Conference PaperPDF Available

The Potential Role of Satellite IoT in Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia

Authors:
  • Research Organization for Aeronautics and Space-BRIN

Abstract and Figures

Indonesia lies within the Ring of Fire, making the country highly prone to geophysical disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis, in addition to weather-related disasters such as floods, landslides, and wildfires. One effective way to reduce the risk of getting hit by these natural disaster hazards is through the deployment and operation of an early warning system, which is generally responsible for two things: identifying the hazard precursors and delivering the warning in a timely manner. Satellite communication technology has been a vital part of Indonesia's early warning system for the past decade. This includes the use of VSATs, satellite phones, and satellite amateur radio voice repeater onboard the LAPAN-A2 satellite. However, although the current system in place has managed to help many lives in the past decade, it is still very far from sufficient when benchmarked with other similarly prone regions and countries. Fortunately, the rise of massive IoT and Edge AI technologies is showing a promising development. As the cost of hardware and connectivity goes down, Indonesia may very well be able to cover the entire archipelago with a much higher density network of disaster monitoring sensors as well as warning devices to form a safer, more accurate, and more reliable early warning system. This paper investigates the opportunity for such system to be implemented and utilized by Indonesia's government agencies, including LAPAN's planned equatorial constellation. Discussions from this paper may also be relevant to other countries, especially those in the equatorial and coastal areas.
Content may be subject to copyright.
72nd International Astronautical Congress (IAC), Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 25-29 October 2021.
Copyright ©2021 by the Authors. Published by the IAF, with permission and released to the IAF to publish in all forms. All rights reserved.
IAC-21-E5.4.3 Page 1 of 9
IAC-21-E5.4.3
The Potential Role of Satellite IoT in Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Ajie Nayaka Nikicioa*, Joga Dharma Setiawanb, Wahyudi Hasbic, Danielle Wooda
a Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, USA, 02139, ajie@sdm.mit.edu,
drwood@media.mit.edu
b Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Sudarto No. 13, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia, 50275,
joga.setiawan@ft.undip.ac.id
c Satellite Technology Center, Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN), Jl. Cagak Satelit
No. 8, Km. 0,4, Rancabungur, Bogor, Indonesia, 16310, wahyudi.hasbi@lapan.go.id
* Corresponding Author
Abstract
Indonesia lies within the Ring of Fire, making the country highly prone to geophysical disasters such as
earthquakes and tsunamis, in addition to weather-related disasters such as floods, landslides, and wildfires. One
effective way to reduce the risk of getting hit by these natural disaster hazards is through the deployment and
operation of an early warning system, which is generally responsible for two things: identifying the hazard
precursors and delivering the warning in a timely manner. Satellite communication technology has been a vital part
of Indonesia’s early warning system for the past decade. This includes the use of VSATs, satellite phones, and
satellite amateur radio voice repeater onboard the LAPAN-A2 satellite. However, although the current system in
place has managed to help many lives in the past decade, it is still very far from sufficient when benchmarked with
other similarly prone regions and countries. Fortunately, the rise of massive IoT and Edge AI technologies is
showing a promising development. As the cost of hardware and connectivity goes down, Indonesia may very well be
able to cover the entire archipelago with a much higher density network of disaster monitoring sensors as well as
warning devices to form a safer, more accurate, and more reliable early warning system. This paper investigates the
opportunity for such system to be implemented and utilized by Indonesia’s government agencies, including
LAPANs planned equatorial constellation. Discussions from this paper may also be relevant to other countries,
especially those in the equatorial and coastal areas.
Keywords: early warning system, satellite communication, internet-of-things, disaster risk reduction
Acronyms/Abbreviations
Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical
Agency (BMKG), National Disaster Management
Agency (BNPB), Peatland and Mangrove Restoration
Agency (BRGM), Ministry of Environment and
Forestry (KLHK), Indonesian National Institute of
Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN), Center for
Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
(PVMBG), Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Early
Warning System (EWS), Internet-of-Things (IoT).
1. Introduction
Indonesia’s National Disaster Management Agency
(BNPB) recorded a dramatically increasing trend in
natural disasters, with 3,814 events and 6 million people
affected and displaced in the year 2019 alone [2]. The
Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical
Agency (BMKG) has been operating a national tsunami
and earthquake early warning system and producing
disaster risk maps, primarily since 2008 as a response to
the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Other government
agencies offer similar services as well. These include
volcanic activity monitoring by the Center for
Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
(PVMBG), forest fire monitoring by the Ministry of
Environment and Forestry (KLHK), and peatland fire
risk monitoring by the Peatland and Mangrove
Restoration Agency (BRGM). However, they face two
common challenges:
To identify environmental hazards in an
accurate and timely manner; and
To deliver warning and risk information with
100% chance of success and minimum delay
Figure 1 shows a simplified view of a generic early
warning system describing the above challenges as
upstream and downstream components, respectively.
Hazard data can come from multiple sources: sensors
collecting data in the field, sensors collecting data
remotely such as drones and satellites, as well as
human-operated instruments with data manually
recorded digitally or on paper. Both real-time and
historical observations are usually required. Likewise,
there can be many options of output device: from
mobile devices, TVs, radios, alarms, and even human-
72nd International Astronautical Congress (IAC), Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 25-29 October 2021.
