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Fear of coronavirus and health literacy levels of older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic

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Abstract

This study aimed to examine the fear of coronavirus and the health literacy levels of older adults during the pandemic. The sample consisted of 304 older adults from five family health centers in Turkey between April and May 2021. The data were collected using the Fear of COVID-19 Scale and the Health Literacy Scale. The fear of COVID-19 was found to be higher in women, those with chronic diseases, and those who found the epidemic measures insufficient (p < 0.05). The health literacy level was found to be higher in those with high education level, those in the 65-74 age group, and those with not using regular medicine (p < 0.001). The health literacy of older adults was a slightly above moderate level and the fear of COVID-19 was at a moderate level. Health literacy levels of older adults may be increased with written, visual, and verbal health trainings.

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... The COVID-19 pandemic is very close to life and is a real threat to society. Information about COVID-19 is needed by the community so that they can know the procedures for dealing with it (Ayaz-alkaya & Mscn, 2021;Fauzi et al., 2020). Although the public has the right to receive valid information during the COVID-19 pandemic, there are barriers to accessing it. ...
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, various misinformation circulating among the public has the potential to be a source of misconceptions. This study aimed to validate the online three-tier diagnostic instrument test for Virus and COVID-19 as well as analyze the level of misconceptions experienced by students. The Treagust model is used as a reference for the instrument development process. Three public high schools providing 187 second grade students who had previously studied Virus content were involved as research respondents, The data analysis techniques used were descriptive statistics. Construct and content validity obtained from expert validation reached 89.88% and 97.12%, respectively. The results of data analysis also inform that each item was valid and the instrument was reliable. The average percentage of students who experience misconceptions was 39.96%. The average percentage of students who understand the topic correctly was 32.10%. The percentage of lucky guess reached 14.83% and students with low level of knowledge reached 13.10%. The diagnostic test as overall, was successful in detecting students’ misconceptions. To overcome misconceptions and improve the quality of learning during a pandemic, biology learning must apply creative learning models, methodologies, and teaching materials.
... The COVID-19 pandemic is very close to life and is a real threat to society. Information about COVID-19 is needed by the community so that they can know the procedures for dealing with it (Ayaz-alkaya & Mscn, 2021;Fauzi et al., 2020). Although the public has the right to receive valid information during the COVID-19 pandemic, there are barriers to accessing it. ...
Article
Full-text available
During the COVID-19 pandemic, various misinformation circulating among the public has the potential to be a source of misconceptions. This study aimed to validate the online three-tier diagnostic instrument test for Virus and COVID-19 as well as analyze the level of misconceptions experienced by students. The Treagust model is used as a reference for the instrument development process. Three public high schools providing 187 second grade students who had previously studied Virus content were involved as research respondents, The data analysis techniques used were descriptive statistics. Construct and content validity obtained from expert validation reached 89.88% and 97.12%, respectively. The results of data analysis also inform that each item was valid and the instrument was reliable. The average percentage of students who experience misconceptions was 39.96%. The average percentage of students who understand the topic correctly was 32.10%. The percentage of lucky guess reached 14.83% and students with low level of knowledge reached 13.10%. The diagnostic test as overall, was successful in detecting students’ misconceptions. To overcome misconceptions and improve the quality of learning during a pandemic, biology learning must apply creative learning models, methodologies, and teaching materials.
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Health literacy concerns the capacities of people to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. In spite of the growing attention for the concept among European health policymakers, researchers and practitioners, information about the status of health literacy in Europe remains scarce. This article presents selected findings from the first European comparative survey on health literacy in populations. The European health literacy survey (HLS-EU) was conducted in eight countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain (n = 1000 per country, n = 8000 total sample). Data collection was based on Eurobarometer standards and the implementation of the HLS-EU-Q (questionnaire) in computer-assisted or paper-assisted personal interviews. The HLS-EU-Q constructed four levels of health literacy: insufficient, problematic, sufficient and excellent. At least 1 in 10 (12%) respondents showed insufficient health literacy and almost 1 in 2 (47%) had limited (insufficient or problematic) health literacy. However, the distribution of levels differed substantially across countries (29-62%). Subgroups within the population, defined by financial deprivation, low social status, low education or old age, had higher proportions of people with limited health literacy, suggesting the presence of a social gradient which was also confirmed by raw bivariate correlations and a multivariate linear regression model. Limited health literacy represents an important challenge for health policies and practices across Europe, but to a different degree for different countries. The social gradient in health literacy must be taken into account when developing public health strategies to improve health equity in Europe. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.
