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THE YAZIDI AND THE ISLAMIC STATE, OR THE EFFECTS OF A MIDDLE EAST WITHOUT MINORITIES ON EUROPE

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Abstract

Ex abrupto the little known and closed Yazidi community has become a symbol of the atrocities of the Islamic State against minorities and of the risk deriving from extremism. The strong impact of IS on the Yazidi and other communities in the Middle East – Christians and others - has also provoked a migration wave towards Europe. The A. has worked on field in Iraq and Iraqi-Kurdistan since 2012, and had researched on and with the Yazidi long before the IS, realizing studies and documentaries. She sustains that the roots of the crisis were apparent before the crisis and the physical-psychological effects on minorities are much deeper, as they mine the structure and the evolution of their communities. Yet, the inner resources of the Yazidi community and the new global scenario have created also opportunities. Migration of minorities is a crucial issue: although constant in the last decades, it is now seriously endangering the rich social composition of the region and the stability of the communities when they scatter in diasporas. Europe must help the Middle Eastern countries to protect their minorities as they are a fundamental element for the balance of power and for the social dynamics.

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... Most come from two areas: Sheikhan, a collection of villages and towns to the northeast of Mosul, and Sinjar, a mountain to the northwest close to the border with Syria (Schneider, 2022). Following the ISIS invasion in 2014, a considerable number of people sought asylum in western nations (Del Re, 2015). ...
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Background and objectives: Yazidi people are a minority group of Kurds that frequently lives in the Sinjar district in Iraq. The Yazidis have been persecuted for centuries, including the most recent ISIS violence, genocide, enslavement, and forced migration, all of which had a significant impact on their mental health. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine mental and psychological health problems among Yazidi children and adolescents following the ISIS invasion of Iraq and Syria in 2014. Methods: The PRISMA protocol was used to conduct a systematic review of the literature. Using related keywords, 182 publications were identified on PubMed and Google Scholar. Finally, 5 full articles were included for data extraction. Inclusion criteria were English papers that studied Yazidi mental and psychiatric disorders in Yazidi children and adolescents, regardless of date or gender. However, research on Yazidi adult mental health and general physical health and brief reports were excluded. Results: The initial search result found 182 articles; 83 were evaluated for eligibility, with 5 studies meeting full eligibility criteria and being included in the current systematic review. According to the results, Yazidi children and adolescents have suffered from a variety of mental and psychological disorders as a result of the recent traumatic events, which mostly occurred after the ISIS invasion in 2014. The most prevalent are posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, anxiety, and other mental and psychiatric problems. Conclusion: Yazidi children and adolescents experienced serious traumatic events, including war trauma, as well as substantial migration and resettlement-related stress. These exposures increased the risk of developing mental health problems, including depression, PTSD, anxieties, and behavioral and comorbid mental and psychological problems which are prevalent among them.
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This bibliography contains books, edited volumes, journal articles, book chapters, theses, grey literature, and other resources on rebel governance, which refers to the informal takeover of state authority and political-administrative activities by insurgent non-state actors. The publications compiled herein represent the major thematic fields of research on rebel governance, covering political-administrative institutions of rebel groups, interventions in the economy, civilian life under, and responses to, rebel rule, provision of social services, the enhancement of perceived legitimacy, rebel diplomacy, and symbolic governance. Considering the multidisciplinary nature of this field of study, this bibliography should not be considered exhaustive but offers useful insights into the constantly evolving research on rebel governance.
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