Copyright ©2021 by the Authors. Published by the IAF, with permission and released to the IAF to publish in all forms. All rights reserved.
IAC-21-E5.4.3 Page 2 of 9
Fig. 1. Overview of a generic early warning system
operated sirens and megaphones. The transmission of
data and warning is usually done digitally over a wired
and/or wireless network to minimize time over long
ranges. Every step in Figure 1 including the risk
analysis can either be automated, human-operated, or a
combination of both.
1.1 Natural Disasters in Indonesia
Table 1 shows a summary of all the geophysical,
meteorological, and climatological disasters in
Indonesia as defined and classified in BNPBs Disaster
Database of Indonesia (DIBI) and an international
disaster database called the Emergency Events Database
(EM-DAT) [3] [4].
In general, the natural disasters that are most
frequent and affect the greatest number of people are
those that are seasonal and theoretically more
predictable. These include floods, storms, landslides,
droughts, and wildfires. Conversely, the natural
disasters that are more random in nature occur rarely but
are the deadliest. These include earthquakes, volcanic
activities, and tsunamis.
Table 1. Summary of natural disasters in Indonesia and their characteristics (2010-2019)
Natural Disaster
Spatial Characteristics
Temporal Characteristics
Location
Radius
Seasonality
Lead Time
Duration
Earthquake
More often in
West, South, and
East
Up to
hundreds
of km
Random 27/year A few secs to
a few mins
A few secs to
several mins
Volcanic
eruption
More often in
South and
Northeast
Up to tens
of km
Random 8/year Hours to days Several mins to
weeks
Tsunami
More often in
Northwest and
South
Up to
hundreds
of km
Random 3/year A few mins to
a few hours Less than an hour
Landslide
All over the
country, but worst
in Java
Up to
several
km
Wet Season
andPancaroba
Transition Period
683/year Mins to days A few mins to
hours
Flood
(coastal, fluvial,
pluvial)
All over the
country, but worst
in Java
Up to
several
km
Wet Season
and Pancaroba
Transition Period
740/year Hours to days A few hours to
days
Drought
All over the
country, but worst
in Central Java
Up to
hundreds
of km
Dry Season 298/year Hours to days Days to months
Whirlwind
More often in
Northwest and
South
Up to a
few km
Wet Season
and Pancaroba
Transition Period
747/year Secs to mins A few mins
Wildfire
More often in
Kalimantan and
Southern half of
Sumatera
Up to tens
of km
Mostly Dry
Season 462/year Hours to days A few days to a
few weeks
Tidal wave,
erosion
More often in
North West and
South
Up to
several
km
Up to monthly 22/year Hours to days A few hours
72nd International Astronautical Congress (IAC), Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 25-29 October 2021.
Copyright ©2021 by the Authors. Published by the IAF, with permission and released to the IAF to publish in all forms. All rights reserved.
IAC-21-E5.4.3 Page 3 of 9
1.2 Early Warning Systems in Indonesia
BNPB oversees the management of all disasters in
Indonesia. However, hazard, risk information, and
warnings come from other agencies and ministries with
specific domain expertise like BMKG, PVMBG,
KLHK, and BRGM. Table 2 summarizes the early
warning systems currently operating in Indonesia.
Because of the spatial and temporal characteristic
variation of each natural disaster, there are various kind
of sensors that are used to obtain the different
environmental hazard parameters, although there are
some sensors that are shared amongst the early warning
system (EWS) operators.
Table 2. Summary of early warning systems in Indonesia
Natural
Disaster
EWS
Operator
Sensors and Out put Dev ices
Tsunami and
Earthquake
BMKG
Seismometer
Accelerometer
Intensity Meter
GNSS Station
Tide Gauge
Surface Buoy
Cable-Based Tsunameter
HF Radar
CCTV Camera
Warning Receiver (LCD, Siren)
Website/App
TV
Phone
Volcanic
Activity
PVMBG
Satellite Imagery
Drone Imagery
CCTV Camera
Seismometer
Citizen Reports via App
Website/App
Hydro-
Meteorological
BMKG
Satellite Imagery
Weather Radar
Automatic Weather Station
Automatic Rain Gauge
Automatic Solar Radiation Station
Human-operated Weather Station
Website/App
Wildfire and
Drought
KLHK,
BMKG,
BRGM
Satellite Imagery
CCTV Camera
Thermal Camera
Human-operated Lookout Tower
Automatic Weather Station
Automatic Water Level Station
Website/App
As can be seen in Table 2, there is a significant
number of terrestrial sensors that need to be placed
across the country, as close as possible to the potential
sources of risk. The higher the number of sensors used,
the higher the resolution of the disaster risk map can be.
On top of sensors, there are also output devices such as
BMKGs warning receiver system consisting of a large
LCD display and a siren that can make use of satellite
communication if the ground internet infrastructure is
compromised by an earthquake. Table 3 shows the
estimated amount of data generated from devices and
Figure 2 shows an example of the network of up to 568
seismic stations distributed across Indonesia [5].
