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Scientific and Technical Perspectives of Waste-to-Energy Conversion - Journal of Nature Science and Sustainable Technology



FOR CITATION: Salem, H.S, Yihdego, Y. and Pudza, M.Y. 2021. Scientific and Technical Perspectives of Waste-to-Energy Conversion. Journal of Nature Science and Sustainable Technology, Vol. 15, No: 3, PP: 193-217. (Published by Nova Science Publishers, USA). ABSTRACT: With the population's growth, economic growth, urbanization, accelerated development, and, thus, greater rates of consumption, the world has been witnessing the generation of large amounts of waste. In the recent decades, waste production has increased dramatically, worldwide and, apparently, there is no single sign of slowing down. The world generates 2.01 billion metric tons of municipal solid waste annually, with at least 33% of that not managed in an environmentally safe manner. Worldwide, the average amount of waste generated is 0.74 kg/ca/d, while is ranging widely between 0.11 and 4.54 kg/ca/d. Though they account only for 16% of the world's population, high-income countries generate about 34% (i.e., 683 million tons) of the world's waste. By 2050, worldwide municipal solid waste (MSW) production is expected to increase by approximately 70% (i.e., to 3.4 billion metric tons). Accordingly, the waste-to-energy (WtE) approach should be considered as a key issue of a waste-management system. This is due to the facts that the WtE approach and technologies contribute effectively to the development of low-carbon societies, encourage recycling and stricter policies for waste reduction, and, thus, protect the environment and public health, and also strengthen the economy. This paper tickles some of the scientific and technical perspectives related to solid waste management and the WtE approach and technologies. Keywords: Resources’ Recovery; Wastes’ Recycling; Energy-to-Waste (EtW) Approach, Technologies, Production, and Efficiency; Sustainability Assessment.
Journal of Nature Science and Sustainable Technology ISSN: 1933-0324
Volume 15, Number 3 © 2021 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Hilmi S. Salem1,
, Yohannes Yihdego2,
and Musa Yahaya Pudza3
1Sustainable Development Research Institute (SDRI),
Bethlehem, West Bank, Palestine
2Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation (SMEC),
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
3Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering,
University Putra Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
With the population’s growth, economic growth, urbanization, accelerated
development, and, thus, greater rates of consumption, the world has been witnessing
the generation of large amounts of waste. In the recent decades, waste production
has increased dramatically, worldwide and, apparently, there is no single sign of slowing
down. The world generates 2.01 billion metric tons of municipal solid waste annually,
with at least 33% of that not managed in an environmentally safe manner. Worldwide,
the average amount of waste generated is 0.74 kg/ca/d, while is ranging widely between
0.11 and 4.54 kg/ca/d. Though they account only for 16% of the world’s population,
high-income countries generate about 34% (i.e., 683 million tons) of the world’s waste.
By 2050, worldwide municipal solid waste (MSW) production is expected to increase by
approximately 70% (i.e., to 3.4 billion metric tons). Accordingly, the waste-to-energy
(WtE) approach should be considered as a key issue of a waste-management system. This
is due to the facts that the WtE approach and technologies contribute effectively to the
development of low-carbon societies, encourage recycling and stricter policies for waste
reduction, and, thus, protect the environment and public health, and also strengthen the
economy. This paper tickles some of the scientific and technical perspectives related to
solid waste management and the WtE approach and technologies.
Keywords: Resources’ Recovery; Wastes’ Recycling; Energy-to-Waste (EtW) Approach,
Technologies, Production, and Efficiency; Sustainability Assessment
Corresponding Author’s Email:
Hilmi S. Salem, Yohannes Yihdego and Musa Yahaya Pudza
ABPC Air-Blown Partial Combustion
AA Anaerobic Absorption
BAHs Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
CH4 Methane
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand
FTR Fischer-Tropsch Reactor
FW Food Waste
GHGs Greenhouse Gases
GWP Global Warming Potential
GTs Gas Turbines
H2 Hydrogen
HCs Hydrocarbons
HRSG Heat Recovery Steam Generator
ICEs Internal Combustion Engines
ISWM Integrated Solid Waste Management
KSA Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
LCA Life Cycle Assessment
LFG Landfill Gas
LPD Line Programmed Display
MSW Municipal Solid Waste
OBPC Oxygen Blown Partial Combustion
OPT Occupied Palestinian Territories
PE Polyethylene
pH Potential of Hydrogen
PS Polystyrene
PVC Polyvinyl Chloride
PET Polyethylene Terephthalate
SRF Solid Recovered Fuel
SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats
TCT Thermo-Compound Treatment
USA United States of America
USD United States’ Dollar
VSadded Volatile Solid Added
WtE Waste-to-Energy
Btu/cft British Thermal Unit per Cubic Feet
MBtu/cft Million British Thermal Unit per Cubic Feet
Celsius Degree
kg/ca/d Kg per Capita per Day
kWh/ca Kilo-Watt-Hour per Capita
kWh/t Kilo-Watt-Hour per Ton
MJ/ca Mega-Joule per Capita
MPaG Mega-Pascal per Gauge
MWh Mega-Watt-Hour
Scientific and Technical Perspectives of Waste-to-Energy Conversion
m3/kg Cubic Meter per Kilogram
ton/d Ton per Day
ton/yr Ton per Year
In recent decades, waste production has increased dramatically, worldwide, and
apparently there are no signs of slowing down. The world produces 2.01 billion metric tons of
municipal solid waste (MSW) annually, with at least 33% of that not managed in an
environmentally safe manner (World Bank 2021). Worldwide, the average amount of waste
generated is 0.74 kg/ca/d (kg per capita per day), while it is generally ranging from 0.11 to
4.54 kg/c/d. However, high-income countries generate about 34% (or 683 million metric tons)
of the world’s waste, although they only represent 16% of the world’s population. On the
other hand, there is a positive correlation between waste generation and income level. This
means that by increasing the income per person, greater amounts of waste generated.
However, the high income countries have the highest rate of waste collection, while the low-
income countries have the lowest rate of waste collection (Figure 1Left).
Source: World Bank 2021.
Figure 1. Left: Waste collection rates by income level (%); Right: Waste generation
and projected waste generation by region (millions of metric tons/yr) for the years 2016,
2030, and 2050.
By 2050, worldwide municipal solid waste production is expected to increase by
approximately 70%, i.e. to 3.4 billion metric tons (Tiseo 2020). For various regions of the
world, the increase in MSW will range from about 25% (for Europe and Central Asia) to
about 197% (for Sub-Saharan Africa), representing the differences between the projected
values of MSW in 2050 and the MSW’s values in 2016 (Figure 1Right).
The worldwide dramatic increases of MSW can be attributed to a number of factors,
including growth of the world’s population, and increasing rates of urbanization and
economic growth, as well as consumers’ shopping habits. China, for instance, generated
15.5% of global MSW in 2018. However, when population is taken into account, the USA
creates the most waste, though it represents only 4% of the world’s population. The USA has
been responsible for 11.65% of global waste generation (Tiseo 2020). This was the same
quota generated by India a country with a much larger population than the USA. This is
Hilmi S. Salem, Yohannes Yihdego and Musa Yahaya Pudza
with the consideration that the populations, as for 1 July 2018, were in these three countries:
China1.428 billion; India1.353 billion; and the USA327.1 million (Wikipedia 2021).
