectedly, the regression analyses showed that values have varying effects on pedestrian behavior in the five countries. That is, context or country may determine the effect of values on pedestrian behaviors. The results are discussed in relation to the previous literature.
Article
Pedestrian distraction is a growing road safety concern worldwide. While there are currently no studies linking distraction and pedestrian crash risk, distraction has been shown to increase risky behaviours in pedestrians, for example, through reducing visual scanning before traversing an intersection. Illuminated in-ground Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) embedded into pathways are an emerging solution to address the growing distraction problem associated with mobile use while walking. The current study sought to determine if such an intervention was effective in attracting the attention of distracted pedestrians. We conducted a controlled laboratory study (N = 24) to evaluate whether pedestrians detected the activation of flashing LEDs when distracted by a smartphone more accurately and efficiently when the lights were located on the floor compared to a control position on the wall. Eye gaze movements via an eye tracker and behavioural responses via response times assessed the detection of these flashing LEDs. Distracted participants were able to detect the activation of the floor and wall-mounted LEDs with accuracies above 90%. The visual and auditory distraction tasks increased reaction times by 143 and 124 ms, respectively. Even when distracted, performance improved with floor LEDs close to participants, with reaction time improvements by 43 and 159 ms for the LEDs 2 and 1 ms away from the participant respectively. The addition of floor LED lights resulted in a performance similar to the one observed for wall-mounted LEDs in the non-distracted condition. Moreover, participants did not necessarily need to fixate on the LEDs to detect their activation, thus were likely to have detected them using their peripheral vision. The findings suggest that LEDs embedded in pathways are likely to be effective at attracting the attention of distracted pedestrians. Further research needs to be conducted in the field to confirm these findings, and to evaluate the actual effects on behaviour under real-world conditions.
Article
Anger has been closely related to risky behavior, and this last has been related to road accidents. The current research aimed to develop and validate a self-report questionnaire to measure anger in pedestrians (n = 550, 40.73% male) of a wide age rage (14–65 years, M = 27.91, SD = 13.21). The Parallel Analysis showed that the 15 items of the Pedestrian Anger Scale fitted satisfactorily in a four-factor solution: Anger because of obstructions or slowdowns caused by other pedestrians (α = .79), Anger because of hostility from drivers (α = .64), Anger because of bad conditions of the infrastructure (α = .62), and Anger because of dangerous situations caused by vehicles (α = .71). The global scale had also a good internal consistency (α = .83). Further analyses suggested convergent, divergent and incremental validity by correlating the global score of the questionnaire with both risk and anger measures. Middle-aged people (19–30 years) scored higher in anger as pedestrians than eldest (> 45 years), η2 = .02, but no significant effect were obtained by gender. Practical implications from both clinical and road safety viewpoints are discussed, and both future research proposals and limitations of the current study are also commented.