Table 3. Summary of devices used in the early warning systems
(both existing and planned)
Devices No. of
Devices
Est. Data
(Order of
Magnitude)
Est. Data
Update Interval
Seismometer
568+
x 102 Bytes
20 - 100 Hz
Accelerometer
529+
x 101 Bytes
20 - 100 Hz
Intensity Meter
400+
x 101 Bytes
20 - 100 Hz
GNSS Stat ion
430+
x 101 Bytes
5 sec
Tide Gauge
269+
x 102 Bytes
5 min (normal)
5 sec (alert mode)
Tsunami
Surface Buoy
13+
x 101 Bytes
15 min (normal)
5 sec (alert mode)
Coastal
HF Radar
3+
x 104 Bytes
< 1 sec
Weather Radar
66+
x 106 Bytes
10 min
Automatic
Weather Station
325+
x 101 Bytes
10 min
Agroclimate
Automatic
Weather Station
105+
x 101 Bytes
10 min
Automatic Rain
Gauge
649+
x 101 Bytes
10 min
Automatic Solar
Radiation Station
26+
x 101 Bytes
10 min
Peatland
Automatic Water
Level Station
172+
x 101 Bytes
1 hr
Thermal Camera
N/A
x 103 Bytes
10 - 30 fps
CCTV Camera
N/A
x 103 Bytes
10 - 30 fps
Warning
Receiver System
315+
x 102 Bytes
< 1 sec
1.3 LAPAN-A5 / NEWSat Project
In 2019, LAPAN published a conceptual mission
design called the Nusantara Early Warning Satellite
(NEWSat), which then integrated into Indonesias
National Research Priority 2020-2024 [6] [7]. The
proposed system shall be a Low Earth Orbit (LEO)
communication satellite constellation flying above the
equator, providing 24/7 coverage for Indonesia which is
strategically situated along the equator belt. One of the
missions is for the constellation to be a store-and-
forward platform for many of the disaster monitoring
sensors in addition to providing backup voice
communication repeater. This planned mission by the
Indonesian government proves that there is awareness
and clear need to use satellite communication
technology for early warning systems.
2. Material and methods
This section presents a brief overview of the EVDT
Modeling Framework that is used to encompass the
components and interactions of the whole natural
disaster management effort discussed in this paper as
well as the System Architecture Framework that is used
to perform analysis presented in this paper.
72nd International Astronautical Congress (IAC), Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 25-29 October 2021.
Copyright ©2021 by the Authors. Published by the IAF, with permission and released to the IAF to publish in all forms. All rights reserved.
IAC-21-E5.4.3 Page 4 of 9
Fig. 2. Network of seismometers distributed across Indonesia as part of the tsunami and earthquake early warning system [5]
2.1 EVDT Framework
The Environment-Vulnerability-Decision-Technolo
gy (EVDT) Framework was introduced by the Space
Enabled Research Group at the MIT Media Lab to
capture and integrate environment, societal impact,
human decision-making, and technology domains and
overcome important challenges that lie at the
intersections of the four domains to better inform
human-decision making for sustainable development
[8].
Implementing the framework for the case of natural
disaster management in Indonesia, the four domains can
be described as the following:
Environment submodel: environmental hazards
in Indonesia, from earthquakes to extreme
rainfall and prolonged dry season.
Human Vulnerability & Societal Impact
submodel: the number of people and assets
exposed to the environmental hazards and the
level of vulnerability of those people and
assets, e.g., in terms of health and financial
conditions.
Human Decision-Making submodel: national
and municipal policies around disaster
management formed by the government
including the president, municipal authorities,
and agencies including BMKG, BNPB,
BRGM, KLHK, LAPAN, and PVMBG.
Technology submodel: the technologies that
are used to help reduce the disaster risk, in this
case a collection of multi-hazard early warning
systems.
Fig. 3. EVDT model for applying multi-hazard early warning systems for disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Indonesia
72nd International Astronautical Congress (IAC), Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 25-29 October 2021.
Copyright ©2021 by the Authors. Published by the IAF, with permission and released to the IAF to publish in all forms. All rights reserved.
IAC-21-E5.4.3 Page 5 of 9
2.2 System Architecture Framework
The system architecture framework was popularized
by the System Design and Management program and
other practitioners of system architecture at MIT [9].
The challenge of creating effective early warning
systems is a complex sociotechnical issue. Simply
building such a system without understanding the social,
economic, and political context and without involving
the people or organizations who will use or be affected
by the system will result in a waste or even fatality.
Therefore, the framework starts with understanding the
natural disaster context in Indonesia through literature
review and conversation with stakeholders or subject
matter experts who work with the stakeholders.
Figure 4 visualizes the steps taken to perform the
analyses throughout this study. For different types of
natural disasters there are different stakeholders
involved. The primary stakeholders include BMKG,
PVBMG, KLHK, and BRGM. They are the ones
responsible for providing environmental hazard
information to the public, which is why they are also the
ones who manage most of the data and operate most of
the sensors. It is not uncommon to see collaboration
among them in terms of data sharing. There are several
types of secondary stakeholders. These include BNPB
and their municipality-level officials who are
responsible to take further action when hazard and risk
information is available; other governmental and non-
governmental institutions who provide data sourcing,
engineering, and/or scientific help; and those who
provide the mandate and funding. Lastly, the tertiary
stakeholders are the beneficiary of the early warning
system which in this case are the community at risk,
including schools, local businesses, airports, and
everyone else that can be categorized as the general
public.
