Article

Just by design: exploring justice as a multidimensional concept in US circular economy discourse

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Circular economies are often framed as addressing a trio of problems: environmental degradation, economic stagnation, and social ills, broadly defined. Our paper centers on this last claim – that circular economies promise social benefits. There is a dearth of literature focused on the social dimensions of circular economies (Geissdoerfer, Martin, Paulo Savaget, Nancy M. P. Bocken, and Erik Jan Hultink. 2017. “The Circular Economy – A New Sustainability Paradigm?” Journal of Cleaner Production 143 (February): 757–768. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.12.048.), and even less attention to the meaning of social justice in the context of circular economies, let alone how it might be enacted in policy and practice. Drawing on data generated from focus groups with circular economy experts and a content analysis of US-based governmental, NGO, and business literature on circular economies, we explore whether and how justice emerges in circular economy discourse. We explore the narratives that these actors use to describe justice, and the barriers they see in achieving just and inclusive circular economies. We aim to identify the ways in which social justice is defined and discussed – or not – by the actors who seem to be most actively pushing for a circular economy (CE). Our work addresses the critical need to articulate clearly what it is we mean by social justice in relation to the CE. For if the CE is to contribute to sustainable social transformations, justice must be more than a buzzword – the CE must be just by design.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... It is essential to study reusable takeaway containers in terms of consumers' use process and satisfaction. In the context of strategies to promote circular economy and sustainable development in countries and regions such as China, the EU, the US, and Australia [16][17][18][19][20], most consumers are willing to support reusable takeaway containers [3,6]. However, the market coverage and user penetration of reusable takeaway containers are currently low compared to those of disposable takeaway containers, and many reusable container companies such as Bold Reuse, ReCIRCLE, and Returnr serve only a few cities in their countries. ...
... The weight of a factor was selected to be modified by 10%, i.e., the factor was modified by 10%, 20%, ..., and 100%, as shown in Equation (18). The weights of the remaining factors were modified according to the formula, so that the sum of the weights satisfying the condition should be equal to 1, as shown in Equations (19) and (20). Since there were 19 indicators in the judgment matrix, 190 scenarios were formed. ...
Article
Full-text available
As a strong and effective alternative to disposable food boxes that cause serious pollution consequences, reusable takeaway containers are promising in terms of environmental protection. However, at present, in the service process of leasing, using, distribution, and recycling, reusable takeaway containers have many problems, such as incomplete cleaning, resulting in unhygienic conditions, repeated use of materials that are not safe enough, food spillage, leakage or theft of customer phone and address information due to exposed takeaway order labels, and wrong containers taken by customers. In addition, there is a lack of objective and comprehensive evaluation methods and systems to guide their design and improvement. In order to solve the current problems of reusable takeaway containers and explore a quantitative approach for evaluation of design solutions from the perspective of users, this paper analyzed user behaviors and needs through user interviews, questionnaires, user journey maps (UJM), and other methods. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) were used to construct an evaluation model for the design of reusable takeaway containers, and it was calculated as a function of the survey dataset. The comprehensive index weight model was established, and the design indicators were sorted to obtain the priority of design elements. Three design schemes were proposed and calculated by combining questionnaire data and the FCE method to obtain the optimal Scheme B. The results showed that the combination of UJM and AHP–FCE method framework was suitable for scheme evaluation and design development, which could provide effective and detailed user evaluation for designers and guide the direction of product improvement.
... The CE concept largely started as a set of discussions about technology, materials, and products (Macarthur, 2015). However, we cannot ignore the social justice aspects of CE strategies (Berry et al., 2021;Schröder et al., 2019). For example, sometimes environmentally beneficial strategies (e.g., building renovations) can lead to the negative social consequences of gentrification. ...