Article
p>The primary aim of this study was to validate the short version of a Pedestrian Behaviour Questionnaire across six culturally and economically distinct countries; Bangladesh, China, Kenya, Thailand, the UK, and Vietnam. The questionnaire comprised 20 items that asked respondents to rate the extent to which they perform certain types of pedestrian behaviours, with each behaviour belonging to one of five categories identified in previous literature; violations, errors, lapses, aggressive behaviours, and positive behaviours. The sample consisted of 3423 respondents across the six countries. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of the data to the five-factor structure, and a four-factor structure in which violations and errors were combined into one factor (seen elsewhere in the literature). For some items, factor loadings were unacceptably low, internal reliability was low for two of the sub-scales, and model fit indices were generally unacceptable for both models. As such, only the violations, lapses, and aggressions sub-scales were retained (those with acceptable reliability and factor loadings), and the three-factor model tested. Although results suggest that the violations sub-scale may need additional attention, the three-factor solution showed the best fit to the data. The resulting 12-item scale is discussed with regards to country differences, and with respect to its utility as a research tool in cross-cultural studies of road user behaviour.</p
Article
Partially and fully automated vehicles (AVs) are being developed and tested in different countries. These vehicles are being designed to reduce and ultimately eliminate the role of human drivers in the future. However, other road users, such as pedestrians and cyclists will still be present and would need to interact with these automated vehicles. Therefore, external communication interfaces could be added to the vehicle to communicate with pedestrians and other non-automated road users. The first aim of this study is to investigate how the physical appearance of the AV and a mounted external human-machine interface (eHMI) affect pedestrians’ crossing intention. The second aim is to assess the perceived realism of Virtual reality based on 360° videos for pedestrian crossing behavior for research purposes. The speed, time gap, and an eHMIs were included in the study as independent factors. Fifty-five individuals participated in our experiment. Their crossing intentions were recorded, as well as their trust in automation and perceived behavioral control. A mixed binomial logistic regression model was applied on the data for analysis. The results show that the presence of a zebra crossing and larger gap size between the pedestrian and the vehicle increase the pedestrian's intention to cross. In contrast to our expectations, participants intended to cross less often when the speed of the vehicle was lower. Despite that the vehicle type affected the perceived risk of the participants, no significant difference was found in crossing intention. Participants who recognized the vehicle as an AV had, overall, lower intentions to cross. A strong positive relationship was found between crossing intentions and perceived behavioral control. A difference in trust was found between participants who recognized the vehicle as automated, but this did not lead to a difference in crossing intentions. We assessed the research methodology using the presence questionnaire, the simulation sickness survey, and by comparing the results with previous literature. The method scored highly on the presence questionnaire and only 2 out of 55 participants stopped prematurely. Thus, the research methodology is useful for crossing behavior experiments.
Article
Pedestrians hold high responsibility in accidents because of their unsafe traffic behaviors. Pedestrian violations are an important traffic safety problem, especially in low and middle-income countries. The problem would be better understood and solved by theory-based research on pedestrian violations. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the prototype willingness model (PWM) are two leading decision-making frameworks that are applied to a wide range of behaviors. These theories address the reasoned and social reactive components in decision-making. The current study aimed to compare the TPB and the PWM in pedestrian violations using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed that the TPB, the PWM, and the integrative model of the TPB and the PWM were relevant models in understanding pedestrian violations and violation intentions. However, the explanatory power of the PWM and integrative models were higher than the TPB. These findings indicate that pedestrian violations happen mostly in a social reactive way (through willingness) rather than deliberate (intentional) way. Prototype perceptions, willingness, and perceived behavioral control were the most important predictors of pedestrian violations. The findings are discussed in relation to the efficacy of the TPB and the PWM, as well as the theoretical contributions and applied implications for practitioners.
Article
Road safety is a serious problem worldwide. Pedestrians, as the most vulnerable road users, deserve more attention. The aims of this study were to examine the validity of the Chinese version of the pedestrian behavior scale (CPBS) in both driver and non-driver samples, and to compare pedestrian behaviors between the two samples. In addition, we assessed the association of attention with pedestrian behaviors by exploring the relationships among CPBS, Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and Attention-Related Cognitive Errors Scale (ARCES). Two groups were assessed, including 302 members in the population with driving experience and 307 individuals in the non-driver group without driving experience. All participants completed the CPBS, MAAS, and ARCES, and provided sociodemographic parameters. The results showed that the CPBS had acceptable internal consistency and stability structure. More importantly, pedestrian behaviors were significantly different between drivers and non-drivers. Drivers reported significantly less transgressive and aggressive behaviors compared with non-drivers. As for the relationship between attention and pedestrian behavior, the MAAS score showed a significant negative correlation with aggressive behavior in the CPBS among drivers, while the ARCES score had significant positive correlations with all three CPBS factors. In non-drivers, the MAAS score was negatively correlated with aggressive behavior and positively associated with positive behavior; the ARCES score was positively correlated with aggressive behavior.