The primary stakeholders needs may be different
because of the different sensors they operate. However,
in general, all of them are always in the look for a
solution that fulfills their bandwidth and latency
requirements at the cheapest price possible.
Additionally, the solution should be readily proven
according to the timeline that the stakeholders plan out.
Once the stakeholder needs and desired outcomes
are identified, the next step is to explore existing and
upcoming solutions, evaluate them according to the
desired attributes, and finally select the best solution
(a.k.a. architecture). In industries where technologies
are decently mature, there are usually more than one
solution available to address the problem. This paper
will not endorse any specific solution or company but
will identify the availability of such solutions and
describe their specifications. If there is no solution at the
desired price point and time, it can mean that there is an
opportunity for an existing solution to be improved, or a
new solution to be developed.
Fig. 4. Overview of the System Architecture Framework
3. Analysis and results
The objective of this study is to find potential
solutions in the market that can fulfill the requirements
of the aforementioned early warning systems and assess
their suitability. Additionally, the pros and cons of each
solution are identified, which then reveal some rooms
for improvement that can be a source of consideration
for new projects such as LAPAN-A5.
3.1 Creating the Solution Tradespace
More than 60 satellite connectivity solutions from 41
companies and 38 satellite constellations were identified
and evaluated. These solutions are categorized into
solutions that are now legally available in the
Indonesian market and solutions that are expected to be
ready in 1 to 5 years as well as in more than 5 years. In
terms of technical specifications, they are categorized
based on performance bandwidth, latency (or
immediacy), terminal size, average terminal power
consumption, antenna type, directionality, operating
frequency, orbit, rainproofness, and national data
security. Lastly, the solutions are also categorized based
on the terminal cost and the typical monthly data cost.
These 13 attributes together with the 60+ solutions
make up the solution tradespace that is developed in the
form of a spreadsheet. Table 4 shows the solution
attributes that are used to categorize and evaluate the
solutions. It should be noted that some common terms
might be defined differently for the purpose of this
study. In this study, UHF is defined as frequency
between 300 and 800 MHz, separating it from the Sub-
GHz frequency between 800 MHz and 1 GHz.
72nd International Astronautical Congress (IAC), Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 25-29 October 2021.
Copyright ©2021 by the Authors. Published by the IAF, with permission and released to the IAF to publish in all forms. All rights reserved.
IAC-21-E5.4.3 Page 6 of 9
Additionally, narrowband is defined as bandwidth of 10
kbps or lower, midband for 10 to 300 kbps, and
broadband for bandwidth above 300 kbps. Terminal is
defined as the whole hardware involved, including the
antenna. When referring to terminal size or diameter, it
means the terminal together with the antenna. Lastly,
national data security is defined by the ownership of the
satellite and the network operations center (NOC).
Some solutions have their NOC based in Indonesia but
not the satellites, and some solutions are completely
based overseas.
Table 4. Solution attributes used in the tradespace
Solution Attributes
Options
Bandwidth
Narrowband (10 kbps), Midband (10-
300 kbps), Broadband (> 300 kbps)
Latency
< 1 sec, < 1 min, < 15 mins, < 1 hr,
< 2 hrs, < 6 hrs, < 12 hrs, < 24 hrs
Terminal Diameter
< 10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-60
cm, 60-120 cm, > 120 cm
Terminal Power
(Average)
< 1 W, 1-10 W, 10-100 W,
100-500 W
Antenna Type
Omni, Flat, Dish
Antenna Directionality
Directional, Not Directional
Satellite Orbit
LEO, MEO, GEO
Frequency
VHF (< 300 MHz), UHF (300-800
MHz), Sub-GHz (800-1000 MHz), L-
band (1-2 GHz), S-band (2-4 GHz),
C-band (4-8 GHz), Ku-band (12-18
GHz), Ka-band (27-40 GHz)
Rainproofness
High, Medium, Low
National Data Security
Satellite & NOC, NOC only, Overseas
Terminal Cost
< $100, $100-500, $500-1k, $1k-5k,
$5k-10k, $10k-50k
Bandwidth Cost
(Typical)
< $10/mo, $10-50/mo, $50-100/mo,
$100-500/mo, $500-1k/mo, $1k-
5k/mo
Readiness in Indonesia
Now, 1-5 years, > 5 years
Among the 60+ solutions in the tradespace, there are
currently only 8 narrowband and 5 midband solutions
available in Indonesia’s market, whereas there are 21
solutions for broadband applications. Within the next 5
years or so, however, it is expected that there will be up
to 20 solutions for the narrowband category.
In general, the trend moving forward is the
following:
Both narrowband and broadband solutions will
increase in numbers, with narrowband gaining
industry interest for low-cost, massive IoT
applications and broadband for fiber-optic like
internet in remote areas.
Terminal diameter of < 10 cm and 10-20 cm
will be more commonly available for
narrowband applications and terminal diameter
of 30-60 cm for broadband applications will be
possible, although 60-120 cm will probably
still be the more common and cost-effective
option. The terminal size trend comes hand-in-
hand with the type of antennas used. Flat
antennas will be more common not only in
narrowband but also broadband applications
thanks to the maturity of electronically steered
phased array antenna technology.