... Regardless of the terminology used, more holistic applications emphasize technology-based informed decisions, resource allocation, and solutions that enhance the ability of cities to adapt to shocks from natural, social, economic, infrastructural, and technological origins (Sajjad et al., 2021). Smart technologies provide essential tools to local authorities that aim to converge and integrate environmental, social, economic, and digital technologies to these types of shocks (Bellini & Nesi, 2018;Burgos & Ivanov, 2021;Sharifi et al., 2021;Zhang et al., 2021). An orderly application of a holistic system-of-systems approach could yield broader opportunities for resilient urban system design (Losier et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Now is the time to refocus efforts in urban research and design. A changing climate and extreme weather events are presenting unique challenges to urban systems around the world. These challenges illuminate the social barriers that accompany disruptive events such as resource inequities and injustices. In this perspective, we provide three research priorities for just and sustainable urban systems that help to address these matters. The three research priorities are: (1) Social Equity and Justice, (2) Circularity, and (3) Digital Twins. Conceptual context and future research directions are provided for each. For social equity and justice, the future directions are mandatory equity analysis and inclusionary practices, understanding and reconciling historical injustices, and intentional integration with diverse community stakeholders. For circularity applications, they are better metrics for integration, more robust evaluation frameworks, and dynamic modeling at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Future directions for digital twins include developing principles to reduce complexity, integrating model and system components, and reducing barriers to data access. These research priorities are core to meeting several of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (i.e., 1 – No Poverty, 8 ‐ Decent Work and Economic Growth, 10 – Reduced Inequalities, and 11 – Sustainable Cities and Communities). Useful social and technical matters are discussed throughout, where we highlight the importance of prioritizing localized research efforts, provide guidance for community‐engaged research and co‐development practices, and explain how these priorities interact to align with the evolving field of industrial ecology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... But issues of equity and justice have "weak links" to dominant conceptualizations of the CE (Schröeder et al., 2019, p. 81) and there are several blind spots in the existing literature, including a focus on human development and worker rights (Padilla-Rivera et al., 2020;Carenzo et al., 2022). These gaps suggest the need for a reorientation of the CE concept to focus not just on resource efficiency and the revalorization of waste, but also on economic forms that ensure justice and improve social wellbeing and human development (Geissdoerfer et al., 2017;Schröeder et al., 2018;Berry et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Converging environmental crises have inspired a movement to shift dominant economic forms away from linear “take-make-waste” models and toward more circular forms that reimagine discarded materials as valuable resources. With the coming “end of cheap nature”, this invitation to reimagine waste as something more than “the political other of capitalist value” is seen as both an environmental necessity and an opportunity for green growth. Less often discussed is that the circular economy, in its reconfiguration of value, also has the potential to reshape contemporary property relations and dismantle existing forms of circularity. In this paper, we explore potential shifts in property relations through an analysis of three strategies often imagined as key to facilitating the transition to circularity—extended producer responsibility, repair, and online resale. Each case synthesizes existing research, public discourse, and findings from a series of focus groups and interviews with circular economy professionals. While this research is preliminary and demands additional research, all three cases suggest caution given the possibility that some circular economy strategies can concentrate value and control of existing materials stocks, dispossess those most vulnerable, and alienate participants in existing reuse, recycling, and repair markets. Drawing on and adapting Luxemburg's concept of primitive accumulation, Tsing's ideas about salvage accumulation, Moore's work on commodity frontiers and recent research which encourages more attention to processes of commoning—we argue that without careful attention to relations of power and justice in conceptualizations of ownership and the collective actions necessary to transform our economic forms in common, transitions toward the circular economy have the potential to enclose the value of discards and exacerbate inequality.
... Research on CE has found that TCE is currently, by far, the most dominant discourse in public and private institutions (Berry et al., 2021;Calisto Friant et al., 2022b, 2022a, 2021Campbell-Johnston et al., 2020;Melles, 2021;Ortega Alvarado et al., 2021;Palm et al., 2021). CE debates and implementation to date have thus not sufficiently addressed the socio-political implications of a circularity transition and the biophysical limits to economic growth. ...
Article
Full-text available
What visions of the future do different circularity discourses have? What kind of society would that create by 2050? How would transport, energy, agriculture and industrial systems function? What would work be like, and what social practices and behaviours would we carry out? What political systems and democratic processes would they establish? And what ways of life would they foster? Our short communication paper seeks to answer those questions by visioning 4 different circular futures by 2050. We worked with artist and illustrator Anke Muijsers, who drew each of these circular economy and society discourses and graphically represented their vision of the future.