Because of these huge amounts of MSW, worldwide, it is extremely important and
required to give the methods and experiences of recovery to convert waste into basic energy
sources, and to investigate the options available in marketing waste for different types of
energy. This is in line with the “Paris Agreement (FCCC/CP/2015/L9/Rev.1),” where
representatives from all member states and observer states of the United Nations, as well as
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) throughout the world met in Paris, France during the
period of 30 November–11 December 2015, with the aim of reducing the increasing Earth’s
surface temperature by 2 (UNCC 2015).
The idea of taking waste with the end-goal of transformation to energy is seen by
numerous observers as a hazard to the recycling idea. In spite of this well-known view, many
researches and governments across the world see that the transformation of waste to energy
(WtE) is one of the best tools to eliminate climate-change impacts, and through which waste
can be utilized in a good and efficient source of energy. As the qualities of created (or
produced) waste, such as MSW, are changed to a high calorific esteem, because of pressing
materials and with respect to move in the general public that is going for the utilization of
substantial waste warmth and less emanations of the greenhouse gases (GHGs), new age of
high-effective WtE innovation is required (Ham and Lee 2017; Habib et al. 2021).
The assessments of energy from waste change to industrial satisfaction of the energy
demands of different countries have been widely investigated, worldwide. Numerous
countries utilize waste in the production of electrical energy, including, for instance, the
following: Canada4,915 MJ/ca; The Netherlands3,367 MJ/ca; Japan1,608 MJ/ca; the
United Kingdom1,497 MJ/ca; and Sweden1,278 MJ/ca (Thi et al. 2016). Likewise, a few
countries could get power from yearly Food Waste (FW) production and contribute a high
level of total national power demand. This applies on, for example, The Netherlands2.9%
(164.4 kWh/ca); Canada1.35% (240 kWh/ca); Japan0.92% (78.5 kWh/ca); the United
Kingdom1.31% (73.1 kWh/ca); and Ireland1.23% (68 kWh/ca) (Thi et al. 2016).
In addition, investigations for ‘Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats’
(SWOT) were utilized to evaluate three types of FW bio-treatment forms, including fertilizing
the soil, anaerobic assimilation, maturation for bio-hythane gas, and, in this manner, outlining
future bearings in the improvement of FW to hydrogen and methane. SWOT investigations
show that the fermentative hydrogen and methane production was a promising choice for
commercializing FW into energy (Thi et al. 2016). All the more along these lines, it ends up
basic to receive reasonable and appropriate procedures that can improve this environmentally
inviting type of energy innovation. A theoretical and proficient model to build up an energy
production is especially expected to meet the energy needs of the developing mechanical
complex (Jebaraj and Iniyan 2006; Arafat and Jijakli 2013; Rajaeifar et al. 2015; Rajaeifar et
al. 2017; Subramanian et al. 2018).
Though fossil and nuclear energies are still the preferred decision in many countries
around the world, many countries are moving forward towards manufacturing and utilization
of renewable energy sources and technologies, including solar, wind, thermal, biological
(WtE), and so forth.
This paper aims to be a short survey to share and understand developments in the
business and a range of issues related to waste conversion to energy. It looks at how
innovation is created and how quantities of plants can be expanded to save nature and to use
Scientific and Technical Perspectives of Waste-to-Energy Conversion
energy sources efficiently. In addition, options regarding resource recovery from treated
waste are investigated in robust waste management.
Need for Waste-to-Energy (WtE) Technologies
Enthusiasm for spotless, reasonable energy, and preoccupation of unproductive landfills
conveys more enthusiasm for energy recuperation from MSW. As an energy raw material,
MSW is plentiful, and unproductive makers commonly pay tipping expenses for the transfer
of 260 million tons (1 ton = 1,000 kg) delivered every year in the USA alone (US EPA 2010a;
Pressley 2013). Most recently, facts on the ground indicate that 268 million tons of waste are
generated in the USA each year, including different kinds of waste, most of which can be
recycled, whereas more than half of it (around 140 million tons) ended in landfills (McDonald
2020) (Figure 2). Numerous energy recovery choices from waste include landfill gas-to-
energy, burning, anaerobic processing, and gasification.
Figure 2. A diagram showing that out of 268 million tons of waste generated annually
in the USA alone, approximately 140 million tons of waste ended in landfills
(after McDonald 2020).
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a standardized methodology for assessing potential
environmental impacts associated to a product, a process, or a system, along its life cycle,
namely, in the present case, from the extraction of raw material to the end of life. LCA can be
utilized to assess the relative energy and environmental execution of such choices from
control to extreme transfer, yielding experiences that illuminate open arrangement and
venture choices (e.g., Kaplan et al. 2009; Levis and Barlaz 2011; Pressley 2013; Sala et al.
2016). LCA has beforehand been utilized to portray the environmental execution of energy
recovery alternatives from MSW, by representing all procedures related to materials, energy,
and emissions, straight-forwardly and by implication. For instance, landfill gas-to-energy
examines incorporate emanations related with curbside gathering forms, outlaw methane,
power age, and substantial machine task (Levis and Barlaz 2011; Pressley 2013; Rajaeifar
et al. 2015; Islam 2021). On the other hand, waste-to-energy represents emanations related
with curbside accumulation forms, energy utilization, power age, and power management
(Pressley 2013; Fernández-González et al. 2017; USDE 2019).
Hilmi S. Salem, Yohannes Yihdego and Musa Yahaya Pudza
Thermo-artificially gasification changes over time from a strong feedstock into a
combination of various gases (i.e., syngas). Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture
consisting, primarily, of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.
The name (syngas) comes from its use as intermediates in creating synthetic natural gas and
for producing ammonia or methanol (Lee et al. 2014). Syngas is used as an iron-based or
cobalt-based impetus in a Fischer-Tropsch Reactor (FTR) (Yao 2012).
The resultant engineered petroleum (i.e. syncrude), prepared in oil refineries, is translated
from power-ware into fluid conveying powers and compound co-items. The full-scale FTR
innovation at present is used to make fluid conveying powers from coal (Cao et al. 2008;
Saeidi et al. 2014). On the other hand, substances have sought after MSW gasification
throughout the most recent years (Pytlar 2010; Arena 2012; USDE 2019). The gasification of
a few MSW components have been exhibited tentatively (Gai and Dong 2012), yet never has
it been joined with FTR innovation for a business’ application. Despite the fact that
thoroughly gasification and FTR are restricted, numerous partial combustion styles reproduce
the substance responses inside gasifiers and FTR. Thermodynamic harmony styles can
foresee syngas yield and creation from gasifiers (Pressley 2013; Shabbar and Janajreh 2013;
Vera et al. 2013; Ayub et al. 2020; Marcantonio et al. 2020).
Food (nourishment) waste (FW) is a decent well-spring of hydrogen fuel, as it is a reach
in natural issues that disintegrate to create required fuel, which discovers applications in
enterprises in the regions of warming and bubbling. In a lab-scale reactor, it is said to produce
a high throughput of 4.9 mol H2/mol hexoseadded (Tawfik et. al. 2011). These energy yield
transformations from H2 production were surveyed to be 1,724 kWh/ton of FW. Be that as it
may, in a full-scale plant, H2 production fundamentally diminished to 0.5 mol H2/mol
hexoseadded (Kim et al. 2010) with an energy transformation efficiency of 2.3% for the FW to
H2, which brought about a total energy yield of 12.5 kWh/ton of FW. Some pilot-scale
considers the H2 yields being 0.29 m3/kg VSadded and 2.1 mol H2/g COD (Wang et al. 2010;
Thi et al. 2016).