The bandwidth and terminal diameter are the
result of satellite communication design
parameters, in particular, the choice of orbit
and frequency. Narrowband applications
typically use VHF up to S-band, although there
are some new solutions utilizing the higher
band frequencies for narrowband as well.
Broadband typically uses Ku-band and Ka-
band, although it should be noted that for
tropical regions with a lot of rain like
Indonesia, these two frequencies require an
extra effort to maintain high quality of service.
In terms of satellite orbit, both narrowband and
broadband are available and possible although
there is an increasing trend to utilize LEO
constellation. The choice of frequency and
satellite orbit should not be a concern for early
warning system operators but may give a
deeper level of understanding of the capability
of the solutions.
In terms of terminal price, $500-1k and $1k-5k
are currently the most common but the trend is
to bring them to $100-500 and even < $100
price range. For narrowband applications with
up to a couple hundreds of kB monthly usage,
data plan of < $10/mo will become more
common, but for broadband applications, $50-
100/mo and $100-500/mo is more likely.
Midband solutions may also be interesting.
They usually come with higher terminal price
than their narrowband counterparts but offer
more affordable data plan when the monthly
data usage exceeds a couple of MB. However,
at that level of monthly usage, broadband
solutions with larger but cheap dish antennas
can actually be more cost-effective.
Fig. 5. Number of solutions in the tradespace categorized by the
bandwidth performance
72nd International Astronautical Congress (IAC), Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 25-29 October 2021.
Copyright ©2021 by the Authors. Published by the IAF, with permission and released to the IAF to publish in all forms. All rights reserved.
IAC-21-E5.4.3 Page 7 of 9
Fig. 6. Number of solutions in the tradespace categorized by the
terminal diameter
3.2 Are the Solutions Suitable for Indonesia’s EWS?
Based on the solutions recorded in the tradespace
and the technical requirements of the devices used in
early warning systems previously summarized in Table
3, there can easily be more than one solution that are
feasible for each of the use case. In terms of readiness,
these solutions are also available now in Indonesia
although better solutions are expected to come in the
next 1-5 years.
The next question is then whether these solutions
meet the cost requirement of the stakeholders. Based on
the price of the existing and upcoming solutions, EWS
operators can perform a financial feasibility study as to
whether it is worth the total cost of ownership (TCO) to
deploy more sensors and warning output devices with
satellite connectivity. The current and future
performance, cost and readiness of these solutions
should be considered. EWS operators may, for example,
consider investing in promising new technologies in
small numbers instead of exclusively using more mature
technologies in bulk. Longer contracts usually yield
more significant cost savings, but EWS operators should
be fully confident with their chosen solutions because
new technologies may come at a lower cost.
Table 5 shows the problem-solution fit between the
EWS device requirements and the solutions available in
the tradespace.
Many of the sensors such as the GNSS station and
the family of automatic weather stations are currently
located in areas with cellular connectivity. With cellular
connectivity, 25 MB of monthly data costs less than $3.
The cost has always been a barrier for deploying further
in areas without cellular connectivity. For sensors
producing tens of kB to several MB of data per month,
Existing narrowband and midband satellite solutions
easily cost 10-50x higher than cellular. This means that
there is an opportunity for BMKG to deploy up to 50x
more weather stations than what they already have
today if satellite solutions can offer a similar amount of
price as cellular.
Among the solutions in the tradespace, there are
several emerging solutions that are offering 50% down
to 5% of the price of traditional narrowband and
midband solutions for applications using less than 300
kB of monthly data. They are still 2-8x more expensive
than cellular, but this price point might offer BMKG an
opportunity to deploy automatic weather stations in
remote areas with higher priority to reduce the data gap.
Some existing Ku-band solutions with traditional dish
antenna can actually offer that price point, as long as
they provide monthly or top-up packages in smaller
chunks, e.g., 10 MB or 100 MB. If there is no space or
size constraint, traditional Ku-band dish solutions may
very well be clear winners over the existing narrowband
and midband solutions.
Table 5. Solutions for each device used in Indonesias early warning systems (existing and upcoming in the next 5 years)
Devices Min. Bandwidth Max. Latency
Est. Data Usage
per Mont h
Number of
Solutions Available
Expected 5-year
TCO
Seismometer
Midband
< 1 sec
3+ GB
30+
$3k - 10k
Accelerometer
Narrowband
< 1 sec
3+ GB
30+
$3k - 10k
Intensity Meter
Narrowband
< 1 sec
3+ GB
30+
$3k - 10k
GNSS Stat ion
Narrowband
< 5 sec
10+ MB
30+
$3k - 10k
Tide Gauge
Narrowband
< 5 sec
100+ MB
30+
$3k - 10k
Tsunami Surface Buoy
Narrowband
< 5 sec
100+ kB
30+
$1k - 10k
Coastal HF Radar
Mid-Broadband
< 1 sec
50+ GB
20+
$3k - 10k
Weather Radar
Mid-Broadband
< 1 sec
30+ GB
20+
$3k - 10k
Automatic Weather Station
Narrowband
< 10 mins
200+ kB
40+
$1k - 10k
Agroclimate Automatic
Weather Station
Narrowband
< 10 mins
200+ kB
40+
$1k - 10k
Automatic Rain Gauge
Narrowband
< 10 mins
20+ kB
40+
$1k - 5k
Automatic Solar Radiation
Station
Narrowband
< 10 mins
20+ kB
40+
$1k - 5k
Peatland Automatic Water
Level Station
Narrowband
< 1 hr
10+ kB
40+
$1k - 3k
Thermal Camera
Broadband
< 1 sec
50+ GB
20+
$3k - 10k
CCTV Camera
Broadband
< 1 sec
50+ GB
20+
$3k - 10k
Warning Receiver System
Narrowband
< 1 sec
10+ MB
20+
$3k - 10k
72nd International Astronautical Congress (IAC), Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 25-29 October 2021.
