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The checklist of alien orthopterans (Orthoptera) and mantises (Mantodea) in Austria (2nd edition)

Authors:
  • University Vienna, Austri
  • Ingenieurbüro für Landschaftsplanung & Landschaftspflege Thomas Zuna-Kratky

Abstract

We present the second edition of the checklist of alien orthopterans (Orthoptera) and mantises (Mantodea) in Austria. In total, 17 alien Orthoptera and three Mantodea species are reported, of which eight Orthoptera species are established, while nine are casual. All three mantises are casuals. In comparison to the first checklist of alien Othoptera and Mantodea species for Austria published in 2002, the number of alien Orthoptera and Mantodea has risen by 14 species. Most alien Orthoptera and Mantodea in Austria are native to other parts of Europe. Most invaded ecosystems in Austria are man-made habitats, and heated environments such as buildings and reenhouses. No species is currently known to cause any negative environmental or socio-economic impacts.
BioInvasions Records (2021) Volume 10, Issue 4: 991–996
Essl and Zuna-Kratky (2021), BioInvasions Records 10(4): 991996, https://doi.org/10.3391/bir.2021.10.4.23 991
CORRECTED PROOF
Data Paper
The checklist of alien orthopterans (Orthoptera) and mantises (Mantodea)
in Austria (2nd edition)
Franz Essl1,* and Thomas Zuna-Kratky2
1BioInvasions, Global Change, Macroecology-Group, Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14,
1030 Vienna, Austria
2Lange Gasse 58/20, 1080 Vienna, Austria
*Corresponding author
E-mail: franz.essl@univie.ac.at
Abstract
We present the second edition of the checklist of alien orthopterans (Orthoptera) and
mantises (Mantodea) in Austria. In total, 17 alien Orthoptera and three Mantodea
species are reported, of which eight Orthoptera species are established, while nine
are casual. All three mantises are casuals. In comparison to the first checklist of alien
Othoptera and Mantodea species for Austria published in 2002, the number of alien
Orthoptera and Mantodea has risen by 14 species. Most alien Orthoptera and Mantodea
in Austria are native to other parts of Europe. Most invaded ecosystems in Austria
are man-made habitats, and heated environments such as buildings and greenhouses.
No species is currently known to cause any negative environmental or socio-economic
impacts.
Key words: alien fauna, biological invasions, insects, inventory
Introduction
Worldwide, introductions of alien species are increasing rapidly, a finding
which appears to be robust to variable sampling effort (Seebens et al. 2017).
In the animal kingdom, by far the highest numbers of alien species in
terrestrial habitats are reported for arthropods, and particularly insects
(e.g. Dawson et al. 2017). While vascular plants (van Kleunen et al. 2015)
and vertebrates (e.g. Capinha et al. 2017; Dawson et al. 2017; Dyer et al.
2017) have been intensively studied, insect invasions have received
substantially less attention with the important exception of species that
cause severe economic or environmental consequences.
For Austria, a first compilation of alien Orthoptera species was already
given by Ebner (1946), and a first full inventory of alien Orthoptera and
Mantodea has been compiled as part of the cross-taxonomic national
inventory of alien species (Essl and Rabitsch 2002). As a consequence of an
increasing number of faunistic and floristic investigations in recent years,
many records of new alien species have been made in Austria, and this first
inventory has become quite outdated. Thus, a second edition of the national
inventory of alien species has been initiated in 2018 (Rabitsch and Essl ined.).
nd edition). BioInvasions Records
(4): 991996, https://doi.org/10.3391/bir.
14 April 2021
3 July 2021
27 September 2021
Quentin Groom
Tim Adriaens
© Essl and Zuna-Kratky
is an open access article distributed under terms
Attribution 4.0 International - CC BY 4.0).
OPEN ACCESS.
Checklist of alien Orthoptera and Mantodea in Austria (2nd edition)
Essl and Zuna-Kratky (2021), BioInvasions Records 10(4): 991996, https://doi.org/10.3391/bir.2021.10.4.23 992
Here, we present the updated checklist of alien Orthoptera and Mantodea.
We discuss key findings and the changes of the alien Orthoptera and Mantodea
fauna between the first and second editions of the Austrian checklist.
Materials and methods
The order Orthoptera includes crickets and bush crickets (suborder Ensifera)
and grasshoppers (suborder Caelifera), while the systematics of the Order
Mantodea is not fully settled and comprises c. 30 families. Both orders are
most species rich in (sub)tropical regions. For the second edition of the
Austrian checklist of alien Orthopera and Mantodea, we updated the 1st
edition using a comprehensive literature research. In particular, the
Orthoptera and Mantodea fauna in Austria has been extensively surveyed
since the beginning of the millennium and a first national atlas has been
published (Zuna-Kratky et al. 2017), which resulted in many additions to
the known distribution in Austria of native and alien species alike.