Nonetheless, the cost of hydrogen yield amongst laboratory and constant reactors/pilot
scale will vary. The total energy transformation by maturing FW for H2 was additionally
anticipated at a low rate because of the vacillations in H2 production, filtration, storage,
conveyance, and change efficiency (Kiran et al. 2014). Moreover, some essential indicators
prompt streamline hydrogen yield, for example, biomolecule, water-driven maintenance time,
reactor compose, pH, and temperature. Furthermore, in handy utilizations of aging FW for H2,
some basic issues may be confronted, for example, substrate stacking stun, which may bring
about checked acido-beginning (Sen et al. 2016; Thi 2016).
The physical and substance attributes of FW, specialized arrangement, and the pre-
treatment forms are key factors of aging for production of methane gas (CH4) (Molino et al.
2013; Kondusamy and Kalamdhad 2014; Zhang et al. 2014). One-phase or one-stage process
for methane production is very much utilized than two-arranged in full-scale applications (Thi
et al. 2016). Two-organized frameworks contain a hyper-thermophilic reactor for hydrogen
and another mesophilic, thermophilic, or hyper-thermophilic reactor for methane. Be that as it
may, two-stage anaerobic processing is accounted for to accomplish higher general efficiency
Scientific and Technical Perspectives of Waste-to-Energy Conversion
and is more profitable than one-arranged framework in treating FW for bio-energy
(Elbeshbishy and Nakhla 2011; Thi et al. 2016).
Age of power from waste was spearheaded in Denmark and other Scandinavian countries
(Sweden, Norway, and Finland) for region warming, because of their chilly climate. For
instance, the consolidated warmth and energy plants in Denmark needed another sort of
heater for scale-up coherence. Hence the steam boundaries are regularly 40 bar, 400 as of
now since 2000 (Ham and Lee 2017; Edo 2021).
As per the report issued by the Ministry of the Environment of Japan in 2012, the
development regards the sheltered and resonance metropolitan unproductive cremation in
scale-up coherence control age is produced (MEJ 2012; Ham and Lee 2017). Previously,
they need component in positioning unproductive cremation plants, as being hostile to
contamination control, which brought about a huge redesigning of power offices from this
point of view in Japan. Be that as it may, in context of energy recovery, numerous plants
presently develop exceedingly productive power age offices with lengthy working being, as
required by GHGs emanations’ weight. Increasing the inversion and steam weight that
controls age, which brings about high efficiency, is required. While requesting high inversion
and high weight boilers, the higher energy age effectiveness can be accomplished.
Mechanical necessities for developments in waste-to-energy technologies are portrayed in
Table 1.
Table 1. Technological requisites and improvement effects
for high-efficiency power generation (after MEJ 2012; Ham and Lee 2017)
Technological Requisites
on heat recovery
Lowered temperature
Lowered combustion air ratio
Lower temperature catalytic
High-efficient dry exhaust
gas scrubber
Valid usage
of steam
No flue gas heating
Wastewater treatment
of steam
High temperature, high
pressure boiler
Extraction turbine
Hilmi S. Salem, Yohannes Yihdego and Musa Yahaya Pudza
Different innovative requirements are broadly connected to cremation office to expand
the power age efficiency (Tabata 2013; Ham and Lee 2017). Relies upon the goal of
modification, different necessities can be connected. These innovative options can, likewise,
be embraced to Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) control plants for expanding the energy recovery
efficiency too. In light of this high-effective WtE knowledge, there is additionally the
development along Japan expanding the power recuperation. In 2009, around 80% of the total
produced MSW were dealt with by burning (US EPA 2010b). Among them, just 24.5% of
plants in Japan performed power recuperation and use for produced warm was additionally
scarcely executed. Since a large portion of the WtE plants introduced in Japan are small-scale
plants, they just go for MSW’s treatment. Along these lines, the thought processes in energy
recovery were feeble. Be that as it may, balancing on worldwide changes, concentrating on
energy recovery is the fundamental idea for the creating WtE technologies (Tabata 2013;
Ham and Lee 2017).
Resource Recovery with Examples from Various Regions of the World
According to US EPA (2021), municipal solid waste’s landfills are the third largest
source of human-related emissions of methane in the USA, accounting for about 15.1% of
these emissions in 2019 (Figure 3). Methane emissions from MSW’s landfills in 2019 were
roughly equivalent to GHGs from more than 21.6 million passenger cars driven for one year,
or CO2 emissions from nearly 12 million homes from one-year energy use (US EPA 2021).
Accordingly, methane emissions from MSW’s landfills represent a missed opportunity to
capture and use, as a great and major energy source.
Source: US EPA 2021.
Figure 3. Sources and percentages of methane emissions in the USA for the year 2019.
Among various accessible MSW’s treatment alternatives are the WtE approach and
technologies that give favorable circumstances of productive management of waste, and of
creating power in environmentally and economically achievable manners (Rajendran et al.
Scientific and Technical Perspectives of Waste-to-Energy Conversion
2014; Rajaeifar et al. 2015; Malinauskaite et al. 2017; Rajaeifar et al. 2017). The WtE
approach and technologies ought to be actualized as a piece of a coordinated and efficient
waste management tool through the Integrated Solid Waste Management’s (ISWM)
framework, with a specific end-goal to accomplish an exhaustive reuse of the substance and
power. Such settings, landfill gas (LFG) recuperation, anaerobic absorption (AA), cremation,
gasification, and pyrolysis, have pulled in a lot of consideration. Since utilizing LFG recovery
is a settled innovation and is generally utilized worldwide, late examinations are for the most
part centered around enhancement of power age, surveying capability of utilizing LFG
recovery in current landfills, and additionally assessing the economic and environmental
impacts of this procedure in various waste-management frameworks (Chakraborty et al. 2013;
Ahmed et al. 2015; Aydi et al. 2015; Scarlat et al. 2015; Tan et al. 2015; Broun and Sattler
2016; Friedrich and Trois 2016; Islam 2016; Peerapong and Limmeechokchai 2016; US EPA
Various researchers think about having been directed on various parts of power age, e.g.
procedure effectiveness and advancement (Mao et al. 2015; Budzianowski 2016; Fernández-
González et al. 2017), surveying the capability of power age utilizing LFG (Dos Santos et al.
2016; Kelebe and Olorunnisola 2016; Kumaran et al. 2016; Moreda 2016; Rios and
Kaltschmitt 2016; Sowunmi et al. 2016), approach assessments (Binkley et al. 2013; Edwards
et al. 2015; Hjalmarsson 2015; Shane et al. 2016), economic and techno-economic
investigations (Rajendran et al. 2014; Zaman and Reynolds 2015; Budzianowski 2016; Shane
et al. 2016), environmental effectivity assessment (Adams et al. 2015; Arafat et al. 2015; Jin
et al. 2015; Rajaeifar et al. 2015; Woon et al. 2016), and feasibility and potential (Dos Santos
et al. 2016; Halder et al. 2016; Intharathirat and Salam 2016; Kelebe and Olorunnisola 2016;
Moreda 2016; Shane et al. 2016; Sowunmi et al. 2016).