Copyright ©2021 by the Authors. Published by the IAF, with permission and released to the IAF to publish in all forms. All rights reserved.
IAC-21-E5.4.3 Page 8 of 9
As such, traditional Ku-band dish solutions are also
very promising to be used for the EWS sensors and
devices located in remote areas or simply requiring
reliable connectivity. These include the coastal HF
radar, weather radar, thermal camera, CCTV, and the
warning receiver system.
An important part of implementing a successful IoT
system is automation. With affordable and reliable
remote connectivity commonly available, more
automated systems can be implemented. Similar to the
automatic weather stations or tsunami buoys, the coastal
HF radars, weather radars, thermal cameras, CCTVs,
and even warning output devices can either be remotely
controlled or fully automated. When the 2018 Palu
Tsunami happened, sirens were not activated because
the operator had to run away and save himself [10].
Implementing automations in the early warning system
chain such as the siren activation can be very helpful
when humans cannot be present.
Automatic sensor data collection also helps in
reducing human error and in improving the consistency
of the disaster risk model. As the cost of satellite
narrowband solutions goes down, the deployment of
massive and distributed wireless sensors to further
capture important environmental parameters will be
more ubiquitous. Some examples include in-situ smoke
and hydrogen measurements for early forest fire
detection [11] and in-situ river water level
measurements for early flood detection [12].
In order to save bandwidth costs, EWS operators can
consider sharing the same site for multiple sensors
whenever possible. Aggregating multiple devices to
transmit over the same communication link may in
certain cases be more affordable, considering that
satellite broadband solutions can be more cost-effective
than the narrowband ones when the monthly data usage
reaches a couple of MBs or more.
Aside from device aggregation, new compression
and edge computing technologies can play a significant
role in reducing bandwidth and improving the efficiency
of the overall early warning system. For example, an AI
running on the remotely located thermal camera
stations, a.k.a., the edge, can significantly reduce the
time to detect wildfires and the size of information that
has to be transferred to the operations center.
These are just some examples that EWS operators in
Indonesia might want to consider in addition to the
solutions available in the tradespace presented
previously. One missing attribute in the solution
tradespace is the ancillary costs of each solution,
including the delivery, activation, and installation fees.
Some terminals are made for self-installation, but some
may require on-site technical support. EWS operators
may assign weights on all these attributes according to
the use case, which then can be used to create a utility
function and draw the Pareto frontier to help highlight
which solutions are the best.
3.3 Considerations for LAPAN-A5 / NEWSat Project
Although existing and upcoming solutions in the
market may fulfill the technical requirements of the
disaster monitoring sensors and warning output devices,
there is still a lot of room for improvement.
As discussed previously, even the upcoming
solutions are still expected to be multiple times the cost
of cellular connectivity. Bringing the cost down to the
cost of cellular or below will be the holy grail of
satellite communication technology.
Because of Indonesia’s strategic location in the
equator, latency from a single LEO equatorial satellite
starts from as low as 1.5 hours. If this is acceptable for
some of the devices, such as BRGM’s automatic water
level stations and BMKGs automatic solar radiation
stations, a single satellite can already provide value. If
however such latency is unacceptable, LAPAN has to
deploy at least 2 satellites (equally spaced in orbit) to be
useful for BRGM’s automatic water level stations and 9
satellites to reduce the latency closer to real-time and be
useful for all devices.
One important attribute that has not been discussed
before is national data security. The Indonesian
government may want to ensure that important
information throughout the chain is protected, from
upstream to downstream. Among the 60+ solutions
explored in the tradespace, only 10 solutions utilize
Indonesian-operated satellites. LAPAN-A5 can fill the
hole in the countrys national interest and data security.
Additionally, there are inherent long-term benefits
for the country from conducting national space activities
such as developing and operating the LAPAN-A5
constellation. Apart from the benefits of disaster risk
reduction and environmental monitoring, the LAPAN-
A5 project will build the nation’s technological
capability, enable economic activity, inspire new
technology spinoffs, and develop the scientific
knowledge of society [13] [14]. Disaster risk reduction
has always been a collaborative effort in Indonesia, as
demonstrated by the amateur radio community utilizing
the currently orbiting LAPAN-A2 satellite for
communication during and after a disaster hits [15].
LAPAN-A5 constellation will further strengthen the
nation’s civic engagement for disaster risk reduction
efforts and promote the country’s sustainable
development.
4. Conclusions
The use of satellite IoT will enable EWS operators
such as BMKG, KLHK, PVMBG, and BRGM to obtain
significantly more environmental data points which will
improve the country’s disaster risk models.
Additionally, it can help them to implement an
72nd International Astronautical Congress (IAC), Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 25-29 October 2021.
