Smoking is independently associated with erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Given existing similarities in the constituents of e-cigarettes or ENDS and cigarettes, this study examines the association between ENDS use and erectile dysfunction.
Data from Wave 4 (2016–2018) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study were analyzed in 2020. Male participants aged ≥20 years who responded to the erectile dysfunction question were included. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the association of ENDS use with erectile dysfunction within the full sample and in a restricted sample (adults aged 20–65 years with no previous cardiovascular disease diagnosis) while adjusting for multiple risk factors.
The proportion of erectile dysfunction varied from 20.7% (full sample) to 10.2% (restricted sample). The prevalence of current ENDS use within the full and restricted samples was 4.8% and 5.6%, respectively, with 2.1% and 2.5%, respectively, reporting daily use. Current daily ENDS users were more likely to report erectile dysfunction than never users in both the full (AOR=2.24, 95% CI=1.50, 3.34) and restricted (AOR=2.41, 95% CI=1.55, 3.74) samples. In the full sample, cardiovascular disease history (versus not present) and age ≥65 years (versus age 20–24 years) were associated with erectile dysfunction (AOR=1.39, 95% CI=1.10, 1.77; AOR= 17.4, 95% CI=12.15, 24.91), whereas physical activity was associated with lower odds of erectile dysfunction in both samples (AOR range=0.44−0.58).
The use of ENDS seems to be associated with erectile dysfunction independent of age, cardiovascular disease, and other risk factors. While ENDS remain under evaluation for harm reduction and smoking-cessation potential, ENDS users should be informed about the possible association between ENDS use and erectile dysfunction.