As indicated by Yechiel and Shevah (2016), the commercial advantages of changing over
LFG to power were exhibited utilizing a Line Programmed Display (LPD). The outcomes
demonstrated at the execution of irregular energy management, which the LFG energy was
created and provided at crest stack hours, could offer fundamentally high profit returns that
are contrasted with constant energy age. Additionally, the likewise contended that the net
advantages of power age, utilizing LFG recuperation, can be additionally enhanced along
improvement approaches, for example, LPD. The Yechiel and Shevah’s (2016) study would
have been more indisputable in the event that they had utilized multi-target advancement
models for WtE enhancement, so as, at the same time, to focus on financial and
environmental issues. In addition, top-to-bottom correlation of environmental effects between
power age, utilizing LFG and methane recuperation courses (warming, hydrogen or methanol
manufacturing motive), would have, likewise, enhanced the unwavering quality of the
outcomes introduced by Yechiel and Shevah (2016).
Fazeli et al. (2016) investigated the present position of unproductive management in
Malaysia and dissected the livelihood of assurance WtE technologies. These features emerged
despite the fact that the Malaysian government has been striving to redesign the existing
landfills. However, additional efforts must be made, keeping in mind the ultimate goal of
implementing LFG recovery. This appears like a prudent system for other developing
countries, whose legislatures are additionally endeavoring to enhance landfills’ standards.
Fazeli et al. (2016) additionally contended that power age, utilizing LFG, would be of
extraordinary enthusiasm for Malaysia, because of less time and lower speculation needed in
burning, gasification, and pyrolysis. One noteworthy disadvantage of the Fazeli et al. (2016)
Hilmi S. Salem, Yohannes Yihdego and Musa Yahaya Pudza
achievements was the absence of a livelihood evaluation (environmental/economic/social)
and a careful correlation together with the suggested subsequently technologies in Malaysia.
In addition, the decisions should have been the best intrigue in the event that they had
clarified the potential of the energy age, using all the proposed technologies. Natural
partitioning, however, makes up an unusual portion of MSW and can be changed into
elements that include degradation (e.g., compost or biogas) along robust anaerobic bio-forms.
Biogas can provide more focal points, containing 50%70% methane as a sustainable energy
source, especially for the energy age (Rajendran et al. 2014).
The amount of the MSW generated in the West Bank of the Occupied Palestinian
Territories (OPT) is estimated at around 1.4 million tons per year, or, in other words, it is 0.94
kg/ca/d (GIZ 2014). This means that a household, for example, of 5 members generates
around 1,000 kg per month, representing a large amount of waste, whereas less than 0.5% of
it is recycled and less than 0.5% of it is composted (GIZ 2014). The Hebron and Bethlehem
Governorates, which are home for more than one million people in the West Bank of OPT,
create around 500 tons of waste per day (World Bank 2013). Its vast majority is discarded in
unsanitary dumps, illicitly copied, or dumped outside. Disposal methods are mainly
landfilling and dumping (random or controlled), whereas it is estimated that about 30%35%
of municipal waste is illegally dumped and 65%70% is disposed in one of the six
operational landfills existing in the OPT (Thöni and Matar 2019).
These landfills in the OPT face the risk of over-capacity in the short term, due to land
restrictions, low primary separation, and increasing trend in waste quantities. The Joint
Services Council for Hebron and Bethlehem was set up to center around giving clean last
transfer administrations and raise open mindfulness. Ouda (2013) surveyed the potential
environmental and economic advantage of a WtE office in the Gaza Strip on the setting of
two situations: Mass Burn with Reprocess up to the year 2035. Ouda’s (2013) investigations
demonstrated a possibility to produce roughly 77.1 MWh of power in light of a Mass Burn
situation, and around 4.7 MWh of power in view of a Mass Burn with Recycling situation.
These qualities are around 10.3% and 0.63%, separately, of the anticipated pinnacle power
demand of 751 MWh in 2035.
Jordan, as another example on MSW, currently generates an estimated 2.7 million tons of
MSW per year. In 2034 it is estimated to reach 5.2 million tons, whereas organic waste (bio-
waste) represents the biggest share of MSW, which is about 60% (EC 2017). The MSW
delivered every year in Jordan can offer the most astounding biogas manufacture prospective
with an offer 35.18%, whereas contrasted and alternate biomass feedstock are considered i.e.,
horticultural deposits and creature fertilizers (Al-Hamamre et al. 2017). In addition, the offer
of MSW in power production (by coordinate burning of the created biogas) in Jordan was
evaluated at 40% (Al-Hamamre et al. 2017). Be that as it may, Al-Hamamre et al. (2017) did
not investigate the habitat or financial advantages of utilizing these feedstocks as well-spring
of power procedure, which is a basic imperative building up sustainable power source
Ouda et al. (2016) explored the worldwide status of WtE technologies with an
accentuation on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), a contextual analysis on the unwanted-
administration openings in the KSA, utilizing double situations, which are: 1) Incineration;
and 2) Recycle inferred fuel alongside bio-methanation for the period of 20122035. Ouda et
al. (2016) guaranteed that cremation innovation can offer inexhaustible power moderately
scale-up effectiveness and scale-down executional cost in the KSA. Be that as it may, there
Scientific and Technical Perspectives of Waste-to-Energy Conversion
are constraints on utilizing this innovation in the KSA, e.g., requirement for therapy of air-
borne and water-borne poisons, and additionally the need of fiery remains treatment. Ouda et
al. (2016) findings would have been more indisputable in the event that they had utilized
more exhaustive examinations, keeping in mind the end-goal to choose the best situation, i.e.,
LCA, financial and techno-economic examinations.
In an audit article, Edwards et al. (2015) similarly examined the impacts of administrative
strategies in advancing anaerobic absorption (AA) utilization and advancement in five
countries with the most elevated number of AA plants; i.e., Australia, Denmark, Germany,
the UK, and the USA. The examinations recognized are environmental alter, power, security,
provincial advancement, unproductive administration, energy recuperation approaches as the
main attribute for AA utilization and improvement (Edwards et al. 2015).
As a standout amongst the best methodologies for synchronous diminishment of the
number of unwanted (particularly cumbersome) and power recuperation unwanted cremation
would, likewise, help with the lessening of GHGs outflows (Tsai 2016). These principle
favorable circumstances of unwanted burning have prompted a broad execution of this
procedure around the globe, while its distinctive angles include: innovative advancements
(Fellner et al. 2015; Jensen et al. 2015; Martin et al. 2015; Funari et al. 2016; Goh et al.
2016), evaluating the capability of power age utilizing burning (Scarlat et al. 2015; Tan et al.
2015; Baran et al. 2016; Ouda and Cekirge (2014); Ouda et al. 2016; Rajaeifar et al. 2017),
economic and techno-economic investigations (Tan et al. 2015; Anderson et al. 2016), and
environmental effect assessment (Di Maria and Micale 2015; Tan et al. 2015; Jones and
Harrison 2016; Havukainen et al. 2017) have been widely explored.
Tsai (2016) explored the efficiency of intensity age in Taiwanese burning force plants.
