Srisawasdi, N. et al. (2021). Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on
Educational Research. Thailand: Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University
Reading Literacy Assessment of Higaunon
Women in Cagayan de Oro City: Basis for
Reading Enhancement Program
Felix, GAVIOLA, JR. * , Adelfa SILOR , Lindy Lou GAVIOLA ,
Venus PARMISANA & Ciedelle GRAGEDA
Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Philippines
Abstract: This research study aimed to assess the reading performance of the Higaonon women
in Cagayan de Oro City, Northern Mindanao, Philippines. The concept of this study is anchored
to the new UNESCO Policy on engaging with Indigenous Peoples, UNESCO. This is
committed to promote lifelong learning for indigenous peoples and ensure their full inclusion in
education. This is also an avenue for higaonon children and young people of indigenous
families to be educated. The method used in this study was both the quantitative and qualitative
research approaches. The purposive sampling technique was employed in selecting the
fifty(50) adult higaonon women from the higaonon community, Cagayan de Oro City, Misamis
Oriental, Northern Mindanao, Philippines. The results suggest that women in higaonon tribe
need to undergo basic reading literacy enhancement program. Higaonon women need to be
exposed to difficult words. As suggested, reading materials be provided at home. In conclusion,
reading enhancement program is a solution to cater the needs of the higaonon women on
learning the concept and activities of reading. The results of this study imply that higaonon
women are interested to learn the basic reading literacy. Hence, if the higaonon women can
learn on the basic early literacy and emergent literacy skills, then they can also start teaching
their children at the very early stage.
Keywords: Emergent literacy, phonetic awareness, reading assessment literacy
In chapter 1 section 2 paragraph 2 in the magna carta of women (R.A 9710), the State condemns
discrimination against women in all its forms and pursues by all appropriate means and without
delay the policy of eliminating discrimination against women in keeping with the Convention on
the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and other international
instruments consistent with Philippine law. The State shall accord women the rights, protection,
and opportunities available to every member of society.
Indeed, in paragraph 3 the State affirms women’s rights as human rights and shall intensify
its efforts to fulfil its duties under international and domestic law to recognize, respect, protect, fulfill,
and promote all human rights and fundamental freedoms of women, especially marginalized women, in
the economic, social, political, cultural, and other fields without distinction or discrimination on account
of class, age, sex, gender, language, ethnicity, religion, ideology, disability, education, and
status(Magna Carta of Women, R.A 9710).
The above declaration policy in the magna carta of women emphasizes role of women in nation
building and ensures the substantive equality of women and men. It shall promote empowerment of
women and pursue equal opportunities for women and men and ensure equal access to resources
and to development results and outcome(Magna Carta of Women, 9710 chapter 1 paragraph 1).
In fact, the most vulnerable are the indigenous women like the higaonons in Northern Mindanao
who need attention and care to have empowerment. Guided by the new UNESCO Policy on Engaging
with Indigenous Peoples, UNESCO is committed to promote lifelong learning for indigenous peoples
and ensure their full inclusion in education because children and young people of indigenous families
remain less likely to be enrolled in school or in training programmes and more likely to underperform
than non-indigenous children (Education for indigenous peoples UNESCO, 1989).
In the push for Education for All, improving access, quality and outcomes for
marginalized populations, including indigenous peoples, must not be overlooked. To not leave out
indigenous learners, education must be tailored to their needs, including their geographical,
infrastructural, livelihood, cultural, historical and linguistic contexts. It is also necessary to
highlight that educational marginalization for indigenous peoples occur within a context of
disproportionately high poverty and hunger, decreased security, and loss of identity, language,
territories and livelihoods. An attention to all the rights of indigenous peoples and support for
sustainable economic, cultural and social development is fundamental to improving their inclusive
educational outcomes (Lukong, 2016).
Furthermore, Cartwheel Foundation, Inc. was one of 35 organizations awarded by Metrobank
Foundation, Inc. (MBFI) during their 54th Anniversary Grants Turnover Ceremony on September 5,
2016 at Metrobank Plaza, Makati City. The grant was given in support of the Early Childhood and
Elementary Education (ECEE) Program that focuses on facilitating access to quality and culturally
relevant learning for 54 indigenous Higaonon children of Sinakungan, Esperanza, Agusan del Sur for
school year 2016-2017.( Metrobank Foundation Supports Education for Higaonon Learners, 2016).
