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第 48 卷 第 7 期
2021 年 7 月
湖 南 大 学 学 报（ 自 然 科学版 ）
Journal of Hunan University（Natural Sciences）
Vol. 48. No. 7.
Received: April 25, 2021 / Revised: May 23, 2021 / Accepted: June 24, 2021 / Published: July 31, 2021
About the authors: Muhammad Arif Darmawan, Catia Angli Curie, Muhammad Yusuf Arya Ramadhan, Andre Fahriz Perdana Harahap, Misri
Gozan, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
Corresponding author Misri Gozan, mgоzаn@ui.аc.id
Open Access Article
Preparation and Characterisation of Indigenous Tengkawang (Shorea Stenoptera)
Butter for Food and Cosmetics Material
Muhammad Arif Darmawan, Catia Angli Curie, Muhammad Yusuf Arya Ramadhan, Andre Fahriz
Perdana Harahap, Misri Gozan*
Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, 16424, Indonesia
Abstract: Tengkawang is an indigenous plant that has potential as a source of vegetable fat. The quality of
tengkawang fat is traditionally low. This study aims to reduce free fatty acid (FFA) and physicochemical analysis of
tengkawang fat and compare it with shea butter. The purification process of tengkawang includes degumming,
neutralization, and bleaching. The FFA levels (%) before and after purification in tengkawang and shea butter were
7.75 and 2.28 for tengkawang butter and 0.47 and 0.18 for shea butter. Peroxide numbers (meq O2 / kg sample)
before and after refining in tengkawang butter and shea butter were 9.54 to 3.61 for tengkawang and 10.31 to 4.84
for shea butter. The saponification number of tengkawang butter was higher than shea butter, while the iodine
number of tengkawang butter was lower than shea butter. The fatty acids in tengkawang butter are dominated by
oleic acid, stearic acid, and palmitic acid, while the fatty acids in shea butter are dominated by oleic acid, stearic
acid, and a little linoleic acid. After the refining process, tengkawang fat's quality complies with the Indonesian Raw
Material Trade Standard (SNI 2903: 2016). This study indicates that tengkawang butter can be used as a raw
material for the food and cosmetic industry.
Keywords: tengkawang butter, free fatty acid, shea butter.
Despite being an agricultural country, Indonesia still
imports vegetable fats as raw materials for its
cosmetics and food industry. Based on the Central
Statistics Agency (BPS) data in 2018, Indonesia
imported 20,880,060 kg of solid vegetable fat to meet
domestic needs . One vegetable fat source from
African countries such as Ghana, Nigeria, and Kenya is
Shea butter for cosmetics raw material . Shea butter
is widely used as a raw material for cosmetics because
of its high fatty acid content . To reduce the
dependency on overseas sourcing, local vegetable fats
that can replace part or all of the imported raw
materials are needed. One of the candidates is
tengkawang fat (Shorea stenoptera), an endemic plant
for Kalimantan. Tengkawang fruit is produced from
several types of plants belonging to the
Dipterocarpaceae family .
In the world of trade, tengkawang fruit is known as
the illipe nut or Borneo tallow nut. During the harvest
season, productive tengkawang trees with an age range
of 30 to 100 years can produce fruit as much as 250-
400 kg per tengkawang tree . The fat content of
tengkawang seeds varies depending on the type and
quality of the seeds. Generally ranging from 43 to 61%,
while according to Ketaren, the fat content of
tengkawang reaches 50 to 70 % . The properties of
tengkawang fat are similar to cocoa butter, classified as
cocoa butter substitutes, and can be used in the
cosmetic industry . Another advantage is that the
price of tengkawang fat is lower than cocoa butter .
The community widely uses Tengkawang oil as a raw
material for cooking oil, margarine, or further
processed into a chocolate processing mixture . In
2008, the people of Embaloh Hilir Subdistrict, Kapuas
Hulu District, received a profit of IDR
1,405,685,000/harvest or an average value of IDR
In 2015, local communities in the Bengkayang area,
West Kalimantan, produced 700 kg of processed dried
tengkawang seeds . The processing of tengkawang
fat is traditionally carried out using a device known as
an "apit" with a production capacity of 4 - 5 kg of fat in
one operation. Research conducted by Hidayat et al.
purified tengkawang fat using activated carbon .
Muhammad et al. performed the purification of
tengkawang fat with thermally activated bentonite and
succeeded in reducing beta carotene levels, acid
numbers, and peroxide numbers . The purification
process with thermal and acid bentonite can improve
the quality of tengkawang fat . Ramadhani et al.
used lignin to reduce free fatty acids and beta carotene
content in tengkawang butter . However, there is a
need to characterize the physical properties of
tengkawang butter further to comply with Indonesian
standards (SNI) 2903: 2016.