Copyright ©2021 by the Authors. Published by the IAF, with permission and released to the IAF to publish in all forms. All rights reserved.
IAC-21-E5.4.3 Page 9 of 9
automated warning delivery for time-critical cases like
earthquakes and tsunamis.
More than 60 existing and upcoming solutions were
identified to form the solution tradespace. Among them,
at least 20 narrowband, midband, and broadband
solutions should fulfill the technical requirements of all
the devices in Indonesias early warning systems. This
study proves that satellite IoT can play a significant role
in Indonesia’s disaster risk reduction effort.
Disclaimer
The material and information provided in this paper
are for general information purposes only. Whilst the
authors endeavor to provide the information up to date
and correct, the authors and their affiliations make no
representations or warranties of any kind, express or
implied about the completeness, accuracy, reliability,
suitability, or availability with respect to the information
contained in this paper for any purpose. The authors
welcome any form of feedback to be sent to the
corresponding author’s email address.
References
[1] A. N. Nikicio, Architecting SatCom-Enabled
Early Warning Systems in Indonesia,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,
MA, USA, 2021.
[2] Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana,
Laporan Kinerja 2019,” Jakarta, 2020.
[3] Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana, Data
Informasi Bencana Indonesia (DIBI),” [Online].
Available: https://dibi.bnpb.go.id/.
[4] EM-DAT, EM-DAT Public, Center for
Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters
(CRED), [Online]. Available:
https://public.emdat.be/.
[5] D. Karnawati, Indonesia Tsunami Early Warning
System (InaTEWS) Tantangan dan Inovasi,”
Seminar Nasional Inovasi Teknologi InaTEWS,
10 December 2020.
[6] E. Fitrianingsih, Dwiyanto, P. A. Budiantoro, B.
Pratomo, H. Mayditia, Mission Analysis of
Indonesia Low Earth Micro Satellite
Constellation,” 71st International Astronautical
Congress (IAC) the CyberSpace Edition, 12-14
October 2020.
[7] Menteri Riset, Teknologi, dan Pendidikan Tinggi,
“Prioritas Riset Nasional 2020-2024 Pelaksanaan
Tahun Anggaran 2020,Jakarta, 2 October 2019.
[8] J. Reid, C. Zeng, D. Wood, Combining Social,
Environmental and Design Models to Support the
Sustainable Development Goals,” IEEE Aerospace
Conference, Big Sky, USA, 2-9 March 2019.
[9] E. Crawley, B. Cameron, D. Selva, System
Architecture: Strategy and Product Development
for Complex Systems,Pearson, 2016.
[10] S. B. Prasetyo, "Pengalaman dan Peran InaTEWS
saat Bencana Gempa Bumi, Tsunami dan
Liquifaksi Palu 28 September 2018," June 2020
[11] K. Nörthemann, J. Bienge, M. Dallmer, J. Müller,
M. Milstrey, M. Rothe, W. Moritz, Early forest
fire detection using Low Energy Hydrogen
Sensors,” 14th International Meeting on Chemical
Sensors, 20-23 May 2012.
[12] W. A. Permadi, H. P. K. Habibi, M. H. H. Putri,
Pengembangan Automatic Water Level Recorder
(AWLR) Berbasis IoT Sebagai Alat Mitigasi
Resiko Potensi Bencana Banjir di Kota Bontang,
PoliGrid, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 30-34, June 2021.
[13] D. R. Wood, Analysis of Technology Transfer
within Satellite Programs in Developing Countries
using Systems Architecture,AIAA Space Forum,
San Diego, CA, USA, 10-12 September 2013.
[14] D. R. Wood, Building Technological Capability
within Satellite Programs in Developing
Countries,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, MA, USA, 2012.
[15] W. Hasbi, “LAPAN-A2 (IO-86) Satellite Roles in
Natural Disaster in Indonesia,” 70th International
Astronautical Congress (IAC), Washington D.C.,
USA, 21-25 October 2019.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Thesis
Full-text available
Indonesia lies within the Ring of Fire, making the country highly prone to geophysical disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis, in addition to weather-related disasters such as floods, landslides, and wildfires. One effective way to reduce the risk of getting hit by these natural disaster hazards is through the deployment and operation of early warning systems. Early warning systems are generally responsible for two things: identifying the hazard precursors and delivering the warning in a timely manner. In both of these functions, wireless communication plays a critical role. Terrestrial communication, however, is often compromised when a disaster hits. Satellite communication (SatCom) offers a promising alternative not only for warning transmission, but also precursor detection from the thousands of disaster monitoring sensors deployed. It enables the placement of such sensors in remote areas, often closer to the source of the hazards. This thesis uses system architecture concepts to evaluate the pros and cons of the various terrestrial and satellite communication technologies in the context of early warning systems and suggest the best architecture for each use case. Based on the results of the analysis, satellite L-band, S-band, amateur radio, and newer technologies such as satellite LPWAN and GSM can provide significant benefits in terms of performance and cost. Additionally, the benefit of combining technical development and community engagement are highlighted for a sustainable early warning system. Findings from this thesis are hoped to provide the relevant government agencies in Indonesia and other countries with similar challenges for disaster risk reduction. Full Text: https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/132889
Article
Full-text available
Hujan deras pada tahun 2019 telah menyebabkan terjadinya banjir besar di kota Bontang yang mengakibatkan kerugian material pada masyarakat. Setelah kejadian tersebut, masyarakat tidak merasa tenang ketika terjadi musim hujan karena munculnya berbagai informasi yang kurang akurat tentang ketinggian muka air sungai Bontang. Tidak akuratnya informasi menyebabkan masyarakat bingung ketika harus membuat keputusan untuk menyelamatkan benda dan jiwanya. Untuk menyediakan informasi akurat tentang kondisi DAS sungai Bontang, agar masyarakat dapat menjadikannya sebagai pertimbangan untuk membuat keputusan, dikembangkanlah sebuah system AWLR berbasis IoT yang menggunakan teknologi komunikasi LoRa dan internet. Hasil pengujian terhadap system yang telah dirancang bangun menunjukkan bahwa sistem dapat bekerja dengan baik dan memberikan informasi yang tepat tentang tinggi muka air di DAS sungai Bontang kepada msyarakat.