Another, is the Pailig-DepEd Develops education program for Higaonon with Mr. Roberto
“Bob” Quijano, Managing Director of the PDFI said that the IPs education development project is a
joint venture of the PDFI and DepEd. He said the purpose of the project is to advocate and strengthen the
traditional practices of Higaonon culture to gain understanding and respect among the Higaonon tribe as
well as with other tribes. They taught the children on traditional practices such as the traditional laws
and customary laws, rituals to strengthen the Higaonon tribe to exist. They also teach the Higanon
children about the Higaonon identity because plenty of the Higaonon children doesn’t know to
appreciate their culture and tradition and it will endanger the tribe to perish in the future. They taught
history of the Higaonon started before the coming of the Spaniards and current situation and the methods
of indigenous organic farming to protect and preserve the environment of their Ancestral domain in
Rogongon (Pailig-DepEd, 2017 Lanao blog news).
Moreover, in the study of Saranza (2016), the results revealed that the Higaonons have rich oral
literature categorized by prose as short stories, essays, and legends narrated by the key informants in the
omniscient point of view. The common human values reflected in their literature include patience,
courage, godliness, and industry. The wearing of beads and Higaonon costume symbolizes pride and
identity of the tribe. The literature includes vivid images that appeal to the senses of the readers. They
are transmitted and preserved through storytelling only by the datus of high rank of whom knowledge of
all tribal lore is a requisite may reveal the story; and in their yearly Kaamulan Festival (Saranza, 2016).
Another study showed that the Higaonon culture and belief do not specifically advocate for the
formal education of their children in schools. Rather, they prefer them to gain the basics of Reading,
Writing, and Arithmetic; afterwards, the children become their workmates in the farm. They give a
higher preference to food sufficiency than education. The intrusion of the Christians and Muslims and
the mass media has taught them to speak other dialects like Cebuano and Tagalog. Only a few can speak
meager English. This study has found out that the Higaonon culture and belief do not provide a
significant contribution to the academic performance of the pupils (SUMORTIN II and Cuizon, 2013).
Despite the existence of national legislation, such as the IPRA, and international frameworks,
such as the UNDRIP and Agenda 2030, Indigenous Peoples’ communities in the Philippines are still
facing challenging issues especially in relation to accessing culturally relevant quality education.
Furthermore, the pursuit of inclusion must address the wide and diverse needs of Indigenous Peoples’
communities. However, it is to be realized that inclusion may seem to be different for Indigenous
learners as compared to other sectors such as persons with disabilities. It appears that for inclusion to
work, Indigenous learners must first have a strong sense of identity to be able to include themselves in
society. Society, in turn, must also be ready to accept the uniqueness of Indigenous learners. Ultimately,
the involvement of Indigenous Peoples’ communities in the decision making processes is crucial if
inclusion is to benefit them at all (Torres, 2016).
Consequently, the magna for women (R.A 9710) along with the UNESCO Policy on Engaging
with Indigenous Peoples, Cartwheel Foundation Inc, Pailig DepED project and research studies
conducted, there is research study conducted on reading literacy for indigenous peoples specifically the
higaonon women. Hence, this GAD research project aims to assess the rate of reading literacy among
higaonon women in Cagayan de Oro City to empower the higaonon women in reading education
because the mothers are the first teachers at home.
The results of tis Gender and Development (GAD) research project would be a great
contributions in sustaining the UNESCO policy on engaging Indigenous Peoples, Cartwheel Foundation
in facilitating access to quality and culturally relevant learning for 54 indigenous Higaonon children of
Sinakungan Esperanza, Agusan del Sur, Philippines and also the Pailig-DepEd Develops education
program for Higaonons in Rogongon, Iligan City, Philippines. This study serves as an eye opener for all
indigenous women to love reading as a skill.
1.1 Theoretical Framework of the Study
This GAD research study is anchored to the magna carta of women (R.A 9710) “Women
Empowerment” refers to the provision, availability, and accessibility of opportunities, services, and
observance of human rights which enable women to actively participate and contribute to the
political, economic, social, and cultural development of the nation as well as those which shall
provide them equal access to ownership, management, and control of production, and of material
and informational resources and benefits in the family, community, and society. The natural and
primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth and the development of moral character and
the right of children to be brought up in an atmosphere of morality and rectitude for the
enrichment and strengthening of character.