For each alien species, we collected the following data (if available):
species name, important (i.e. widely or until recently used) synonyms,
region of origin (continents according to the TDWG classification,
Brummitt 2001), distribution in the nine federal states of Austria, year of
first record in Austria, recent population trend in Austria (i.e. clear evidence
of expanding, declining or stable population sizes, based on expert
knowledge), biogeographic status in Austria (alien, i.e. established, casual,
or unknown if established/casual; cryptogenic), pathways of introduction
(according to Hulme et al. 2008), invaded ecosystems (based on data from
the ARGE Heuschrecken Österreichs, ined.), negative impacts on the
environment or on socio-economy, and main sources.
The definition of “alien”, “established” (i.e. self-sustaining populations
in the wild) and “casual” (i.e. not self-sustaining, often ephemeral occurrences)
follows Essl et al. (2018). We also included cryptogenic species, i.e. species
that are likely alien but whose biogeographic status is uncertain, by following
the definition provided in Essl et al. (2018); however, no cryptogenic species is
recorded for Austria. Species nomenclature and taxonomy follow the most
recent checklist of European Orthoptera (Hochkirch et al. 2016a) and the
overview on invasive Mantodea in Europe (Schwarz and Ehrmann 2018).
Results
In total, 17 Orthoptera and three Mantodea species are reported as alien
for Austria. A total of eight Orthoptera species are established, while nine
are casuals (Tables 1, S1). All three mantises are casuals. Most species are
native to other parts of Europe (13 species), followed by (northern) Africa
(four species) and South America (three species).
The cosmopolitan Acheta domestica was introduced before 1800, although
the exact date of introduction is unknown. Anacridium aegyptium was first
recorded in the mid-19th century, while another six species were recorded
Checklist of alien Orthoptera and Mantodea in Austria (2nd edition)
Essl and Zuna-Kratky (2021), BioInvasions Records 10(4): 991996, https://doi.org/10.3391/bir.2021.10.4.23 993
Table 1. Checklist (2nd edition) of alien Orthoptera and Mantodea in Austria. Further data are provided in Table S1. Given are
species name, distribution in the nine federal states of Austria, year of first record in Austria, biogeographic status in Austria (alien, i.e.
established, casual, or unknown if established / casual; cryptogenic), pathways of introduction (according to Hulme et al. 2008), invaded
ecosystems, and main sources.
Figure 1. Distribution map of four alien Orthoptera species in Austria: shown are the three most wide-spread alien species (Acheta
domestica, Leptophyes punctatissima, Meconema meridionale) and the recently introduced Eupholidoptera schmidtii. The
distribution map is based on unpublished data of the database of the ARGE Heuschrecken Österreichs (version 2021-08-23).
for the first time in Austria in the first half of the 20th century (Tables 1, S1).
While only two species have been first recorded in the 2nd half of the 20th
century, in the last 20 years ten new species (including all three Mantodea
species) have been newly recorded.
A few of the alien Orthoptera are widespread and occur in all (Acheta
domestica, Anacridium aegyptium, Leptophyes punctatissima, Meconema
meridionale) or most of the nine federal states of Austria (Diestrammena
asynamora) (Figure 1). Occurrences of the remaining species are restricted
Checklist of alien Orthoptera and Mantodea in Austria (2nd edition)
Essl and Zuna-Kratky (2021), BioInvasions Records 10(4): 991996, https://doi.org/10.3391/bir.2021.10.4.23 994
to at most three federal states. Five species are clearly expanding in Austria,
two are declining, and for the remaining ones, population trends are unknown.
The most invaded ecosystems are man-made habitats and fields (12 species),
followed by heated indoor habitats (10 species), hedgerows and forest margins
(three species). The most important pathway of introduction is as contaminant
(e.g. in association with fruits or plants) (10 species), followed by as
stowaway (e.g. transported as blind passengers in cars or trains) (8 species).
Two species have escaped, one has been released, while for five species, the
pathway of introduction is unknown. No negative impacts on the environment
or on the socio-economy are known. No negative impact of any alien
Orthoptera or Mantodea species is known for Austria.
Discussion
Austria has a rich native Orthoptera fauna (ca. 135 species, Zuna-Kratky et
al. 2017), while only one Mantodea species is native to Austria. The
updated checklist of alien Orthoptera and Mantodea in Austria includes
now 20 species in total, which is 14 more than included in the first edition
of this checklist (Essl and Rabitsch 2002, cf. Table 1). While 10 species have
indeed been newly recorded in the last two decades, first records of the
remaining four ones pre-date the publication of the 1st edition, but only
became known to the Austrian Orthoptera research community latter due
to intensively mobilizing historic data (e.g. specimens in the collections of
natural history museums) for the atlas of Austrian Orthoptera (Zuna-
Kratky et al. 2017). Still, the finding of 10 alien species new to Austria in
just 20 years is remarkable (an increase of 100%) and can be attributed to
two overlapping factors: research on Orthoptera distribution has strongly
increased from the 1990s onwards, and global trade and climate warming
have increased the transport and sometimes also facilitated the establishment
of new alien Orthoptera and Mantodea. Such recently recorded species that
are locally established are Eupholidoptera schmidtii (Figure 1), Rhacocleis
annulata and Pteronemobius lineolatus.