Article
The aim of this research was to identify potential external features on a fully autonomous vehicle (FAV) and investigate which features would help pedestrians to understand the intended behavior of a FAV at a crosswalk, improve their receptivity toward FAVs, and affect their crossing behavior. In the case of a FAV, technology may be primarily responsible for control of a vehicle, and therefore, interpersonal communication is not possible. The researchers wanted to identify potential interface/s on FAVs to make pedestrian-FAV interaction positive, in which pedestrians receive a clear message about the vehicle’s intended action. In an experimental study, thirty participants walked across a virtual crosswalk in front of a FAV. Four visual and four audible features were tested. At the beginning of the study, the participants responded to a baseline receptivity survey, and at the end, they replied to a demographic questionnaire and a pedestrian behavior questionnaire, gave ratings for the features, and completed a personal innovativeness scale and an after-study receptivity survey. Crossing time and waiting time were collected from the simulator data. The results showed that pedestrians’ receptivity toward FAVs significantly increased with the inclusion of external features. A walking silhouette or ‘braking’ in text were the most favored visual interfaces, while a verbal message was found to be the preferred audible feature. Females and people from 30+ age group reacted the most positively to the features. Those pedestrians who often commit errors or who show aggressive behaviors toward other road users rated the implementation of FAVs poorly, even with the external features. On the other hand, pedestrians who intentionally violate traffic rules and those who get distracted on the road were found to be more cautious in the presence of FAVs and appreciated the inclusion of the external features.
Article
Introduction: Even though cycling is an activity whose benefits in terms of urban mobility and health are globally recognized, its disproportional growth during the past few decades has led to some unexpected dynamics. In fact, the increasing number of traffic injuries and deaths involving cyclists has a high cost for public health systems. Considering the available empirical evidence, aberrant and positive behaviors on the road constitute relevant predictors for the injuries suffered by road users. Nevertheless, the scarcity of tools that measure and evaluate the behavior of road users, especially in the case of cyclists, constitutes a serious lack in terms of explaining, intervening and preventing traffic crashes through behavioral approaches. Objective: This study had two essential purposes: first, to describe in detail the validation of measurement of risky and positive road user behaviors of cyclists using the Cycling Behavior Questionnaire. Second, to compare the mean scores of the validated version of the CBQ according to demographic and cycling-related factors. Method: As a part of a larger collaborative research project, our data was collected from 1064 Spanish-speaking cyclists (between 17 and 80 years old) from 20 countries, who filled out an anonymous electronic survey on their riding behaviors. The data was analyzed using competitive Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA), thus obtaining basic psychometric values and an optimized structure for the scale. Results: The obtained results suggest that the CBQ has a clear factorial structure, items with high factorial weight, and good internal consistency. In particular, the results of the latent variable model with three factors, which were labeled errors, violations and positive behaviors, show that the CBQ is satisfactorily adjusted. Conclusion: The findings of this research support the idea that the CBQ may have important applications in the improvement of road safety through the study of cyclists' behavioral factors and their relationship to demographic and cycling-related factors.
Article
Because most people are pedestrians at some point on any given day and walking is the most indispensable means of transportation, pedestrian safety should be investigated. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among the inconveniences that pedestrians perceive in city traffic, the traffic safety climate and pedestrian behavior. A total of 311 participants voluntarily and validly completed a survey that included the Pedestrian Inconvenience Questionnaire (PIQ), the Traffic Climate Scale (TCS) and the Pedestrian Behavior Scale (PBS). We discovered that pedestrians' perceived inconvenience was positively correlated with transgression and positive behavior by pedestrians and it also positively correlated with the external affective demands (emotional engagement facet of TCS) while negatively correlated with the functionality (functional traffic system facet of TCS). We determined that the external affective demands were positively correlated with pedestrian risk behaviors (i.e., transgression, aggressive behaviors and lapses), internal requirements (traffic participants' skills facet of TCS) were positively correlated with positive behaviors, and functionality was negatively correlated with transgression and lapses. Moreover, the results indicate that the relationship between the inconveniences pedestrians perceive in city traffic and pedestrians' transgressive behavior was fully mediated by the functionality dimension of the traffic safety climate. Pedestrians' perceived inconvenience is an important factor that affects pedestrian behavior, and the influence of pedestrians' perceptions of the traffic safety climate cannot be disregarded.