... Other research on CE has found that the dominant discourse of CE in public and private institutions is TCE (Berry et al., 2021;Calisto Friant et al., 2022b, 2022a, 2021Campbell-Johnston et al., 2020;Melles, 2021;Ortega Alvarado et al., 2021;Palm et al., 2021). The findings of this survey suggest, that this TCE vision of CE also has some support from respondents, however, participants have a much more diverse outlook on CE. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report presents the results of the first “Global Circular Economy Perception Survey”, which was launched in April 2021. This survey is a joint initiative from different partners, led by “Revolve Circular” and the “Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development”. The survey was closed on June 1st, 2022 and received 1150 answers from people in 77 different countries. The goal of this survey is to discover what are the most dominant CE discourses in society and what are the key differences and commonalities among the wide range of survey participants. The survey thus seeks to answer the following research question: How is circularity perceived by different societal actors throughout the world?
... They find that discourses that do include justice generally lean towards neoliberal forms which emphasize the free pursuit of mutual self-interest, the protection of private property, and freedom of choice rather than concern about distributive, procedural or compensatory justice. They argue that without deep consideration of justice as a multifaceted concept, the movement toward more circular economies is likely to reproduce existing inequalities rather than to solve them (Berry et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decade, the Circular Economy (CE) has emerged as an important framing for business and policy action in support of sustainable development. In that time, there has been an explosion of academic publications, policy developments, and business activities related to the CE. Given that CE has been widely praised and adopted by policy think tanks, policy makers, and business, as a way to frame sustainable development, we think it is about time scholars from a critical sustainability perspective interrogate the CE framework from all three domains of sustainable development: economic prosperity, ecological integrity, and social wellbeing, with a particular focus on who wins and who loses in the CE. This double special issue of Local Environment helps to fill this long-overdue oversight with 14 papers that engage the Circular Economy both conceptually and through case study analyses. The aim of this special issue is two-fold – to expose diverse perspectives on the CE to Local Environment readers and to raise the awareness of justice considerations in CE discourse for a broader audience. It addresses the large knowledge gap in the literature by bringing together the work of scholars in different fields who are examining the role of justice and equity in the circular economy.
... Similarly waste reduction initiatives sold as win-win solutions to urgent problems of pollution and inefficiency have exacerbated racialized societal rifts as communities dependent on discards are excluded from increasingly commodified waste streams [EJ 25]. In the context of circular economies, many scholars have now documented the danger of excluding social considerations in the transition toward more circular economic forms [7,20,43]. Issues associated with inclusion, access, empowerment, and justice in the transition to more circular economic forms must be addressed [32] if we are to ensure just and effective outcomes that do not (re)produce disadvantage for some segments of society. Zapata and Zapata [106], for example, document how the recent transition to circularity has often excluded the waste pickers who have historically played such an important role in resource recovery. ...
Article
Full-text available
Amid the growth of circular economy research, policy, and practice, there are increasingly loud calls for a unified and singular definition of circularity. This unity is needed, proponents argue, to enable swift action in the face of climate and environmental crises. Our work interrogates the ideal of convergence around the circular economy. We ask whether circularity must be singular and uniform in order to be effective. Based on convergence science research and social theory rooted in ideas of divergence, our paper draws on observations of a convergence science workshop, focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires with US-based circular economy professionals to explore shared and divergent understandings and practices of circularity. We find that even among a relatively homogeneous group of research participants (in terms of race, class, and education), there is significant divergence in terms of both practices and perceptions of circular economy principles. We focus in this paper on how research participants understand innovation in the circular economy as just one potential illustration of divergent circularity. Our research contributes to an understanding of circular economy knowledge politics, illuminating how circularity is contested even among those who advocate most strongly for its implementation. We ultimately find opportunity and promise precisely in the spaces of contestation, and see divergence as a way to hold space for multiple ways of being and relating to economies, materials, and beings. These more inclusive pathways, we argue, may be necessary to ensure just and effective transitions to more circular economic forms.
... We envision teacher-driven adaptations in PBL as the means to provide access to understanding that there are multiple dimensions of social justice (e.g., anti-racism, compensation, representation) (Berry et al., 2021;Ender, 2021;Griffin, 2021), and attending to the ways that justice might be enacted at institutional, local community, and relational scales (Gewirtz, 2006). With teachers' knowledge of local community, contexts can be selected for students to make sense of the complexity and messiness of social justice (North, 2008). ...