Marginalized” refers to the basic, disadvantaged, or vulnerable persons or groups who are
mostly living in poverty and have little or no access to land and other resources, basic social and
economic services such as health care, education, water and sanitation, employment and livelihood
opportunities, housing, social security, physical infrastructure, and the justice system.
In addition, this research study is also anchored to the theories of reading.
Traditional bottom-up view of reading-the traditional bottom-up theory is skill-driven in that it stresses
the code used in a written language to represent the spoken words. The emphasis is on letter and word
recognition as a key to reading (Nunan, 2005 as cited in by Mule, 2012).
The cognitive theory or top-down view of reading-The cognitive or top-down view of reading is
a comprehension-driven theory which opposes the view that decoding is a basis to comprehension. This
theory puts the reader at the centre of the reading process, a premise of which brings all the
experiences and background knowledge to the reading task(Mule, 2012).
The balanced theory or interactive model of reading-posits that readers read by focusing on
comprehension and on letter features at the same time (Stanovich, 1980). To Mercer et al. (2007),
Stanovich’s interactive theory differs from the bottom-up and cognitive theories in that it sees the
reader as processing all the different letters and words, but acknowledges that the meaning and
syntax of the context influence the perception and recognition of them.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Reading is fundamental to functioning in today's society
Reading is fundamental to functioning in today's society. There are many adults who cannot read well
enough to understand the instructions on a medicine bottle. That is a scary thought - especially for their
children. Filling out applications becomes impossible without help. Reading road or warning signs is
difficult. Even following a map becomes a chore. Day-to-day activities that many people take for
granted become a source of frustration, anger and fear.( Glenn Davis, 2016).
A child's reading ability can be affected by many factors including background knowledge, ability,
home environment, school experiences and interest level. However, pure reading performance is most
directly linked to a child's success with five early literacy skills--phonemic awareness, alphabetic
principle, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension. By understanding and nurturing these five
fundamental skills, parents and teachers can better encourage successful reading performance. (Jamie
2.2 Reading habit has influence on academic performance
Furthermore, the study of Owusu-Acheaw and Larson(2004), the findings showed that majority of
the respondents acknowledge the importance of reading, 81.9% of the respondents neither read novel
nor fiction within the last two semesters while 62.0% of the respondents only read for the
purpose of passing examination. The study confirmed that reading habit has influence on academic
performance and there is a relationship between reading habit and academic performance. The study
recommended among others that lecturers should be advised to stop providing handouts to
students but rather encourage them to use the library for research and also, the current system of
assessing students should be given a second thought with respect to the formulae of assessment.
Many researchers have noted that the educational attainment of a child's parents is a good predictor of
the academic achievement of the child. Parents who are, for instance, college educated could be better
equipped to help children with their homework and the understanding of concepts than those with less
than a high school education, other things being equal (Johnson, 2000).
2.3 Causes of reading difficulties
English reading materials, improper teaching methodology and insufficient English language
development were causes of reading difficulties. Lack of English language development was a
result of insufficient teacher-learner interactions during the English lessons. The results from the
tests indicated that decoding, phonemic awareness, word recognition skill and comprehension might
hamper reading proficiency in Grade 4 and although a section of learners proved the abilities to read
fluently they could not satisfactorily answer the questions based on the text read(Mule,2012).
Lerner (2000, p.389 as cited in by Mule, 2012) reports that “children who get off to a poor start
in reading rarely catch up; poor first grade readers are likely to continue to be poor readers.”
A number of studies in the area of reading, for example, those conducted by (Chall
1987,Dickinson and Neuman 2006,and Lerner 2000 as cited in by Mule, 2012) )point out difficulties
learning to read in English when not a first language.
Pang, Muaka, Benhard and Michael (2003, p.273 as cited in by Mule, 2012) observe that real
progress in reading depends on oral language development, an observation that suggests that children
learn to read by associating the written form with speech.
Reading, as a language-based activity (Lyon, 2000 as cited in by Mule, 2012), does not
develop naturally, and for many children, decoding, word recognition, and reading comprehension
skills must be taught directly and systematically. If a child’s knowledge of English is poor the reading
skill as well as reading comprehension will also be poor(Baker, 2006 as cited in by Mule, 2012).