Compared to the native Orthoptera and Mantodea fauna, the habitat
preferences of the alien species differ remarkably. While the majority of
native species occurrs in different grassland types, most alien species occur
in man-made habitats (e.g. ruderal habitats) and heated environments (i.e.
houses and glasshouses). The preference of alien Orthoptera and Mantodea
species towards heavily modified habitats corresponds well with the general
patterns of habitat affiliation of alien insects in Europe (e.g. Roques et al. 2010).
Interestingly, most alien Orthoptera and all alien Mantodea are native to
other parts of Europe, mostly southern Europe. This paucity of
introductions from species native to other continents is not shown in most
other taxonomic groups in Austria (Essl and Rabitsch 2002; Essl and
Zechmeister 2021).
Checklist of alien Orthoptera and Mantodea in Austria (2nd edition)
Essl and Zuna-Kratky (2021), BioInvasions Records 10(4): 991996, https://doi.org/10.3391/bir.2021.10.4.23 995
The predominant introduction pathways, contaminant and stowaway,
indicate that the majority of the alien Orthoptera and Mantodea species in
Austria have been introduced as hitchhikers. However, a few Orthoptera
species which are traded as food items for pets such as reptiles have
escaped or been released. In several cases, the pathways are unknown.
While no negative impacts of alien Orthoptera or Mantodea species are
reported for Austria, we note that Meconema meridionale is assumed to
exert negative impacts on the native Meconema thalassinum in other parts
of Europe (Hochkirch et al. 2016b).
This study shows that numbers of alien species can increase substantially
within rather short time periods. Thus, regularly updating national
checklists of alien species of specific taxonomic groups is important for
science and for appropriately informing decision makers alike.
Acknowledgements
This study was co-funded by the Austrian Ministry of Agriculture and the European Union as
part of the project “Compiling the 2nd edition of alien species in Austria” (pr. no. 7.6.1a-I3-55/17).
This study was further co-funded through the 20172018 Belmont Forum and BiodivERsA
joint call for research proposals, under the BiodivScen ERA-Net COFUND programme, and
with the funding organisation Austrian Science Foundation FWF (grant I 4011-B32) (to FE).
We thank all colleagues who have assisted in the compilation of the checklist of alien
Orthoptera and Mantodea in Austria. We appreciate the helpful comments of three anonymous
reviewers and the handling editor, Q. Groom.
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Supplementary material
The following supplementary material is available for this article:
Table S1. Checklist (2nd edition) of alien Orthoptera and Mantodea in Austria with extended information on the recorded species.
This material is available as part of online article from:
http://www.reabic.net/journals/bir/2021/Supplements/BIR_2021_Essl_Zuna-Kratky_SupplementaryMaterial.xlsx
... Introductions of alien species beyond their native ranges are increasing rapidly, and they are attributed to such factors as climate change, acceleration of trade and transport of goods and people (Hulme 2009;Kenis et al. 2009;Seebens et al. 2017;Essl and Zuna-Kratky 2021). It is generally accepted that most of the alien omnivorous insects have been introduced recently through trade and the transport of horticultural material Monnerat et al. 2020). ...
... In Central Europe, there is little information on alien Orthoptera species, their invasiveness, temporal dynamics, range and habitat widening, as well as the population sustainability in a new environment Dawson et al. 2017;Puskás 2018;László 2019). For example, the highest known number of the alien Orthoptera species in Central Europe is in Austria (17 species) (Essl and Zuna-Kratky 2021). ...
... It is supposed that this species was obviously introduced to new areas by passive transport linked to the plant trade (Monnerat et al. 2020). All the observations were made in gardens with the presence of ornamental plants (Essl and Zuna-Kratky 2021). Our specimens in the Botanical garden were found mainly near the bush beds with mulch bark (mostly Pinus spp.), which is imported from various countries and can be a source of laid eggs as the basis of the population. ...