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Several measurement tools have been developed to measure health literacy. The tools vary in their approach and design, but few have focused on comprehensive health literacy in populations. This paper describes the design and development of the European Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q), an innovative, comprehensive tool to measure health literacy in populations. Based on a conceptual model and definition, the process involved item development, pre-testing, field-testing, external consultation, plain language check, and translation from English to Bulgarian, Dutch, German, Greek, Polish, and Spanish. The development process resulted in the HLS-EU-Q, which entailed two sections, a core health literacy section and a section on determinants and outcomes associated to health literacy. The health literacy section included 47 items addressing self-reported difficulties in accessing, understanding, appraising and applying information in tasks concerning decisions making in healthcare, disease prevention, and health promotion. The second section included items related to, health behaviour, health status, health service use, community participation, socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. By illuminating the detailed steps in the design and development process of the HLS-EU-Q, it is the aim to provide a deeper understanding of its purpose, its capability and its limitations for others using the tool. By stimulating a wide application it is the vision that HLS-EU-Q will be validated in more countries to enhance the understanding of health literacy in different populations.
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Objective To determine the levels of COVID-19-related fear and to investigate fear-associated factors among older people. Methods This study was conducted with patients aged 65 years and older from the Family Medicine Clinic of Health Sciences University Şişli Hamidiye Etfal Hospital over a 1-month period. A telephone survey was administered to evaluate patients’ sociodemographic data and knowledge level on the COVID-19 pandemic and the degree of its impact. The fear levels of participants were determined using the fear of COVID-19 scale (FCV-19 S). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 15.0. A p value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The study included 315 participants: 178 were female and 137 were male. The mean age was 71.5 ± 5.6 (min: 65, max: 94) years, and 26 participants were living alone. Moreover, 47.6% participants considered they had sufficient information about the COVID-19 outbreak, and 61.6% received information about the pandemic from television and 22.2% from their inner circle. While 11.7% participants considered they would require psychological support after the COVID-19 pandemic, 30.8% had sleep disorders for the last month. The mean FCV-19 S score was 16.0 ± 6.4; the FCV-19 S scores were statistically higher in participants who were women, living alone, had partial information about the COVID-19 pandemic, had sleep disorders for the last month, and were in requirement of psychological support after the pandemic. Conclusion It is necessary to screen the older people for the COVID-19-related fear and accompanying psychological disorders and to develop appropriate intervention programs for individuals at risk.
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Background: Due to the general susceptibility of new coronaviruses, the clinical characteristics and outcomes of elderly and young patients may be different. Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of elderly patients with new-type coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) who were hospitalized in Hainan Provincial People's Hospital from January 15, 2020 to February 18, 2020. Compare the clinical characteristics of elderly with Young and Middle-aged patients. Results: A total of 56 patients were evaluated, 18 elderly patients (32.14%), and 38 young and middle-aged patients (67.86%). The most common symptoms in both groups were fever, followed by cough and sputum. Four patients in the elderly group received negative pressure ICU for mechanical ventilation, and five patients in the young and middle-aged group. One patient died in the elderly group (5.56%), and two patients died in the young and middle-aged group (5.26%). The PSI score of the elderly group was higher than that of the young and middle-aged group (P<0.001). The proportion of patients with PSI grades IV and V was significantly higher in the elderly group than in the young and middle-aged group (P<0.05). The proportion of multiple lobe involvement in the elderly group was higher than that in the young and middle-aged group (P<0.001), and there was no difference in single lobe lesions between the two groups. The proportion of lymphocytes in the elderly group was significantly lower than that in the young and middle-aged group (P<0.001), and the C-reactive protein was significantly higher in the young group (P<0.001). The Lopinavir and Ritonavir Tablets, Chinese medicine, oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation were statistically different in the elderly group and the young and middle-aged group, and the P values were all <0.05.
Article
Objectives: This study aimed to assess functional health literacy levels among older adults living in subsidized housing in Hamilton, Ontario, and to assess the relationships between health literacy and other important health indicators, such as education level, age, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and self-reported health status. Methods: Older adults (n = 237) living in subsidized housing buildings in Hamilton, ON, were assessed using the NVS-UK as a measure of functional health literacy in addition to a health indicator questionnaire through structured interview. Health literacy levels were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression to determine relationships between health literacy levels and other health indicators. Results: Participants' mean age was 73 years, 67% were female, 70% were not educated beyond high school, and 91% were white. Over 82% of participants had below adequate health literacy levels using the NVS-UK. Multivariable logistic regression revealed significant relationships between functional health literacy and BMI, education level, and pain and discomfort levels. No significant relationships were found between health literacy level and age group, anxiety and depression levels, CANRISK (Diabetes risk) score, gender, marital status, mobility issues, self-care issues, self-reported health status, or performance of usual activities. Conclusions: As the population of older adults continues to grow, the appropriate resources must be available to both improve and support the health literacy level of the population. Future health research should gather information on the health literacy levels of target populations to ensure more equitable health service. This research provides a significant opportunity to better understand populations with health literacy barriers.
Older adults in COVID-19 outbreak
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The reliability and validity of Turkish version of fear of COVID-19 scale
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