This research aims to identify and improved the
physicochemical content (FFA, Peroxide,
saponification, and iodine numbers) of the indigenous
tengkawang butter and compare it with shea butter as a
raw material for the cosmetic and food industry.
Therefore, it is essential to characterize and improve
the quality of tengkawang butter to achieve Indonesian
standards (SNI) as industrial material standards. The
traditional practice has a unique way of processing
tengkawang butter. The quality of tengkawang butter is
improved by reducing FFA and peroxide numbers to
follow the Indonesian standard (SNI) 2903: 2016. This
research will increase the potential of tengkawang fat
as a raw material for the Cosmetic and food industry.
2. Materials and Methods
Tengkawang fat was obtained from Nanga Yen
Village, Kapuas Hulu Regency, West Kalimantan,
Indonesia. The shea butter was imported from Ghana.
Chemicals such as NaOH, H3PO4, KI, Na2S2O3, KIO3,
HCl starch were obtained from Merck Millipore
(Germany). Bentonite was obtained from Lampung
Regency, Lampung Province. The tengkawang and
shea butter were purified by degumming,
neutralization, and bleaching.
2.2. Purification of Tengkawang and Shea Butter
The purification process of tengkawang and shea
butter was done by degumming with H3PO4,
neutralizing NaOH, and bleaching with bentonite. The
refining process was carried out based on the method
performed by Hidayat et al.  and Darmawan et al.
The degumming process used 20% H3PO4 as much
as 1% (w/w). The mixture was then stirred using a
magnetic stirrer for 30 minutes in a beaker glass. The
fat is then separated from the impurities using warm
water at 60-70°C.
The neutralization process was carried out using
10% (w/w) 1 M NaOH and added to the degummed
butter. The mixture of fat and base was then stirred
with a magnetic stirrer for 30 minutes at a temperature
of 60-70°C. The soap layer formed was separated by
centrifugation. Warm water was used to remove any
soap residue from the mixture.
The bleaching process was performed with 5%
bentonite (w/w) into degummed and neutralized butter.
The mixture of bentonite and fat is then stirred for 30
minutes at a temperature of 60-70oC. After the stirring
process, the bentonite was separated from the fat using
the vacuum filtration method.
2.3. Chemical Analysis of Tengkawang and Shea
Thermal properties of the fat samples were
determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry
(DSC) instrument. A total of 1 gram of sample is put
into the DSC container. The sample was heated to 70oC
with a heating rate of 1oC/min and allowed to stand for
30 minutes. Afterward, the sample is cooled to a
temperature of 10oC. The data generated from the
thermogram will be compared to determine changes in
the thermal properties.
Fatty acid content was determined using a gas
chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS)
instrument. As much as 1 gram of each fat sample, i.e.,
tengkawang fat and shea butter, was prepared and
dissolved in 100 mL heptane solvent. 1μL of each fat
solution was injected into the GC column. Before the
fat sample was injected, the mobile phase must be
ensured to run well. The mobile phase used in this
study was helium gas. After heating to a temperature of
300oC, the MS detector will detect the vaporized
component to produce a chromatogram of separation,
and the mass ratio of the sample components could be
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)
instrument was used to assess the functional groups in
the fat. The test was carried out following the SOP of
the Perkin Elmer 100 Perkin Elmer Spectrophotometer
tool Model: Frontier S/N: 96772 in the wavenumber
range 4000 cm-1 to 600 cm-1, with ten readings and a
resolution of 8 cm-1. The resulting spectrum was
analyzed using Perkin Elmer's Spectrum Software FT-
2.4. Quality Analysis of Tengkawang and Shea
The quality of tengkawang and shea butter was
analyzed based on their free fatty acids, peroxide
number, iodine number, and melting point.
Determination of FFA, peroxide, saponification, and
iodine numbers were based on Indonesian standards
Analysis of free fatty acids was carried out by
alkaline titration using 0.1 M NaOH as the titrant. The
calculation of the FFA was based on the following
V - volume of NaOH (mL);
N - normality of NaOH (N);
m - mass of butter (g);
M - relative mass of fatty acid as oleic acid (g/mol).
Peroxide number was analyzed by iodometry using
Na2S2O3 as the titrant and starch as the indicator. The
peroxide number was calculated based on equation 2.