Article
This study analyzes pedestrian receptivity toward fully autonomous vehicles (FAVs) by developing and validating a pedestrian receptivity questionnaire for FAVs (PRQF). The questionnaire included sixteen survey items based on attitude, social norms, trust, compatibility, and system effectiveness. 482 Participants from the United States (273 males and 209 females, age range: 18–71 years) responded to an online survey. A principal component analysis determined three subscales describing pedestrians’ receptivity toward FAVs: safety, interaction, and compatibility. This factor structure was verified by a confirmatory factor analysis and reliability of each subscale was confirmed (0.7 < Cronbach’s alpha < 0.9). Regression analyses investigated associations with scenario-based responses to the three PRQF subscale scores. Pedestrians’ intention to cross the road in front of FAVs was significantly predicted by both safety and interaction scores, but not by the compatibility score. Accepting FAVs in the existing traffic system was predicted by all three subscale scores. Demographic influence on the receptivity revealed that males and younger respondents were more receptive toward FAVs. Similarly, those from urban areas and people with higher personal innovativeness showed higher receptivity. Finally, a significant effect of pedestrian behavior (as measured by the pedestrian behavior questionnaire) on receptivity is explored. People who show positive behavior believed that the addition of FAVs will improve overall traffic safety. Those who show higher violation, lapse and aggression scores, were found to feel more confident about crossing the road in front of a FAV. This questionnaire can be a potential research tool for designing and improving FAVs for road-users outside the vehicles.
Article
The aim of this study was to develop and validate a self-reporting Pedestrian Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ) for the U.S. population to measure frequency of risky behaviors among pedestrians. The PBQ includes 50 survey items that allow respondents to rate the frequency with which they engage in different types of road-using behaviors as pedestrians. The validation study was conducted on 425 participants (228 males and 197 females) between the ages of 18 and 71. Confirmatory factor analysis differentiated pedestrian behaviors into five factor categories: violations, errors, lapses, aggressive behaviors, and positive behaviors. A short version of the PBQ with 20 items was also created by selecting four items with high factor loadings from each of the five factor categories. Regression analyses investigated associations with scenario-based survey behavioral responses to validate the five-factor PBQ subscale scores and composite score. For both long and short versions, each of these five individual factor scales were found to be reliable (0.7 < Cronbach’s alpha (α) < 0.9) and valid (significant association with p < 0.0001), except in the case of positive behaviors (α < 0.6) which requires further expansion. The effects of gender and age on the PBQ scores were investigated and found to be consistent with previous research. This PBQ can serve as an instrument of pedestrian self-assessment in educational and training contexts as well as can be useful to all researchers investigating pedestrian safety for all age groups.
Article
The high rate of traffic accidents involving pedestrians has become a major traffic safety problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. In the current study, we employ a Chinese version of the Pedestrian Behavior Scale (PBS) and explore its correlation with attention and personality traits. A sample of 283 adults completed the Chinese Pedestrian Behavior Scale (CPBS), which measures pedestrian behavior, and a demographic questionnaire. And 183 of them completed (1) the Attention-Related Cognitive Errors Scale (ARCES) and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), which measure pedestrian attention-related issues; (2) a scale to capture personality traits (including normlessness, anger, sensation-seeking and altruism). Overall, the Chinese PBS showed adequate reliability and a stable structure. Hierarchical multiple regressions were employed to examine the effects of personality traits, attention-related errors (measured by the ARCES), and conscious awareness (measured by MAAS), and the results show that MAAS, ARCES, normlessness, anger and altruism can affect pedestrian behaviors. These findings could guide the development of intervention programs through the evaluation of various pedestrian behaviors, thus reducing the frequency of pedestrian-involved traffic accidents.