The outcomes acquired featured that regardless of the income of USD 154 million achieved
by power age cremation plants, the power’s effectiveness in the plants are generally little,,
because of warmth release in the air (i.e., absence of effective warmth recuperation). In like
manner, the need to abuse warmth power delivered from MSW in the cremation plants by
methods for enhancing the boilers’ warmth trade effectively, by receiving locale warming and
cooling frameworks, and also by aggressive valuing the warm acquired from MSW burning
Substantially and efficient examination will, likewise, looking at the financial and
techno-economic parts of warming and chilling frameworks. Despite the fact that the quantity
of research thinks about on WtE burning has expanded relentlessly since 2009 (Wang et al.
2016), some countries have less commitment to these examinations, because of the absence
of or less accessibility of cremation foundations in these countries. Truth be told, the
utilization of WtE cremation technologies in these countries is for the most part looked
with numerous difficulties, e.g., mechanical and economic restrictions, the need of further
emanations’ medications (e.g., air outflows, cinder, and so forth), existing minimal effort
waste treatment’s alternatives, and absence of long haul strategies and genuine cutting
edge dreams. Consequently, much exertion is as yet required with a specific end-goal to
help universal joint efforts in WtE burning, e.g., innovation exchange, likewise, fundamental
to enhance arrangement more effort in the progress of these countries to long haul
Notwithstanding the burning innovation, pyrolysis, and gasification are additionally the
other primary accessible thermo-synthetic change forms, which could be joined with alternate
medicines, e.g., liquefying, plasma, refining, and so forth (Luz et al. 2015; Panepinto et al.
Hilmi S. Salem, Yohannes Yihdego and Musa Yahaya Pudza
2015a; Panepinto et al. 2015b). Despite the fact that these technologies are settled in the
petro-synthetic and power businesses, and also fuel operation, for example, cooking gas for a
long time, its quantity is expensive, and pyrolysis plants are extremely restricted. In this
manner, examine endeavors are still on-going to additionally embrace these technologies with
MSW at business scale. These examinations are centered around the primary parts of
pyrolysis and gasification, e.g., mechanical improvements (Asadullah 2014; Shareefdeen et
al. 2015; Zhou et al. 2015), evaluating the capability of power age utilizing these procedures
(Das and Hoque 2014), economic and techno-economic assessments (Kivumbi et al. 2015;
Luz et al. 2015), and LCA (Evangelisti et al. 2015; Panepinto et al. 2015a; Panepinto et al.
2015b; Wang et al. 2016; Al-Fadhli 2016).
In an audit contemplate, Asadullah (2014) extensively talked about the coordination and
mechanical difficulties looked by business gasification control plants from feedstock
accumulation to power age. The closure worn denoted the gasification of raw materials and
gas cleaning phase as the difficult side in ordinary business gasification forms. In accordance
with, Asadullah (2014) presumed the advancement of up-order or down-order gasifies, and in
addition visible and reactant-division strategies business reasons for existing are key factors
to enhance the effectiveness of utilizing raw materials. Regarding the inventive commonsense
investigation, Zhou et al. (2015) explored the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons’ (BAHs)
development. However, the pyrolysis of nine diverse MSW divisions include xylan, cellulose,
lignin, gelatin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and
polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The sum and component of PAHs discharged through the
pyrolysis of various portions of MSW, and additionally the measure of the gas and strong
buildups created could be instrumental in choosing appropriate raw materials for the pyrolysis
Evangelisti et al. (2015) analyzed the habitat effects of three double-phase progressed
WtE knowledge combine with native MSW medicines, including: 1) Land-loading with LFG
recuperation; and 2) Incineration. Both are with power age. The three progressed MSW
medicines are: 1) Gasification with plasma gas cleanup; 2) Hasten pyrolysis and ignition; and
3) Gasification with syngas burning. Evangelisti et al. (2015) inferred that, notwithstanding
the voltaic effectiveness of energy plants, distinctions in the idea of the treatment included
(i.e., thermoschemical versus organic), and in addition the waste preparing discharged
double-phase knowledge (metal recuperation in the gasification with plasma gas cleanup
versus cremation) influenced the habitat weights thought about situations. By and large, No. 1
was chosen as a situation, focusing to be utilized a benchmark for growing high proficiency
WtE technologies later on (Evangelisti et al. 2015).
Advanced thermo-compound treatment (TCT) strategies, such as pyrolysis, have lately
gotten consideration, due to the various operational and environmental points of interest, as
worldwide power wants unsteady fuel advertise. Pyrolysis is characterized by a procedure of
warm corruption on dormant climates of lengthy chain natural substance, happening with the
nearness of an impetus (synergist pyrolysis) or without warm process (Al-Salem et al. 2017).
The biggest strong waste-to-energy frameworks in task today are immediate ignition
Scientific and Technical Perspectives of Waste-to-Energy Conversion
metropolitan waste’s (MSW) incinerators, with limits in the scope of 1,0003,000 ton of
waste every day.
Rather than utilizing the warmth discharged to raise steam, in WtE by Advanced
Thermal Technologies frameworks, is first changed over into vaporous or fluid fills and, in
pyrolysis frameworks, somewhat to roast. The produced volatiles, gases, and vaporized
fluids can be utilized as a part of productive inside burning motors (or Internal Combustion
Engines ICEs), ignition turbines or, later on, in energy components; none of which can
straightforwardly utilize strong fills. In the previous centuries, vehicles and ship
advancements have make ICEs and gas turbines (GTs) to abnormal amounts of proficiency.
Moreover, with the utilization of present-day high inversion GTs in natural gas-
fired combined cycle’s frameworks, the warmth of the fumes gases can be utilized with
warmth recuperating vigor generator (or Heat Recovery Steam Generator HRSG) to
drive a steam turbine. On the other hand, the HRSG can give steam to warming structures
or modern utilizations of steam. These joined warmth and power frameworks as of now
make the most productive utilization of the first strong fuel energy (Green and Zimmerman
In the event that one considers the US’ overwhelming reliance on outside well-springs of
fluid and vaporous fills, the most difficult specialized issue confronting the US today ought to
be perceived as the improvement and execution of effective methods for changing over the
bounteous local strong powers into more helpful fluid and vaporous energizes. In perspective
of the assorted variety of feedstock spoke to in agrarian, city, and institutional waste, aside
from the minor constituents, (for example, sulfur and nitrogen), the cellulosic feed writes are
mind boggling blends of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, for example, ‘C6H10O5that may fill
in as the agent cellulosic monomer. Hydrocarbon (HC) plastics, for example, polyethylene
and polyolefins, are intensely spoken to in numerous strong waste streams. Hence, one may
utilize C2H4 as illustrative of the monomers in the plastic segment of MSW or cannot inferred
energizes. Polyethylene pyrolysis items are commanded by C2C4 olefins, acetylenes, and
different HCs and at higher temperatures by H2 and in addition aromatics and polynuclear
aromatics. On a for each unit weight-premise, everything, except H2, has net warming
qualities in the range 1823 MBtu/lb, like oil, while H2 has a gross warming estimation of 61
MBtu/lb. On a for every unit volume-premise, polyethylene pyrolysis items have net warming
quality, going from 1 to 5 MBtu/cft, while H2 is 0.325 MBtu/cft = 325 Btu/cft (Green and
Zimmerman 2013).