Vb - Titrationvolume of Na2S2O3 0.l N for blank
Vs - Titrationvolume of Na2S2O3 0.l N for sample (mL);
N - Normality of Na2S2O3 solution (0.1 N);
m - the mass of the sample (gram).
Iodine number was assessed using the iodometric
titration method to determine the double bond in the
sample. The reagents used were Wijs solution as the
reagent, sodium thiosulfate solution as the titrant, and
starch as an indicator. The equation for the iodine
N - Normality of Na2S2O3 0.1 N;
V0 - Titrationvolume of Na2S2O3 solution 0.l N for
V1 - Titrationvolume ofNa2S2O3 0.l N for sample (mL);
m - mass of butter (g).
Saponification numbers were analyzed using acid-
base titration to determine which fat components can
undergo saponification reactions. The equation for
saponification number is:
N - normality of HCl 0.5 N;
Vo - titration volume of HCl 0.5 N for blank (mL);
V1 - titration volume of HCl 0.5 N for sample (mL);
m - mass of butter (g);
56.1 - the molecular weight of KOH, in g·mol−1.
Lastly, the slip melting point (SMP) test was
performed to determine the sample's melting point. The
sample was inserted into a capillary tube where one end
was closed with a flame. The capillary tube containing
the sample was immersed into the paraffin liquid in the
melting point apparatus equipped with a magnetic
stirrer. The temperature recorded is the temperature at
which the sample begins to melt.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Fatty Acids Analysis of Tengkawang and Shea
The fatty acid analysis was performed to get the
fatty acid composition of tengkawang and shea butter.
Fig. 1 is a GC chromatogram of tengkawang butter.
Fig. 1 GC chromatogram of tengkawang butter
Based on the GC chromatogram, the peaks that
appeared on tengkawang butter were palmitic acid
(C16), stearic acid (C18), oleic acid (C18: 1), linoleic
acid (C18: 2), and arachidic acid (C20) with RT values
of 9.861, 11.913, 12.231, 12.797, 14.467 respectively.
The peak is dominated by stearic acid, oleic acid, and
palmitic acid in tengkawang butter. The sample's RT
value can be compared with the standard RT value to
obtain the fatty acid composition .
RT standard of palmitic acid (C16), stearic acid
(C18), oleic acid (C18: 1), linoleic acid (C18: 2), and
arachidic acid (C20) 9.821, 11.803, 12.139, 12.775, and
A fatty acid analysis was carried out to determine
fatty acid composition between tengkawang and shea
butter. Fig. 2 is a GC chromatogram of shea butter.
Fig. 2 GC chromatogram of shea butter
Based on the GC chromatogram, the peaks that
appear in the shea butter are palmitic acid (C16),
stearic acid (C18), oleic acid (C18: 1), linoleic acid
(C18: 2), and arachidic acid (C20) with RT values of –
10.981, 13.208, 13.605, 14.307 and 16.024,
respectively. The dominant peaks that appear are the
peaks of stearic acid and oleic acid. There is a
significant difference between the peaks on
tengkawang butter and shea butter, namely the absence
of high peaks in shea butter. Also, there are differences
in the RT value of the samples in tengkawang butter
and shea butter. This phenomenon is probably due to
differences in the composition of tengkawang butter
and shea butter.
For determining the fatty acids composition, a
comparison between the RT sample and the standard
RT was carried out to obtain the respective composition
of the fatty acids in tengkawang butter and shea butter.
The fatty acid composition obtained was then
compared with various fat sources to determine the
potential of tengkawang butter and shea butter. Table 1
shows the fatty acid data for various sources of fat.
Table 1 Fatty acid composition from various butter sources
Fatty Acid Composition
Based on the data in Table 1, there is a difference in
composition between shea butter and tengkawang
butter. In tengkawang butter, the fatty acid components
are dominated by stearic acid, oleic acid, and palmitic
acid, while in shea butter, it is dominated by oleic and
stearic acids. The compositions of stearic acid, oleic
acid, and palmitic acid were 17.74, 43.67, and 32.68 for
tengkawang and 3.14, 43.12, and 44.82 shea butter.
This difference is due to the different types of
tengkawang butter and shea butter. In this study, the
tengkawang sample used was Shoreastenoptera, and
the shea butter sample was Vitellaria paradoxa. The
composition's difference can be seen in the differences
in chemotaxonomy between tengkawang butter and
shea butter. Chemotaxonomy or chemical taxonomy is
used to classify plants based on their chemical
components . Plants that have different types of
genera will have different chemical compositions.