Having raised the question of whether the problem with reading “is a reading problem or language
problem,” Carter and Nunan (2002, p.22 as cited in by Mule, 2012) concluded that it involved both.
2.4 Schema theory highlights the limited amount of cognitive
Rumelhalt’s (1980 as cited in by Mule, 2012) schema theory highlights the limited amount of cognitive
energy available for use in processing information. If a reader’s cognitive energy is focused on
decoding and combining the meaning of the word, then comprehension will suffer. For Scott
(2001as cited in by Mule, 2012), schema theory is vital in helping learners use their mental store
during learning, whilst Brewer’s (2000 as cited in by Mule, 2012) schemata theory helps learners to
determine how to interpret the task to be learned, how to understand the information and what
knowledge the learner acquires.
Snow, Burns and Griffin (1998 as cited in Mule, 2012) introduced types of risk factors that
contribute to low levels of academic achievement among L2 learners. In their study conducted, they
identified factors of risk to language development, including socio-economic status (poverty
conditions), cultural differences between school and home (regarding education values and
expectations), socio-political factors (including past and continuing discrimination, and low
perceived opportunity for schooling) and school quality. Murray and Johnson (1996 as cited in by
Mule, 2012) argue that age is a great determinant of language development, and that the younger a
person the easier it is to learn or acquire the language.
2.5 Reading Assessment in Children
The ultimate aim of learning to read is to read with understanding. According to the ‘simple view of
reading’, reading comprehension is the product of word recognition (decoding) and oral language
comprehension (Gough & Tunmer, 1986 as cited by Paynter, Westerveld, & Trembath, 2016 p.206). In
other words, to understand written text, the reader does not only need to recognise the printed words on
a page, but also needs to understand the meaning of those words, sentences, and paragraphs(Paynter,
Westerveld, & Trembath, 2016 p.206).
2.6 Emergent Literacy
Children who are not yet able to read novel words or sentences (i.e., preliterate) may be considered to be
in the emergent literacy stage, and their emergent literacy skills should be assessed across code-related
(e.g., letter knowledge, print concepts, and early writing) and meaning-related (e.g., vocabulary, story
retell, and comprehension) skills (Paynter, Westerveld, & Trembath, 2016 p. 209).
2.7 Phonological Awareness
Indeed, early success in reading is predicated on a child’s ability to accurately and effectively master
core literacy constructs (e.g., phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, concept of word, and
grapheme-phoneme correspondence) and to exercise these understandings in a comfortable
sociocultural context (Invernizzi,Justice, Landrum & Booker,(2004, p.479).
Teaching children to read accurately, fluently, and with adequate comprehension is one of the main
goals of early education. Reading is critical because a great deal of formal education depends upon being
able to read with understanding. Reading difficulties will inevitably create educational difficulties,
which, in turn, are a major source of economic and social disadvantage. But such difficulties may be
reduced by suitable early intervention (Heckman, 2006 as cited in by Hulme & Snowling, 2011 p.140).
3.1 Research Design
This study adopted both the quantitative and qualitative research approaches. According to Christenson
and Johnson(2008 as cited in by Mule, 2012), the qualitative research approach relies on the collection
of non-numerical data, while for Gay et al. (2009 as cited in by Mule, 2012) it is the collection, analysis,
and interpretation of comprehensive narrative and visual data to gain insight into a particular
phenomenon of interest. Best and Khan (2006 as cited in by Mule, 2012) describe the quantitative
approach as the collection and analysis of numerical data to describe, explain, predict, or control
phenomena of interest
The qualitative method of observation was used to gain insight into the culture and
general environment of the adult higaonon women from higaonon community of Cagayan de Oro City
, while a positivist quantitative approach (Christenson& Johnson, 2008 as cited in by Mule, 2012) was
used for gathering quantitative data through diagnostic test on reading assessment for adult higaonon
women of Cagayan de Oro City, Misamis Oriental.
Purposive sampling is the process of selecting units from a population of interest so that by
studying them one may fairly generalize the results back to the population from which
they were chosen (Williams, 2006, p.11 as cited in by Mule, 2012 ). The purposeful sampling
technique was employed to select the fifty(50) adult higaonon women from the higaonon
community, Cagayan de Oro City, Misamis Oriental, Northern Mindanao.
For the purpose of finding out the results of the reading literacy assessment among
adult higaonon women of Cagayan de Oro City, observation and reading tests as data
collection instruments was used. According to Williams (2004, p.270 as cited in by Mule,
2012) data collection is a “process of capturing facts, information and figures based on the
characteristic and the nature of the research problem.” In this study, data were collected using
the letter of the higaonon women, and diagnostic test in reading using San Diego Quick
Assessment of Reading Ability(13121092-325070278750781422.
preview.editmysite.com/uploads/1/• PDF file). Educational researchers respect the right,
privacy, dignity and sensitivity of their populations, and also the integrity of the
institutions within which the research occurs. Gay et al. (2009, p.23 as cited in by Muke,
2012) point out that researchers require the necessary permission from relevant authorities
before a study begins. Consent form was given to the research participants who are the adult
higaonon women before the proper conduct of the observation, interview and diagnostic test in
3.3 Data Gathering Procedure
Permit was secured from the Mayor’s Office of Cagayan de Oro City through the head
of IP’s in CSWD in the person of Nena Lumandong. Prior Inform Consent was asked from the
participant before the conduct of the study. After the permission has been granted, gathering of
data started from the profiling through then to the reading assessment of the higaonon women
participants. Since, it is pandemic time, there was enumerator who conducted the gathering of
data. Nena Lumandong, the higaonon and the head of IPs in CSWD of Cagayan de Oro City,
was the hired as the enumerator.
4. Results and Discussion
Letter Identification Assessment
The table above presents the letter identification assessment in upper case and lower case letters. As
shown from the table, the mistakes of the higaonon women in reading the letters are presented. The
results show that in the upper case of capital letters, there are 3 or 6.52 percent of the women higaonon
participants have not able to read and identify the letter “Z”, 2 or 4.35 percent have mistakes on the
upper case letter “Z”, 2 or 4.35 percent on the upper case letter “H”, 2 or 4.35 percent on upper case
letter “X”, 2 or 4.35 percent on the upper case letter “J”, and 2 or 4.35 percent on the upper case letter
“U”. Further, the results also show that there are 17 upper case letters are read and identified by the
higaonon women and only 9 upper case letters are not identified or read properly by the higaonon
women participants. This means that few of the women have reading difficulty in reading and
identifying the upper case letters.
Moreover, as presented from the table, there are 9 lower case letters which are not identified and
read by the higaonon women participants. These lowers case letters are “x” with 3 or 6.52 percent, “h”
with 3 or 6.52 percent, “q” and “z” with 2 or 4.35 percent, “f”, “u”, “j”, “c”, “I”, “g” and “e” with 1 or
2.17 percent. As reflected from the table, there are 15 lower case letters which are identified and read by
the higaonon women participants. The findings reveal that the higaonon women participants have still
difficulty in identifying the upper case and lower case letters of the alphabet. The results suggest that
higaonon women need literacy enhancement program particularly in identifying the sounds of letters.
Since majority of the higaonon women participants are married and with more children, they need to
learn the literacy constructs so that they can teach their children on phonological awareness, alphabet
knowledge, concept of word and grapheme-phoneme. Indeed, early success in reading is predicated on a
child’s ability to accurately and effectively master core literacy constructs (e.g., phonological
awareness, alphabet knowledge, concept of word, and grapheme-phoneme correspondence) and to
exercise these understandings in a comfortable sociocultural context(Invernizzi, Justice, Landrum &
WORD ASSESSMENT TEST
Table above shows the word assessment test in pre-primer/nursery. As reflected from the table, there 6
or 13.04 percent of the higaonon women participants got mistakes on reading the word “play” and
“here”, 4 or 13.04 percent on the word “can”, 3 or 6.52 percent on the words “look”, “and”, “run”, and
“see”, 1 or 2.17 percent on the words “at”,”me”, and “go” The findings reveal that almost all of the
higaunon women participants got mistakes on reading The pre-primer/nursery words. The results
suggest that the higaonon women participants have difficulty in word recognition in the nursery level.
This is the most important process in beginning reading which lead to comprehension. According to the
‘simple view of reading’, reading comprehension is the product of word recognition (decoding) and oral
language comprehension (Gough & Tunmer, 1986 as cited in by Paynter, Westerveld, & Trembath,
2016 p. 206). Thus, they need basic reading literacy enhancement program.
Table above presents performance of the higaonon women participants in reading using the
Primer/Kinder word assessment test. As shown from the table all of the participants have mistakes in
reading the 10 words. The most difficult word for them is “jump” with the frequency of 8 or 17.40
percent, followed by “with” with the frequency of 7 or 15.22 percent, “work” with 6 or 13.04 percent,
“come” and “this” with 5 or 10.87 percent, “are” and “not” with the frequency of 4 or 8.70 percent, “is”
and “you” with frequency of 2 or 4.35 percent. The results show that women participants have difficulty
in reading the words with double consonants at the end of the word like “jump”, “with” and “work”.
They have also difficulty in reading the word beginning with “th” like “this” and word with ending
“vowel” like “come” and “are”. Findings suggest that higaonon women need basic emergent literacy
skills. If possible to the children of the higaonon women should be enrolled in the preschool because the
basic emergent literacy starts in the preschool. Learning to read begins in the preschool years, through
the development of so called emergent literacy skills that form the foundation for accurate and fluent
reading with comprehension (Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998 as cited in by Paynter, Westerveld, &
Trembath, 2016 p. 206). For the higaonon women and girls, who have not able to learn emergent literacy
during the preschool years, they will be given a chance to attend to the reading enhancement program as
the output of this research study. This an important action to the leaders of the higaonon community to
establish basic reading literacy program. This result is in connection to the request letter of one of the
higaonon women participants to “have hall center or reading literacy center for the venue of the literacy
Table above shows the reading performance of the higaonon women participants using the grade 1, 10
words. As reflected from the table, all of the participants have mistakes in reading the 10 words. The
most difficult word is “always” with the frequency of 10 or 21.74 percent, followed by “bigger” with the
frequency of 9 or 19.57 percent, “night” and “spring” with the frequency of 8 or 17.40 percent, “road”,
“live”, “thank”, and “when” with the frequency of 6 or 13.04 percent, “how” with the frequency of 4 or
8.70 percent and the last word is “today” with frequency of 3 or 6.52 percent. The findings reveal that
the higaonon women participants have difficulty in reading the word beginning with vowel followed by
consonant, then ending with vowel consonant and consonant like the word “always”. They also have
difficulty in reading the word with double letter consonants like “bigger”, and have difficulty in reading
the word 5 consonants in between with vowel like the word “spring”, and have difficulty in reading
diphthong word like “night”. The results suggest that women and girls in higaonon tribe need to undergo
basic reading literacy enhancement program. This reading enhancement program includes the concept
and activities on emergent literacy. This result is supported with the study of Paynter, Westerveld, &
Trembath (2016 p. 209) stating that children who are not yet able to read novel words or sentences (i.e.,
preliterate) may be considered to be in the emergent literacy stage, and their emergent literacy skills
should be assessed across code-related (e.g., letter knowledge, print concepts, and early writing) and
meaning-related (e.g., vocabulary, story retell, and comprehension) skills(Paynter, Westerveld, &
Trembath, 2016 p. 209).
The results of conducting the reading literacy assessment to the higaonon women have great
contributions to the implementation of education literacy to the indigenous tribe like higaonon. It has
also an impact to the role of mothers in rearing their children. Since 3mothers are the first teachers of
their children, they need to learn on the early literacy and emergent literacy skills like the sounds of the
alphabets, phonetics, phonemics, phonology, morphology as well as the theories of child and adolescent
development. The results of the study suggest on helping the higaonon women to learn on the basic
concepts of teaching reading to the children. Thus, reading enhancement program is being proposed and
designed based from the needs of the higaonon women in Cagayan de Oro higaonon community. Hence,
if the higaonon women can learn on the basic early literacy and emergent literacy skills through reading
enhancement program, then they can also start teaching their children at the very early stage.
We would like to express our special thanks of gratitude to Dr. Sukarno D. Tanggol, the Chancellor of
MSU-IIT as well as Dr. Jinky B. Bornales, the Vice Chancellor for Research and Extension, the focal
person of Gender and Development(GAD) , who gave us the golden opportunity for funding this
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