Article

Comparison of three galenic forms of lamivudine in young West African children living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

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Abstract

Background Few pharmacokinetic data were reported on dispersible tablets despite their increasing use. One hundred fifty HIV-infected children receiving lamivudine were enrolled in the MONOD ANRS 12,206 trial. Three galenic forms were administered: liquid formulation, tablet form and dispersible scored tablet. Method HIV-infected children <4 years old were enrolled in the MONOD ANRS 12,206 trial designed to assess the simplification of a successful 12-months lopinavir-based antiretroviral treatment with efavirenz. Lamivudine plasma concentrations were analysed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling approach. Results One hundred and fifty children (age: 2.5 years (1.9–3.2), weight 11.1 (9.5–12.5) kg (median (IQR)) were included in this study. Over the study period, 79 received only the syrup form, 29 children switched from syrup form to tablet 3TC/AZT form, 36 from syrup to the orodispersible ABC/3TC form and two from the 3TC/AZT form to the orodispersible ABC/3TC form. The 630 lamivudine concentrations were best described by a two-compartment model allometrically scaled. Galenic form had no significant effect on 3TC pharmacokinetic. Conclusion This trial provided an opportunity to compare three galenic forms (liquid formulation, tablet form and dispersible scored tablet) of lamivudine in the target population of young HIV–1-infected children. Galenic form had no significant effect on lamivudine pharmacokinetics.

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Pediatric fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) are needed to facilitate antiretroviral therapy in children. We evaluated the relative bioavailability, safety, and therapeutic adequacy of a novel chewable pediatric FDC tablet of stavudine (7 mg), lamivudine (30 mg), and nevirapine (50 mg), referred to as GPO-VIR S7, and compared it with the individual original brand-name liquid formulations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Thai children. The International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials group (IMPAACT) P1056 study was a phase I/II, 2-arm, randomized, open-label, multidose pharmacokinetic cross-over study. Children ≥6 to ≤30 kg receiving nevirapine-based HAART for at least 4 weeks were randomized to receive GPO-VIR S7 chewable tablets or the equivalent liquid formulations. Children were stratified by weight and dosing was weight-based. Intensive 12-hour blood sampling was performed on day 28, and subjects then crossed-over to the alternate formulation at equal doses with identical 12-hour sampling on day 56. Pharmacokinetic indices were determined by noncompartmental analysis. Thirty-four children completed the study. While taking Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO)-VIR S7 the geometric mean (90% CI) area under the curve was 1.54 μg·hr/mL (1.42-1.67) for stavudine, 6.39 (5.82-7.00) for lamivudine, and 74.06 (65.62-83.60) for nevirapine. Nevirapine drug exposure for GPO-VIR S7 was therapeutically adequate. Geometric mean area under the curve ratios (90% CI) of GPO-VIR S7/liquid formulation for stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine were 0.97 (0.92-1.02), 1.41 (1.30-1.53), and 1.08 (1.04-1.13), respectively. No serious drug-related toxicity was reported. The chewable FDC was safe and provided therapeutically adequate plasma drug exposures in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. Substituting the FDC for liquid formulations can simplify antiretroviral therapy.
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