The tengkawang used in this study came from
Nanga Yen village. Different growth sites can produce
slightly different fatty acid compositions. Also, the
process carried out is different in the regions of origin.
Based on previous research, tengkawang fat processing
in the Nanga Yen area uses a solar heating process
. Apart from S. stenoptera, tengkawang has other
types, namely S. pinanga and S. mecisopteryx. The
fatty acid composition of S. stenoptera, S. pinanga, and
S. mecisopteryx was also different due to different
types of tengkawang. Gusti and Zulnely conducted
research using S. pinanga, and S. mecisopteryx has a
dominant fat composition in oleic acid, linoleic acid,
and palmitic acid .
The fatty acid composition in tengkawang is close
to cocoa butter and cocoa butter equivalent (CBE).
Gunstone stated that tengkawang fat could be used to
make cocoa butter equivalent . Traditional
communities in Kalimantan use fat as a food source to
meet their fat needs, such as making black butter rice
. Because it is high in saturated and unsaturated
fatty acids such as stearic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic
acid, tengkawang is also used to make lipsticks 
and wet noodles .
3.2. FTIR Analysis of Tengkawang and Shea Butter
FTIR analysis was performed to determine the
functional groups contained in tengkawang and shea
butter. Fig. 3 shows the spectra of tengkawang butter
and shea butter.
Fig. 3 FTIR spectra of tengkawang and shea butter
Based on the spectra in Fig. 3, the high peaks at the
wavenumbers around 2900 - 3000 cm-1 and 2852 cm-1
show the stretching of the C-H bond on the methylene
(CH2) group. Then there is a tiny peak at the wave
number 3000 - 3100 cm-1, which shows the C = H
bond's stretching in the fatty acid double bond. The
high and sharp peak at wave number 1744 cm-1 is the
carbonyl bond stretching (C = O). The carbonyl bond is
a characteristic feature of the spectrum of fatty acid
compounds or fatty acid esters. A wavenumber 1159
cm-1 shows the stretching of the C-O bonds in the ester
contained in the triglycerides. It can be seen that there
is a distinctive peak at the wavenumber around 3750 -
3500 cm-1, which is a characteristic of the O-H
functional group in the shea butter spectra group. The
difference between tengkawang fat and shea butter is
the presence of O-H peaks in the shea butter. There
may be compounds containing the (O-H) group in the
shea butter so that there is an O-H peak that is wide
enough at the wavenumber above 3500 cm-1.
The appearance of O-H peaks in shea butter is
probably due to the phenolic compound content.
Maranz et al. (2003) proved that shea butter has
phenolic content such as gallic acid, catechin,
epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, and quercetin .
The absence of O-H peaks in tengkawang butter is
probably due to the loss of phenolic compounds in the
traditional tengkawang fat extraction process.
3.3. Thermal Analysis of Tengkawang and Shea
TGA-DSC characterization was carried out to
determine the thermal profile of tengkawang butter and
shea butter. Fig. 4 is the TGA thermogram of
tengkawang butter and shea butter.
Fig. 4 TGA thermogram of tengkawang butter and shea butter
Based on Fig. 4, there are differences in the
thermogram of tengkawang butter and shea butter. In
tengkawang butter, if the temperature has reached 300
oC, the mass change is close to 90%, while in shea
butter, it is still above 95%. This is because shea butter
has more C18 fatty acids (stearic acid and oleic acid)
than tengkawang butter. So that tremendous heat
energy is needed for the decomposition of these fatty
acids into smaller carbon compounds. The fatty acid
decomposition reaction involves radical reactions such
as peroxide radicals, hydroxide radicals, ozone,
nitrates, and DPPH [26-29]. Radical compounds will
attack the double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids to
form new radical compounds or break the double bonds
if the energy given is large enough to break the double
bond. Fatty acids whose double bonds are broken will
be decomposed into short-chain compounds, which are
more volatile than long-chain fatty acids. As a result,
there will be a large mass change on the thermogram
detector so that the mass change will be smaller.
The DSC thermogram shows the endothermic
melting event of tengkawang and shea butter. Fig. 5 is
a DSC thermogram of tengkawang and shea butter.
Fig. 5 DSC thermogram of tengkawang and shea butter
Based on Fig. 5, the temperature of shea butter is
lower than tengkawang butter. This phenomenon is due
to the composition of shea butter dominated by
unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid. Unsaturated
fatty acids have a lower melting point than saturated
fatty acids on the same carbon chain. Oleic acid (C18:
1) has one double bond, so it has a melting point at a
temperature of 10-16oC [21, 30]. Stearic acid (C18: 0)
is a saturated fatty acid with a melting point of 68-71oC
[21, 30]. Because the composition of shea butter is
mostly oleic acid and stearic acid, shea butter's melting
point is lower than tengkawang. Table 2 is the enthalpy
data from various fat sources.