Since flammable gas is ordinarily around 1 MBtu/cft, it can be normal that the
pyrogas from polyethylene to have a gross warming worth tantamount or more prominent
than that of petroleum gas, and considerably more noteworthy than that of cellulosic
pyrogas. In outline, since cellulosic feedstock is as of now oxygenated contrasted and
unadulterated HC plastics, its pyrogas, syngas, and maker gas will all have impressively
bring down warming qualities than the relating gases from HC raw materials. From the
perspective of expanding the higher heating values of determined gas, the pyro-gasification
scores superior to anything oxygen blown partial combustion’s (OBPC) gasification, and
both of which score much superior to anything air blown partial combustion’s (ABPC)
gasification. Additionally, pyrolysis leaves a greater amount of strong buildups in singe fiery
remains frame than ABPC’s gasification or OBPC’s gasification (Green and Zimmerman
Hilmi S. Salem, Yohannes Yihdego and Musa Yahaya Pudza
This paper is gone for exhaustively looking into and surveying power age possibilities
from municipal solid waste (MSW), utilizing an incorporated waste management’s
framework, combined with three unique technologies: anaerobic absorption, cremation, and
pyrolysis-gasification. The power age from MSW could be a promising methodology,
particularly in decreasing the Earth-wide temperature boost commitment of fossilarranged
power age. Expelling plastics from MSW, by means of a reuse strategy, will expand
habitat advantages of Fischer-Tropsch Reactor (FTR) energizes to the detriment of fuel yield.
Since reuse filaments will deliver good or bad net global warming potential (GWP),
contingent upon Life Cycle Assessment’s (LCA) framework limits that specific production
process, alter in strands’ reuse charge can bring about an expansion or abatement in GWP.
Parametric affectability investigation into air pressure and energy prerequisite, carbon force
of power, CO responding rate, amounts of FTR was utilized to measure their impacts on
Since syngas pressure represents 68% of entire power utilization, if more pressure is
needed to get the fractional weights of CO and H2 into satisfactory extents, power is necessity
increment. The expanding pattern in the utilization of different items, and also different
practices engaged with the store network of these materials has brought about an assortment
of environmental contaminations, particularly greenhouse gases (GHGs) outflows. To
expand the pattern in utilization of materials has, likewise, prompted a tremendous i
ncrement in conclusive waste streams, particularly as municipal solid waste (MSW)
that made MSW’s management a critical habitat issue for governments and arrangement
Treating the soil of degradable natural material lessens waste materials transfer, while
delivering a valuable item and, thus, anaerobic assimilation is a promising course of methane
fuel. Waste usage to energy forms (WtE) is required in future in waste handling procedures.
Plastics and filaments are the pre-predominant refuse-inferred fuel’s parts, so varieties in each
of them are important. Plastics were discovered to have found higher syngas yields, in both
the ASPEN Plus and the spreadsheet display, and prompted scale-up FTR fuel yields than
filaments. ASPEN Plus is a software package designed to allow a user to build a process
model and then simulate the model without tedious calculations. Be that as it may, plastics
have a global warming potential (GWP) equal to traditional oil-based goods given their
inception as ordinary oil (Pressley 2013). More plastics’ substance brings more GWP, in light
of the fact that the higher burning emanations exceed the bigger balances got with more fuel
Investigations are needed to evaluate the impacts of MSW arrangements, particularly
plastics, on GWP. However, expelling plastics from MSW, by means of a reuse approach,
will expand the habitats advantages of FTR powers to the detriment of fuel yield. Since reuse
methods create good or bad results on GWP, which are contingent upon LCA framework
limits on a specific production procedure, changes in recycling rates can bring about an
expansion or diminishing in GWP.
Parametric affectability investigation of the air pressure energy prerequisite, carbon force
of power, CO responding rate, and number of FTR reactors need to be utilized, in order to
measure their impacts on GWP. The FTR yield is most influenced by the part of CO
Scientific and Technical Perspectives of Waste-to-Energy Conversion
responding, as well as by the quantity of FTR in the arrangement of a model. In any case,
when a part of CO responding per FTR is low, expanding the quantity of reactors will be
utilized to build all division of CO responding. Once a FTR framework is completely
running, modifying quantity of the reactors might be lower than changing the parts of the
FTR framework, in order to expand FTR fuel yield.
This paper investigates some scientific and technical perspectives of the municipal solid
waste (MSW), as it forms a tremendous burden on societies, economies, cultures, climates,
and the environment, keeping in mind that we have, worldwide, only one environment but
different societies, economies, cultures, and climates. At this point, the German proverb “Die
Natur braucht uns nicht aber wir brauchen die Natur” (Nature does not need us but we
need nature) may serve the goal of this paper in the best way possible.
The large amounts of MSW that are annually generated across the world, if not dealt
with properly at the global scale, will be a great risk to the nations of the world,
individually and collectively. As the consumption of foods and other peoples’ needs has
dramatically increased worldwide, some important approaches are discussed and
recommended in this paper, in order to protect public health, natural resources, climate, and
the environment.
One of the most effective and efficient techniques that this paper dealt with and
recommended is the approach of the waste-to-energy, by utilizing the MSW, using various
methods and technologies, which are, by the way, very expensive and have also side effects.
However, the most practical and easiest way to deal with MSW is still the change of the
peoples’ consumption habits around the world; primarily by reducing consumption which
will, automatically, lead to much lesser amounts of MSW. Otherwise, the cost for generating
huge amounts of MSW will be extremely high, financially, economically, socially,
environmentally, technically, and climate-wise, considering the fact that MSW and its
treatment tend to increase the Earth’s temperature.
The authors declare the following: 1) Ethics approval: This paper was not published
before and is not considered for publication anywhere. 2) Consent to participate: No
individual participants or materials were involved in this study and, therefore, there is no need
to obtain informed consent; 3) Consent to Publish: All researched material presented herein
does not need consent to publish; 4) Authors’ contributions: the authors have fully
contributed to this research paper, with their full capacity, knowledge, experience, time, and
efforts; 5) Funding: The research presented in this paper did not receive any funding from any
individuals or organizations; 6) Conflict of interest: There is no potential conflict of interest
of any kind (financial or otherwise); 7) Availability of data and materials: All data and
materials used for the purpose of the paper are provided within; and 8) Ethical Standards
Compliance: The research presented in this paper does not include human and/or animal
Hilmi S. Salem, Yohannes Yihdego and Musa Yahaya Pudza
The authors sincerely thank their friends and colleagues for their critical review of the
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... Particulate matter of 2.5 microns or smaller (PM 2.5 ) is one of the deadly elements behind air pollution that results in terrifying rates of illness and even mortality amongst all ages of people living in the proximity of polluted areas [116,142]. It is estimated that air pollution was responsible for 176,000 premature deaths in 2013 in the Arab region (including the GCC countries), and a loss of more than 2% of regional GDP [143][144][145]. "In the six Gulf countries, ambient air pollution was responsible for 13,000 premature deaths in 2017. That's a huge increase from 10,000 deaths in 2010, " said Lauri Myllyvirta, senior analyst at Greenpeace Air Pollution Unit, with reference to the Global Burden of Disease [146]. ...
... In other words, the GCC countries lose about USD 6 billion annually, due to low recycling rates [151]. Some countries in the world have already developed long-term strategies to convert MSW into energy [145,152], while the GCC countries have recently entered the field of this technology [153,154]. This is despite the fact that municipal solid waste is a heavy burden on the economies and environments of the GCC countries, both individually and collectively. ...
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FOR CITATION: Salem, H.S., Pudza, M.Y., and Yihdego, Y. (2023). Harnessing the Energy Transition from Total Dependence on Fossil to Renewable Energy in the Arabian Gulf Region, Considering Population, Climate Change Impacts, Ecological and Carbon Footprints, and United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. Sustainable Earth Reviews (Published online on 13 September 2023, by Springer, Germany). 6(10): 26 Pages. ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to investigate various issues related to oil consumption and environmental impacts in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, in relation to population, climate change impacts, United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN’s SDGs), and ecological and carbon footprints. The GCC countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) are almost entirely dependent on fossil energy sources (oil and natural gas) domestically, industrially, commercially, economically, and transportation-wise. Although the total population of the GCC countries is around 60 million, making up only 0.76% of the world’s population (8 billion), they do consume 5.15 million barrels per day (bbl/d) of oil, forming nearly 5.8% of the world’s daily consumption, which is around 88.4 million bbl/d as of 2021. Moreover, daily per capita consumption of oil in the GCC countries is about 0.09 barrels, while it is about 0.06 barrels in the USA. These figures indicate that the GCC’s countries combined and per capita, although not industrialized and small in population, consume large quantities of oil, compared to other countries of the world that are industrialized and/or densely populated, such as the USA, India, Japan, Russia, and Germany. The high rates of oil consumption in the GCC countries, associated with the highest per capita ecological and carbon footprints worldwide, have led to negative impacts on the environment, climate, and public health. The results of this work show that some of the GCC countries have the highest per capita ecological and carbon footprints. Thus, the GCC countries should effectively reduce their dependence on fossil energy sources and gradually replace them with renewable energy sources, especially photovoltaic (PV) solar energy. Furthermore, the statistics presented in this article and the outcomes reached uncover that the GCC countries lag behind with regard to various indicators of the UN’s SDGs. This implies the GCC countries are not taking adequate actions to encounter environmental problems, in order to fulfill some of the UN’s SDGs by 2030. KEYWORDS: GCC Countries, Population, Fossil energy production and consumption, Green energy, Ecological and carbon footprints, Decarbonization and energy strategies, Climate change impacts and the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (UN’s SDGs)
... Daily human activities are directly and indirectly linked to solid waste generation. Globally, there is around 2.01 billion tons of Municipal Solid Waste generated per year, of which at least 33% is not managed in an environmentally safe manner [1]. Poor management and unsafe disposal of solid waste pose a threat to both the environment and human health. ...
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Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management enact a significant role in protecting public health and the environment. The main objective of this paper is to explore the utility of using state-of-the-art machine learning and deep learning-based models for predicting future variations in MSW generation for a given geographical region, considering its past waste generation pattern. We consider nine different machine learning and deep-learning models to examine and evaluate their capability in forecasting the daily generated waste amount. In order to have a comprehensive evaluation, we explore the utility of two training and prediction paradigms, a single model approach and a multi-model ensemble approach. Three Sri Lankan datasets from; Boralesgamuwa, Dehiwala, and Moratuwa, and open-source daily waste datasets from the city of Austin and Ballarat, are considered in this study. In addition, we provide an in depth discussion on important considerations to make when choosing a model for predicting MSW generation.
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Waste management is becoming one of the most challenging tasks for developing countries in order to ensure good human health, as well as a healthy environment. Rajshahi City Corporation (RCC) is one of the 12 city corporations in Bangladesh. Various environmental and human health problems have arisen due to a lack of proper knowledge of waste management. Thus, the aim of this work is to illustrate the present status of MSW generation and management in Rajshahi City Corporation, Bangladesh. Fifty households were selected throughout RCC for waste collection, which represent approximately all types of households in RCC. From the qualitative and quantitative analysis, it is estimated that the approximate MSW generation in RCC is 358.19 t/d (tons/day) at an approximate rate of 0.4214 kg/person/d. Calorific values of the wastes have also been determined using the ultimate analysis results of the MSW. A higher calorific value of the dry MSW has been calculated as 14.9 MJ/kg. Moisture content of the MSW has been found to be 48.28%. It is also estimated that the possible power generation (steam energy to electrical power) from MSW generated in RCC is 159.40 MWh/d. Lastly, future scopes of MSW management and different waste management measures that need to be taken are illustrated. Waste-to-energy (WTE) conversion has been given priority and anaerobic digestion (AD) has been found to be an interesting prospect in this sector. Techno-economic analysis of the AD has been conducted. Energy potential from the proposed plant has been calculated as 3.85 MW and the payback period has been found to be 4.9 years. It has been observed that employing AD on a large scale can not only reduce the waste, but also meet a large portion of the energy demand of this city.
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To help meet the global demand for energy and reduce the use of fossil fuels, alternatives such as the production of syngas from renewable biomass can be considered. This conversion of biomass to syngas is possible through a thermochemical gasification process. To design such gasification systems, model equations can be formulated and solved to predict the quantity and quality of the syngas produced with different operating conditions (temperature, the flow rate of an oxidizing agent, etc.) and with different types of biomass (wood, grass, seeds, food waste, etc.). For the comparison of multiple different types of biomass and optimization to find optimal conditions, simpler models are preferred which can be solved very quickly using modern desktop computers. In this study, a number of different stoichiometric thermodynamic models are compared to determine which are the most appropriate. To correct some of the errors associated with thermodynamic models, correction factors are utilized to modify the equilibrium constants of the methanation and water gas shift reactions, which allows them to better predict the real output composition of the gasification reactors. A number of different models can be obtained using different correction factors, model parameters, and assumptions, and these models are compared and validated against experimental data and modelling studies from the literature.
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Biomass is one of the most widespread and accessible energy source and steam gasification is one of the most important processes to convert biomass into combustible gases. However, to date the difference of results between the main models used to predict steam gasification producer gas composition have been not analyzed in details. Indeed, gasification, involving heterogeneous reactions, does not reach thermodynamic equilibrium and so thermodynamic models with experimental corrections and kinetic models are mainly applied. Thus, this paper compares a 1-D kinetic model developed in MATLAB, combining hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics, and a 0-D thermodynamic model developed in Aspen Plus, based on Gibbs free energy minimization applying the quasi-equilibrium approach, calibrated by experimental data. After a comparison of the results of the models against experimental data at two S/B ratios, a sensitivity analysis for a wide range of S/B ratios has been performed. The experimental comparison and sensitivity analysis shows that the two models provide sufficiently similar data in terms of the main components of the syngas although the thermodynamic model shows, with increasing S/B, a greater increase of H 2 and CO 2 and lower decrease of CH 4 and CO respect to the kinetic one and the experimental data. Thus, the thermodynamic model, despite being calibrated by experimental data, can be used mainly to analyze global plant performance due to the reduced importance of the discrepancy from a global energy and plant perspective. Meanwhile, the more complex kinetic model should be used when a more precise gas composition is needed and, of course, for reactor design.
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Energy is a key driver of the modern economy, therefore modeling and simulation of energy systems has received significant research attention. We review the major developments in this area and propose two ways to categorize the diverse contributions. The first categorization is according to the modeling approach, namely into computational, mathematical, and physical models. With this categorization, we highlight certain novel hybrid approaches that combine aspects of the different groups proposed. The second categorization is according to field namely Process Systems Engineering (PSE) and Energy Economics (EE). We use the following criteria to illustrate the differences: the nature of variables, theoretical underpinnings, level of technological aggregation, spatial and temporal scales, and model purposes. Traditionally, the Process Systems Engineering approach models the technological characteristics of the energy system endogenously. However, the energy system is situated in a broader economic context that includes several stakeholders both within the energy sector and in other economic sectors. Complex relationships and feedback effects exist between these stakeholders, which may have a significant impact on strategic, tactical, and operational decision-making. Leveraging the expertise built in the Energy Economics field on modeling these complexities may be valuable to process systems engineers. With this categorization, we present the interactions between the two fields, and make the case for combining the two approaches. We point out three application areas: (1) optimal design and operation of flexible processes using demand and price forecasts, (2) sustainability analysis and process design using hybrid methods, and (3) accounting for the feedback effects of breakthrough technologies. These three examples highlight the value of combining Process Systems Engineering and Energy Economics models to get a holistic picture of the energy system in a wider economic and policy context.
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Biogas technology is one of the prevalent alternative ways to mitigate energy crisis in Bangladesh. This approach of renewable energy is becoming popular to the rural population due to its economic viability and environmental attractiveness. The aim of this review paper is to illustrate the current status of domestic biogas plants in Bangladesh. The study also assesses the total biomass potential including livestock manure and agricultural residue available for biogas generation. The assessment shows that the total estimated amount of residues is 106.27 million tons comprises 42.49 million tons from agricultural residue, and 63.78 million tons from livestock manure and municipal solid waste (MSW) which is equivalent to 5.045 billion m 3 of biogas. The economic analysis of 2.0 m 3 , 2.6 m 3 , and 3.2 m 3 family size biogas plants are found to be a viable option in substitution of biomass and other commercial energy. The reliable supply of low-cost feed materials for biogas production has found to be an important factor to make the plant more feasible.
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This paper proposes an overarching review of national municipal waste management systems and waste-to-energy as an important part of it in the context of circular economy in the selected countries in Europe. The growth of population and rising standards of living means that the consumption of goods and energy is increasing. On the one hand, consumption leads to an increase in the generation of waste. On the other hand, the correlation between increased wealth and increased energy consumption is very strong as well. Given that the average heating value of municipal solid waste (MSW) is approximately 10 MJ/kg, it seems logical to use waste as a source of energy. Traditionally, waste-to-energy (WtE) has been associated with incineration. Yet, the term is much broader, embracing various waste treatment processes generating energy (for instance, in the form of electricity and/or heat or producing a waste-derived fuel). Turning waste into energy can be one key to a circular economy enabling the value of products, materials, and resources to be maintained on the market for as long as possible, minimising waste and resource use. As the circular economy is at the top of the EU agenda, all Member States of the EU (including the EEA countries) should move away from the old-fashioned disposal of waste to a more intelligent waste treatment encompassing the circular economy approach in their waste policies. Therefore, the article examines how these EU policies are implemented in practice. Given that WtE traditionally is attached to the MSW management and organisation, the focus of this article is twofold. Firstly, it aims to identify the different practices of municipal waste management employed in selected countries and their approaches in embracing the circular economy and, secondly, the extent to which WtE technologies play any role in this context. The following countries, Estonia, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Spain, and the UK were chosen to depict a broad European context.
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The application of Directive 2008/98/CE on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) implies the need to introduce technologies to generate energy from waste. Incineration, the most widely used method, is difficult to implement in low populated areas because it requires a large amount of waste to be viable (100,000 tons per year). This paper analyses the economic and environmental costs of different MSW-to-Energy technologies (WtE) in an area comprising of 13 municipalities in southern Spain. We analyse anaerobic digestion (Biomethanization), the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF) and gasification, and compare these approaches to the present Biological Mechanical Treatment (BMT) with elimination of the reject in landfill, and incineration with energy recovery. From an economic standpoint the implementation of WtE systems reduces the cost of running present BMT systems and incineration; gasification presents the lowest value. From the environmental standpoint, Life Cycle Assessment shows that any WtE alternatives, including incineration, present important advantages for the environment when compared to BMT. Finally, in order to select the best alternative, a multi-criteria method is applied, showing that anaerobic digestion is the optimal solution for the area studied.
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The global hierarchy of sustainable solid waste management is ranked with source reduction, reuse, recycle, waste-to-energy, and landfill. After adoption of the Paris Agreement, the main issue in energy usage is to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, universally. In this context, the necessity of renewable energies was increased. However unpredictable fall in oil prices brings about the price drop of recyclables and threatens the motive of recycling activities and the frame of solid waste management hierarchy as well. In order to react properly on in the energy and waste management sectors, the current situation of Waste-to-Energy(WtE) and District Heating and Cooling (DHC) in Korea were investigated compared with the EU and considered the suggestions for improvement of WtE plants and the synergy between WtE and DHC network.
The increasing trend in the consumption of various materials has also led to a huge increase in the final waste streams especially in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the consequent environmental pollutions in particular greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These have made MSW management a significant environmental issue for governments and policy-makers. To address these challenges, developed countries have implemented sustainable material management (SMM) strategies which have been comprehensively reviewed herein. Moreover, waste generation statistics reported for most of the developed and developing countries as well as the existing gaps in MSW management among these countries have been fully discussed. The present paper was also aimed at comprehensively assessing electricity generation potentials from MSW using an integrated solid waste management system (including three different technologies of anaerobic digestion (AD), incineration, and pyrolysis-gasification) while the consequent GHG emission reduction potentials as a result of their implementation were also explored. To facilitate the understanding of the potential impacts of these treatment strategies, Iran's data were used as a case study. More specifically, the theoretical and technical potentials of electricity generation were calculated and the GHG emission reduction potentials were estimated using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Overall, it was found that 5005.4–5545.8 GW h of electricity could be generated from MSW in Iran annually which could lead to approximately 3561–4844 thousand tons of avoided CO2eq. Such GHG reductions would be translated into approximately 0.5% of Iran's annual GHG emissions and would be considered a promising achievement given Iran's international GHGs reduction commitment, i.e., 4% reduction of anthropogenic GHGs emissions by 2030 below the business as usual scenario. Such findings could also be modeled for the other developing countries around the world where efficient MSW management is yet to be implemented.
Plastic plays an important role in our daily lives due to its versatility, light weight and low production cost. Plastics became essential in many sectors such as construction, medical, engineering applications, automotive, aerospace, etc. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc. Hence, a sustainable and an efficient plastic waste treatment is essential to avoid such issues. Pyrolysis is a thermo-chemical plastic waste treatment technique which can solve such pollution problems, as well as, recover valuable energy and products such as oil and gas. Pyrolysis of plastic solid waste (PSW) has gained importance due to having better advantages towards environmental pollution and reduction of carbon footprint of plastic products by minimizing the emissions of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide compared to combustion and gasification. This paper presents the existing techniques of pyrolysis, the parameters which affect the products yield and selectivity and identify major research gaps in this technology. The influence of different catalysts on the process as well as review and comparative assessment of pyrolysis with other thermal and catalytic plastic treatment methods, is also presented.