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Objective: Prior research, mainly conducted on depression, observed that clients' improved capability to process their emotions predicted better therapeutic outcomes. The current comparative study aimed to investigate whether emotional processing was related to therapeutic change in complicated grief. Method: We analyzed two contrasting cases (good or poor outcome) treated with grief constructivist therapy. In both cases we investigated the association of emotional processing (Experiencing Scale) to (1) therapeutic outcome (Inventory of Complicated Grief), and (2) change in the type of grief-related emotions (Emotions Episodes). Results: The session-by-session growth of clients' emotional processing and the change of grief-related emotions were qualitatively explored throughout both cases. Compared with the poor outcome case, the good outcome case achieved more improvement in the ability to process emotions. Such improvement occurred alongside a deeper change in the type of grief-related emotions aroused, from maladaptive to more adaptive responses. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that a higher emotional processing capability may be associated with the transformation of grief-related maladaptive emotions and with the improvement of complicated grief condition.

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The association between clients’ higher capability of emotional processing and good therapeutic outcome has been consistently observed in different therapeutic approaches. Despite previous studies that have reported an association between emotional processing and pre- to posttherapy change in symptoms, the session-by-session relation between emotional processing and therapeutic change needs further research. The current study explored, in a good-outcome case of depression, the session-by-session longitudinal association of the level of emotional processing with (a) clinical symptoms and (b) type of emotions aroused (adaptive or maladaptive). Using a time-series analysis, we observed a strong negative association between the intensity of clinical symptoms and the level of emotional processing in the same session, r = −.71, p < .001, but a nonsignificant association between emotional processing and the symptoms in the preceding session, r = −.37, p = .101, and the next session, r = −.29, p = .180. During the increase in the level of emotional processing, we observed a change in the type of emotions aroused, from maladaptive to more adaptive. The results support that emotional processing is associated with therapeutic change, although not necessarily precedes such change, at least from one session to the next. As it is an exploratory study, the results must be interpreted carefully.
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In this chapter, I draw distinctions among three classes of research purposes: theory building, enriching, and fact gathering. Theory-building research seeks to test, improve, and extend a particular theory. Enriching research seeks to deepen and enrich people’s appreciation or understanding of a phenomenon. Factgathering research seeks to discover facts without explicitly focusing on a unified theory or systematically unpacking the meanings in a phenomenon. Insofar as the distinction concerns the purposes of research, not the methods, any method may be used to advance any of the purposes.
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The concept 'Experiencing (EXP) Level' points to the manner in which what a person says relates to felt experience. The manner is a first person process which is quantitatively measurable. Examples of low, middle and high Experiencing are given. In a high experiencing manner a person attends directly to a bodily sense of what is implicit and allows words (or images and or gestures) to emerge from that sense. The Experiencing Scale which measures the manner of process is a third person rating of a first person process, according to precise linguistic and somatic characteristics. A new rating method gives high reliability. I will briefly summarize several of the more than one hundred research studies which have used the EXP Scale or other measures of high EXP process. The high end of the EXP Scale describes what came to be called 'Focusing'. Because EXP level is a variable of the manner of process, it can be applied to almost any content area. Examples from tape-recorded psychotherapy sessions, creative writing, and theory-building will be analyzed in terms of experiencing level. Having defined the variable in observable terms makes it possible to formulate exact steps for teaching high Experiencing. Two practices -- Focusing and Thinking at the Edge -- have been developed, which can be taught in precise steps. This kind of third person variable can be found only from first person process. Its value for studying living will be shown.
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In Emotion-Focused Therapy for Depression, Leslie S. Greenberg and Jeanne C. Watson provide a manual for the emotion-focused therapy (EFT) of depression. Their approach is supported by studies in which EFT for depression was compared with cognitive-behavioral therapy and client-centered therapy. The approach has been refined to apply specifically to the treatment of this pervasive and often intractable disorder. The authors discuss the nature of depression and its treatment, examine the role of emotion, present a schematic model of depression and an overview of the course of treatment, and suggest who might benefit. Written with a practical focus rather than the more academic theoretical style of previous books that established the theoretical grounds and scientific viability of working with emotion in psychotherapy, this book aims to introduce practitioners to the idea of using this approach to work with a depressed population. The book covers theory, case formulation, treatment, and research in a way that makes this complex form of therapy accessible to all readers. Particularly valuable are the case examples, which demonstrate the deliberate and skillful use of techniques to leverage emotional awareness and thus bring about change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Discusses the nature of emotion, in the light of modern evolutionary and cognitive theories. An empirical measure of clients' emotion episodes is presented that implicates cognitive, affective, and motivational components in emotional processing. The authors argue that emotion plays an important role in therapy, providing information about clients' reactions, needs, beliefs, and appraisals. Because sound emotional processing is integral to adaptive human functioning, schemes governing affective processing constitute key therapeutic targets. To this end, it is argued that differential, emotionally focused intervention is needed for different types of emotional problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A prominent theme presented in this volume is that symptoms in the bereaved individual have meaning-making significance and that meaning reconstruction in response to loss is the central process in grieving. More scientifically oriented readers will find comprehensive discussions of research programs supporting these tenets, particularly those linking grief with responses to loss involved in trauma. Practitioners will find clinically informed models and ample case descriptions to bridge concepts with real people suffering real loss. All will find new paradigms for approaching loss and reconstruction of meaning in a respectful, revealing way that has significance both personally and professionally. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article briefly reviews recent process research on emotion in humanistic, cognitive, behavioural and psychodynamic psychotherapies. Cognitive therapy has traditionally shown less interest in emotional processes than the other therapies, but the interest of the others has not always borne fruit in empirical research. At the present time there is an interest in emotion research in therapy that cuts across all therapeutic modalities. Emotional processing and depth of experiencing, two heavily-researched emotion process categories of the behaviourists and humanists respectively, have been shown to have a robust association with outcome. There is accumulating evidence that both the in-session activation of specific, relevant emotions and the cognitive exploration and elaboration of the significance and meaning of these emotions are important for therapeutic change. Further research on emotional processes in psychotherapy is required. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This handbook offers therapists an approach to helping clients live in harmony with head and heart. Leslie Greenberg proposes that, rather than controlling or avoiding emotions, clients can learn from their own bodily reactions and begin to act sensibly on them. Expressing emotion in ways that are appropriate to context is a highly complex skill. Offering clinical wisdom, practical guidance and case illustration, the volume presents an empirically-supported model of training clients to attain emotional wisdom.
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This article reviews the process and outcome research on emotion in psychotherapy. Four distinct types of emotion processes are identified in the literature as useful in therapy, depending on a client's presenting concerns: emotional awareness and arousal; emotional regulation, active reflection on emotion (meaning making), and emotional transformation. Research findings are summarized to highlight the practical implications of these different emotion processes to psychotherapy. A range of selected treatments from different therapeutic orientations are addressed collectively as different types of emotion-focused, experiential therapies and are compared on the basis of how they work with emotion in session.
Working with narrative in emotion focused therapy changing stories healing lives
  • L Angus
  • L S Greenberg
Angus, L., & Greenberg, L. S. (2011). Working with narrative in emotion focused therapy changing stories healing lives (1st ed.).
SCID-II personality questionnaire
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First, M. B., Gibbon, M., Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B. W., & Benjamin, L. S. (1997). SCID-II personality questionnaire. American Psychiatric Press.