Conference Paper
Indonesia is a country spread along the ring of fire with many volcanoes and surrounded by open ocean, hence Indonesia prominent to a natural disaster such as earthquakes, volcano eruption, landslides, tsunami, and other typical disaster. In 2015 Indonesia National Institute of Aeronautics & Space (LAPAN) had launched a LAPAN-A2 satellite in equatorial orbit with 6-degree inclination. This orbit is very useful for Indonesia since the satellite could pass over Indonesia more frequency then SSO orbit. One of the missions of the LAPAN-A2 satellite is for supporting communication during a disaster since ordinary communication will blackout during a typical disaster. LAPAN-A2/LAPAN-ORARI is also known as the IO-86 satellite by the amateur satellite community in the world. This paper will describe the role of LAPAN-A2 in supporting communication and imaging during several disasters that happen in Indonesia. The communication during a disaster could be done by using voice repeater payload in the satellite while in the ground; the people use only a small handheld transceiver (HT) with 5 watts RF and a low gain portable antenna to established communication with people in another region. Besides describing the role of this satellite, this paper also describes how this satellite asset encourages societies in Indonesia to be prepared for the natural disaster that may happen anytime by learning simple satellite communication. Copyright @2019 by the International Astronautical Federation (IAF).
Article
Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. They sometimes pursue this via collaborative satellite development projects with foreign firms that provide training. This phenomenon of collaborative satellite development projects is poorly understood by researchers of technological learning and technology transfer. The approach has potential to facilitate learning, but there are also challenges due to misaligned incentives and the tacit nature of the technology. Perspectives from literature on Technological Learning, Technology Transfer, Complex Product Systems and Product Delivery provide useful but incomplete insight for decision makers in such projects. This work seeks a deeper understanding of capability building through collaborative technology projects by conceiving of the projects as complex, socio-technical systems with architectures. The architecture of a system is the assignment of form to execute a function along a series of dimensions. The research questions explore the architecture of collaborative satellite projects, the nature of capability building during such projects, and the relationship between architecture and capability building. The research design uses inductive, exploratory case studies to investigate six collaborative satellite development projects. Data collection harnesses international field work driven by interviews, observation, and documents. The data analysis develops structured narratives, architectural comparison and capability building assessment. The architectural comparison reveals substantial variation in project implementation, especially in the areas of project initiation, technical specifications of the satellite, training approaches and the supplier selection process. The individual capability building assessment shows that most trainee engineers gradually progressed from no experience with satellites through theoretical training to supervised experience; a minority achieved independent experience. At the organizational level, the emerging space organizations achieved high levels of autonomy in project definition and satellite operation, but they were dependent on foreign firms for satellite design, manufacture, test and launch. The case studies can be summarized by three archetypal projects defined as "Politically Pushed," "Structured," and "Risk Taking." Countries in the case studies tended to start in a Politically Pushed mode, and then moved into either Structured or Risk Taking mode. Decision makers in emerging satellite programs can use the results of this dissertation to consider the broad set of architectural options for capability building. Future work will continue to probe how specific architectural decisions impact capability building outcomes in satellite projects and other technologies.
Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana
Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana, "Laporan Kinerja 2019," Jakarta, 2020.
Indonesia Tsunami Early Warning System (InaTEWS) Tantangan dan Inovasi
  • D Karnawati
D. Karnawati, "Indonesia Tsunami Early Warning System (InaTEWS) Tantangan dan Inovasi," Seminar Nasional Inovasi Teknologi InaTEWS, 10 December 2020.
Mission Analysis of Indonesia Low Earth Micro Satellite Constellation
  • E Fitrianingsih
  • P A Dwiyanto
  • B Budiantoro
  • H Pratomo
  • Mayditia
E. Fitrianingsih, Dwiyanto, P. A. Budiantoro, B. Pratomo, H. Mayditia, "Mission Analysis of Indonesia Low Earth Micro Satellite Constellation," 71 st International Astronautical Congress (IAC) -the CyberSpace Edition, 12-14 October 2020.
  • Menteri Riset
  • Teknologi
  • Dan Pendidikan Tinggi
Menteri Riset, Teknologi, dan Pendidikan Tinggi, "Prioritas Riset Nasional 2020-2024 Pelaksanaan Tahun Anggaran 2020," Jakarta, 2 October 2019.