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Alien species are a major component of human-induced environmental change. Variation in the numbers of alien species found in different areas is likely to depend on a combination of anthropogenic and environmental factors, with anthropogenic factors affecting the number of species introduced to new locations, and when, and environmental factors influencing how many species are able to persist there. However, global spatial and temporal variation in the drivers of alien introduction and species richness remain poorly understood. Here, we analyse an extensive new database of alien birds to explore what determines the global distribution of alien species richness for an entire taxonomic class. We demonstrate that the locations of origin and introduction of alien birds, and their identities, were initially driven largely by European (mainly British) colonialism. However, recent introductions are a wider phenomenon, involving more species and countries, and driven in part by increasing economic activity. We find that, globally, alien bird species richness is currently highest at mid-latitudes and is strongly determined by anthropogenic effects, most notably the number of species introduced (i.e., " colonisation pressure "). Nevertheless, environmental drivers are also important, with native and alien species richness being strongly and consistently positively associated. Our results demonstrate that colonisation pressure is key to understanding alien species richness, show that areas of high native species richness are not resistant to colonisation by alien species at the global scale, and emphasise the likely ongoing threats to global environments from introductions of species.
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All around the globe, humans have greatly altered the abiotic and biotic environment with ever-increasing speed. One defining feature of the Anthropocene epoch is the erosion of biogeographical barriers by human-mediated dispersal of species into new regions, where they can naturalize and cause ecological, economic and social damage. So far, no comprehensive analysis of the global accumulation and exchange of alien plant species between continents has been performed, primarily because of a lack of data. Here we bridge this knowledge gap by using a unique global database on the occurrences of naturalized alien plant species in 481 mainland and 362 island regions. In total, 13,168 plant species, corresponding to 3.9% of the extant global vascular flora, or approximately the size of the native European flora, have become naturalized somewhere on the globe as a result of human activity. North America has accumulated the largest number of naturalized species, whereas the Pacific Islands show the fastest increase in species numbers with respect to their land area. Continents in the Northern Hemisphere have been the major donors of naturalized alien species to all other continents. Our results quantify for the first time the extent of plant naturalizations worldwide, and illustrate the urgent need for globally integrated efforts to control, manage and understand the spread of alien species.
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1. Pathways describe the processes that result in the introduction of alien species from one location to another. A framework is proposed to facilitate the comparative analysis of invasion pathways by a wide range of taxa in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Comparisons with a range of data helped identify existing gaps in current knowledge of pathways and highlight the limitations of existing legislation to manage introductions of alien species. The scheme aims for universality but uses the European Union as a case study for the regulatory perspectives. 2. Alien species may arrive and enter a new region through three broad mechanisms: importation of a commodity, arrival of a transport vector, and/or natural spread from a neighbouring region where the species is itself alien. These three mechanisms result in six principal pathways: release, escape, contaminant, stowaway, corridor and unaided. 3. Alien species transported as commodities may be introduced as a deliberate release or as an escape from captivity. Many species are not intentionally transported but arrive as a contaminant of a commodity, for example pathogens and pests. Stowaways are directly associated with human transport but arrive independently of a specific commodity, for example organisms transported in ballast water, cargo and airfreight. The corridor pathway highlights the role transport infrastructures play in the introduction of alien species. The unaided pathway describes situations where natural spread results in alien species arriving into a new region from a donor region where it is also alien. 4. Vertebrate pathways tend to be characterized as deliberate releases, invertebrates as contaminants and plants as escapes. Pathogenic micro-organisms and fungi are generally introduced as contaminants of their hosts. The corridor and unaided pathways are often ignored in pathway assessments but warrant further detailed consideration. 5. Synthesis and applications. Intentional releases and escapes should be straightforward to monitor and regulate but, in practice, developing legislation has proved difficult. New introductions continue to occur through contaminant, stowaway, corridor and unaided pathways. These pathways represent special challenges for management and legislation. The present framework should enable these trends to be monitored more clearly and hopefully lead to the development of appropriate regulations or codes of practice to stem the number of future introductions.
Die Adventiv-Fauna an Orthopteren in Österreich
  • R Ebner
Ebner R (1946) Die Adventiv-Fauna an Orthopteren in Österreich. Zentralblatt für das Gesamtgebiet der Entomologie 1: 109-122
Harmonizing the definitions of native vs. alien taxa: principles, applications, and uncertainties
  • F Essl
  • S Bacher
  • P Genovesi
  • P E Hulme
  • J M Jeschke
  • S Katsanevakis
  • I Kowarik
  • I Kühn
  • P Pyšek
  • W Rabitsch
  • S Schindler
  • M Van Kleunen
  • M Vilà
  • Jru Wilson
  • D M Richardson
Essl F, Bacher S, Genovesi P, Hulme PE, Jeschke JM, Katsanevakis S, Kowarik I, Kühn I, Pyšek P, Rabitsch W, Schindler S, van Kleunen M, Vilà M, Wilson JRU, Richardson DM (2018) Harmonizing the definitions of native vs. alien taxa: principles, applications, and uncertainties. BioScience 68: 496-509, https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy057