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Juan F. Acevedo
Dr. Tariq Iqbal
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science
Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada
Located six (6) kilometres South-West of Newfoundland.
600 residents.
Hybrid Power System (Wind-Hydrogen Diesel project):
2.775MW diesel plant (three 925kW diesel generators)
Six 65kW wind turbines (North-West coast of the island ).
Three 100kW wind turbines added in 2009 (North of the island).
New power infrastructure (currently under development)
combines wind, hydrogen, and diesel generators in order to
provide cleaner energy to the community.
First six 65kW wind turbines.
Data Acquisition System (DAS) located 1.6km from the Main Power Control System
Only remote connection currently installed is a wireless link between two Cirronet
HN-210D transceivers.
Three 100kW wind turbines installed in 2009.
Located 130m, 200m, and 270m from the Main Power Control System (MPCS).
Data transmission through underground Fiber Optic cable.
Wireless link (Cirronet HN-210D transceivers):
Main Advantage:
Remote supervision and control (enabling/disabling all wind turbines)
Functional frequency is 2.4GHz which allows them to operate in the free-license
electromagnetic spectrum
Main Disadvantage:
A 2.4GHz transmission is very vulnerable to atmospheric attenuation (snow storms,
rain, hail, or a combination of all three).
Fiber Optic communication:
Main Advantage:
High speed data transmission (up to several gigabytes)
Free electromagnetic interference
Main Disadvantage:
Elevated costs for modems, couplers, cable, installation, and maintenance
(CAN$19,380.00 for cabling only)
Wireless link (LaridTech AC4790 transceivers):
Remote supervision and control (enabling/disabling all wind turbines)
Functional frequency between 902-928MHz which allows them to operate in
the free-license electromagnetic spectrum.
Transmissions below 1GHz minimize considerably the attenuation effect
during extremely hazardous weather conditions.
Power Line Carrier (PLC):
Use electric power line cables for data transmission.
Bilateral communication between the DAS and the MPCS without modifying
the power system infrastructure currently in place at Ramea.
Netgear XE102 with a modified coupling stage between the modems and high
voltage carriers (4.16kV).
Communication System Lab Setup
Transmission Flow Chart
Communication System Diagram
High Voltage Coupling Stage
“fc2 > fc1
Table 1
Load Consumption
Battery Backup System
AC4790 68mA
PIC16F873A 250mA
MAX232 8mA
SN74ABT125 64mA
Total Power Consumption: 2.12W
Table 2
Analog and Digital Point Count
Data Acquisition System
WindMatic WM15S Unit Point
Inverter Power kW Analog 10s
Rotor Speed RPM Analog 10s
Inst. Wind Speed m/s Analog 10s
One Min.Avg Wind
Speed m/s Analog 10s
Ten Min.Avg Wind
Speed m/s Analog 10s
Hours Online Analog 10s
Cumulative Energy
Production kWh Analog 10s
Breaker Status Open/
Closed Digital 10s
Permission to Operate Yes/No Digital 10s
Laboratory tests have shown that the DAS can successfully communicate
with an emulated MPCS in a terminal computer, wireless and PLC
transmissions have no instability and a satisfactory synchronization.
A coupling model for a 480V power line was effectively tested under optimal
conditions and will be used as a template for the final 4.16kV couplers.
HPF+HFA (fc1) HPF+HFA (fc2)
Once the coupling system is complete and final
calibrations are performed to the DAS and MPCS, the
final product will be then sent to Ramea for field testing.
Further analysis and development will be included in this
research as this solution has to be compatible with other
remote power infrastructures.
Measures like weather insulation, overheating protection,
and power overloads must be taken into consideration to
avoid environmental, structural and personal hazards,
otherwise the system can become a mayor safety risk to
the infrastructure.
Constant communication between the DAS and the MPCS will allow
technicians to optimize wind turbine control as well as limiting onsite
traveling to a minimum.
Combining PLC and low RF transceivers is an economically feasible approach
to ensure redundancy.
Battery backup power source will allow the system to take advantage of
semi-independent feature working in conjunction with a renewable energy
We would like to thank National Science and Engineering
Research Council (NSERC) Wind Energy Strategic Network
and Memorial University of Newfoundland for the
financial support for this research. We would also like to
thank Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro for providing us
site access and system data.
[1] Ramea Wind-Hydrogen Diesel Project (2007). [Online]. Available:
[2] Cirronet, Inc. (2005, Aug). “HN-210D User’s Guide” [Online]. Available:
[3] H. Kirkham, A. R. Johnston, G. D. Allen, “Design Considerations For A Fiber Optic
Communications Network For Power Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 9, No. 1,
pp. 510-518, Jan. 1994.
[4] A. Akbulut, H. Gokhan Ilk, F. Ari, “Design, Availability and Reliability Analysis on an
Experimental Outdoor FSO/RF Communication System”, Transparent Optical Networks, 2005,
Proceedings of 2005 7th International Conference, Vol.1, pp. 403- 406, Jul. 2005.
[5] AeroComm, Inc. (2005, Sep). “AC4790 Transceiver datasheet” [Online]. Available:
[6] Lantronix, Inc. (2008, Mar). “XPort Embedded Device Server” [Online]. Available:
[7] V. Krishnan, "Transformer Bypass Circuit", Power Line Communications and Its
Applications, 2005 International Symposium, pp. 275-277, Apr. 2005.
[8] U. Abdulwahid, J.F. Manwell, J.G. Mcgowan, "Development of a dynamic control
communication system for hybrid power systems", Renewable Power Generation, IET, Vol. 1 No. 1,
pp. 70-80, Apr. 2007.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Conference Paper
One of the greatest roadblocks to achieving high-speed communications over electrical power lines is the presence of the transformer. The transformer is an integral component of the electrical transmission lines. But high frequency signals cannot pass through the transformer and hence it is essential for them to traverse an alternate path, effectively bypassing the transformer. This paper describes a transformer bypass circuit. The mechanism described allows signals to be retained in the analog domain while bypassing the transformer.
Hybrid power systems are the most attractive option for the electrification of remote locations. There are problems however that keep them from being widely implemented. These include high cost because of system complexity, site-specific design requirements and the lack of available control system flexibility. The solution to these problems is the creation of an appropriate and adaptable supervisory controller. Such a concept includes open standards, automatic component identification and an adaptable control algorithm. It assumes (1) hybrid power system components with communication ports allowing communication with a supervisory controller, (2) a central supervisory controller and (3) a communication network between each component in the system. A Universal Plug and Play specification is used to carry out the necessary functions of automatic component identification and inter-component communication. An experimental system (hardware and software) was constructed to prove the concept and to prepare a foundation for further development in the intelligent adaptable supervisory controller. The hardware involved two personal computers at its core: one containing the supervisory control and identification software and the other containing models of various system components. Tests were conducted that confirm the capability of this concept to use in hybrid power system
The design of a fiber optic communication network for monitoring and control in power systems is discussed. It is shown that by appropriate choice of protocols, a fault-tolerant system can be built that operates in any arbitrary configuration. Since the network is based on fiber optics, it can be made fast enough for substation monitoring and control. In this application, a relatively small number of cables is required to implement a high reliability system. The network can also be used for distribution automation. In this application the network is required to reach all parts of the power system, and the fiber cable itself becomes a significant fraction of the cost of communications. However, since many applications can be supported at once, the cost per function can be reasonable
Design, Availability and Reliability Analysis on an Experimental Outdoor FSO/RF Communication System
  • A Akbulut
  • H Ilk
  • F Ari
A. Akbulut, H. Gokhan Ilk, F. Ari, "Design, Availability and Reliability Analysis on an Experimental Outdoor FSO/RF Communication System", Transparent Optical Networks, 2005, Proceedings of 2005 7th International Conference, Vol.1, pp. 403-406, Jul. 2005.
AC4790 Transceiver datasheet
  • Inc Aerocomm
AeroComm, Inc. (2005, Sep). "AC4790 Transceiver datasheet" [Online]. Available:
XPort Embedded Device Server
  • Inc Lantronix
Lantronix, Inc. (2008, Mar). "XPort Embedded Device Server" [Online]. Available: • [7]