Table 2 Enthalpy data from various sources
Based on Table 2, the enthalpy value of tengkawang
fat is closer to dark chocolate fat and brown fat. This
phenomenon is probably because the fatty acid
composition is almost the same between tengkawang
fat and brown fat. The enthalpy in shea butter is smaller
than tengkawang because saturated fatty acids
dominate the fatty acid component of shea butter. This
enthalpy data supports the component data of the fatty
acid profile in shea butter.
Table 3 Quality parameter of tengkawang and shea butter
Free fatty acid
189 - 200
g I2/100 g
25 - 38
30 - 75
35 - 39
35 - 40
meq O2/100 g
Note: TBI - tengkawang butter initial, SBI - shea butter initial, TBR - tengkawang butter refined, SBR - shea butter refined
Based on Table 3, there are differences in the values
of free fatty acid, peroxide number, melting point, and
iodine number. This difference may be due to
differences in the processing of tengkawang fat and
shea butter. The tengkawang fat process is still carried
out using a traditional process to make the fat's quality
relatively low. Besides, there are differences in the
composition of the constituent fatty acids, affecting the
value of the quality parameters of tengkawang butter
and shea butter.
The free fatty acid of shea butter is very low
compared to tengkawang fat, namely 0.47 for shea
butter and 7.75 for tengkawang butter. This is due to
the different types of fat, the place of growth, and the
tengkawang and shea butter production process. After
the purification process, tengkawang free fatty acid
decreased significantly to 2.28, while in shea butter, it
decreased to 0.18. This is due to the neutralization
process, which reduces free fatty acids to form soap.
Soap as a by-product can also be used as a cosmetic.
The two fats' peroxide numbers are still high
because it is still around the maximum value of 10.31
and 9.43 for shea butter and tengkawang butter. The
high number of peroxide is due to the many impurities
that are in the fat component. The purification process
reduced the peroxide numbers in tengkawang butter to
3.61 and 4.84 for shea butter. The decrease in peroxide
number occurs after the bleaching process because the
impurities undergo an adsorption process on the
bentonite. Previous studies have shown that the
bleaching process using bentonite can reduce peroxide
numbers  and beta carotene .
The iodine numbers of tengkawang butter differ
significantly when compared to shea butter. The iodine
numbers for shea butter and tengkawang butter are
61.26 and 31.5, respectively. This is because the
unsaturated fatty acid content in shea butter is more
significant than tengkawang fat. This can be seen in the
fatty acid composition of shea butter and tengkawang
butter. In shea butter, oleic acid and linoleate
components are higher than tengkawang butter, so the
iodine of shea butter is higher than tengkawang butter.
High levels of oleic and linoleic acids make fats
susceptible to oxidation degradation due to high light
and temperature . This shows that tengkawang fat
has higher oxidative stability than shea butter.
The saponification numbers show how many mg of
KOH is needed to lather 1 g of fat. The saponification
number calculates the content of the ester bonds in the
fat . The saponification numbers also calculate the
chain length of the fatty acids in the ester bonds. The
longer the fatty acid chain, the smaller the
saponification number. The fatty acid component of
tengkawang butter is dominated by palmitic acid, oleic
acid, and stearic acid, while shea butter is dominated by
oleic acid and stearic acid. This makes the
saponification numbers of tengkawang fat higher than
This study succeeded in reducing free fatty acids
and physicochemical characterization of tengkawang
butter. Free fatty acid (%) in tengkawang butter
decreased from 7.75 to 2.28, while in shea butter, it
decreased from 0.47 to 0.18. The peroxide number
(meq O2/kg sample) in tengkawang butter decreased
from 9.54 to 3.61, while in shea butter, it decreased
from 10.41 to 4.84. Tengkawang butter iodine number
is lower than shea butter. The saponification numbers
of tengkawang butter are higher than shea butter. The
quality of tengkawang butter is complying with the
Indonesian Trade Standard for tengkawang (SNI
2903:2016). The main component of fatty acids in
tengkawang butter are oleic acid, palmitic acid, and
stearic acid, while shea butter is oleic acid, stearic acid,
and minor linoleic acid. This study shows that the
quality of tengkawang after purification can meet the
Indonesian Trade Standard for tengkawang and can be
a raw material for food and cosmetics.
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