Article
In this paper, an integrated methodology for the analysis of pedestrian behaviour and exposure is proposed, allowing to identify and quantify the effect of pedestrian behaviour, road and traffic characteristics on pedestrian risk exposure, for each pedestrian and for populations of pedestrians. The paper builds on existing research on pedestrian exposure, namely the Routledge microscopic indicator, proposes adjustments to take into account road, traffic and human factors and extends the use of this indicator on area-wide level. Moreover, this paper uses integrated choice and latent variables (ICLV) models of pedestrian behaviour, taking into account road, traffic and human factors. Finally, a methodology is proposed for the integrated estimation of pedestrian behaviour and exposure on the basis of road, traffic and human factors. The method is tested with data from a field survey in Athens, Greece, which used pedestrian behaviour observations as well as a questionnaire on human factors of pedestrian behaviour. The data were used (i) to develop ICLV models of pedestrian behaviour and (ii) to estimate the behaviour and exposure of pedestrians for different road, traffic and behavioural scenarios. The results suggest that both pedestrian behaviour and exposure are largely defined by a small number of factors: road type, traffic volume and pedestrian risk-taking. The probability for risk-taking behaviour and the related exposure decrease in less demanding road and traffic environments. A synthesis of the results allows to enhance the understanding of the interactions between behaviour and exposure of pedestrians and to identify conditions of increased risk exposure. These conditions include principal urban arterials (where risk-taking behaviour is low but the related exposure is very high) and minor arterials (where risk-taking behaviour is more frequent, and the related exposure is still high). A "paradox" of increased risk-taking behaviour of pedestrians with low exposure is found, suggesting that these pedestrians may partly compensate in moderate traffic conditions due to their increased walking speed.
Article
The objective of this research is the development of pedestrian crossing choice models on the basis of road, traffic and human factors. For that purpose, a field survey was carried out, in which a panel of 75 pedestrians were asked to take 8 short walking trips (each one corresponding to a different walking and crossing scenario) in the Athens city centre in Greece, allowing to record their crossing behaviour in different road and traffic conditions. The same individuals were asked to fill in a questionnaire on their travel motivations, their mobility characteristics, their risk perceptions and preferences with respect to walking and road crossing, their opinion on drivers, etc. The walking and crossing scenarios’ data were used to develop mixed sequential logit models of pedestrian behaviour on the basis of road and traffic characteristics. The modelling results showed that pedestrian crossing choices are significantly affected by road type, traffic flow and traffic control. The questionnaire data were used to estimate human factors (components) of pedestrian crossing behaviour by means of principal component analysis. The results showed that three components of pedestrian crossing behaviour emerge, namely a “risk-taking and optimisation” component reflecting the tendency to cross at mid-block in order to save time, etc., a “conservative” component, concerning individuals with increased perceived risk of mid-block crossing, who also appear to be frequent public transport users, and a “pedestrian for pleasure” component, bringing together frequent pedestrians, walking for health or pleasure, etc. The introduction of these components as explanatory variables into the choice models resulted in improvement of the modelling results, indicating that human factors have additional explanatory power over road and traffic factors of pedestrian behaviour. Therefore, the development of integrated choice and latent variables models appears to be an appropriate field for further research.
Article
This study aims to explore the effect of gender role conformity on perception and display of risky pedestrian behaviours among adults. Masculinity and femininity levels were measured among 258 adults (104 men and 154 women). Effects of conformity to masculine and feminine gender role were observed on self-reported frequency of 16 pedestrian behaviours and on danger perception, risk perception and normative beliefs linked to these behaviours. Results show gender difference and effect of gender role conformity on normative beliefs related to pedestrian behaviours. Mistaken and unsafe behaviours are more disapproved by men than by women. Individual with high conformity to masculine gender role more endorse risk-taking and violations than individuals with high conformity to feminine gender role. Links between normative beliefs and behaviours and gender roles contents are discussed.