... This manuscript does not aim to provide solutions or frameworks to address this but rather contributes with a demonstration of an intersectional environmentalist lens solely toward CE research (e.g. Berry et al. 2021) that can inform a more just design of circular cities and regions. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to apply an intersectional environmentalist lens to the circular economy (CE) transition in Flanders. CE discourse often takes a deterritorialised approach, that is, a focus on innovation and growth. This approach tends to neglect local knowledge and background skills that can inhabit and work with landscapes in balanced ways to enable a fully circular society. This knowledge is partly embodied by “nobodied” actors. After introducing relevant terminology, this article draws upon a collaborative autoethnography which integrates autobiographies of authors’ experiences of circularity in projects with “nobodied” CE actors, and ethnographic notes on the Flemish context in which the CE discourse developed. The reflections unearth how a lack of an intersectional environmentalist lens in the CE rhetoric “nobodies” informal CE actors and practices. We show how they do not matter in a circular economy in a deterritorialised approach, but how they matter in a circular landscape view.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Circular economy (CE) is currently a 'hot topic' in design discourse. The focus of these discourses has centered on product design, which is a core aspect of material circularity. However, CE is more than products. This assumption is the base for a re-search question: what should be the intention in designing for a CE? The recogni-tion of CE as a systemic transition opens up opportunities for other forms of design. These forms should contribute to societal goals concerning why and what is pro-duced –more than the profit-making. We contend that a CE should not be ap-proached from the perspective of the usual actors, reduced to business/industry and waste management. We propose instead to take discussions about the govern-ance of production and consumption as the starting point. Finally, we demonstrate the opportunity to open the futuring of CE through participatory and discursive methods based on cycles of speculation and visioning.
Article
Full-text available
Circular economy as a challenging issue in social innovation area, more specifically with a focus on sustainable development, and in response to current global challenges regarding, warming, resource scarcity, attention to the environment as well as the presentation of an economic model aimed at eliminating the direct link between economic development and resource use, has been widely discussed by researchers, experts and policymakers as one of the world's trends. However, the concept of circular economy as a macro concept is still developing. In addition, many experts have considered the explanation of the circular economy concept to be dependent on the context of its emergence, but there is few documented research that has examined this concept in the context of innovation ecosystems.The present study tries to describe the implementation of circular innovation ecosystem with the aim of conceptualizing the circular economy in the innovation ecosystem using previous sources and experts' opinions. Therefore, this study, using a hybrid approach and through methods such as (1) systematic review aiming at extracting previous data, (2) content analysis aiming at examining the opinion of experts, presents the infrastructure, strategies, programs, and requirements for establishing a circular innovation ecosystem. This research stands out for a general question of what is the fundamental strategies of circular economy in implementation of circular innovation ecosystems. The results of this research will bring achievements for a wide range of researchers, policymakers in various fields, economic activists as well as institutions in charge of sustainable development.
Article
Full-text available
Public infrastructure decisions affect many stakeholders with various benefits and costs. For public decisions, it is crucial that decision-making processes and outcomes are fair. Fairness concepts have rarely been explored in public infrastructure planning. We close this gap for a global issue of growing importance: replacing sewer-based, centralized by decentralized wastewater systems. We empirically study fairness principles in this policy-relevant context, and identify possible influencing factors in a representative online survey of 472 Swiss German residents. In a transition phase, innovative, decentralized pilot wastewater systems are installed in households. We designed two vignettes for this context to test the adhesion to principles of distributive justice—equality, equity, and need—at individual and community levels. A third vignette tests procedural justice with increasing fulfilment of fair process criteria. The results confirm our hypotheses: equity is perceived as fairer than equality at individual and collective levels. Contrary to expectations and literature, need is perceived as even fairer than equity. Procedural justice results confirm literature, e.g., the majority (92%) of respondents deems a policy fair that includes them in decision-making. Only few demographic and explanatory factors are significantly correlated with respondents’ fairness perceptions. Although unexpected, this is positive, implying that introducing decentralized wastewater technology can be designed for the entire population independent of characteristics of individuals. Generally, our results confirm literature: fairness perceptions depend on the circumstances. Hence, they should be elicited in the exact application context to be able to enter negotiation processes and provide concrete advice to decision makers.
Article
Full-text available
The circular economy (CE) has recently become a popular discourse especially in government and corporate sectors. Given the socio-ecological challenges of the Anthropocene, the concept of CE could indeed help the transition to a sustainable, just and resilient future. However, the actual definition, objectives and forms of implementation of the CE are still unclear, inconsistent, and contested. Different actors and sectors are thus articulating circular discourses which align with their interests, and which often do not sufficiently examine the ecological, social and political implications of circularity. In this context, this research asks how to better navigate and analyse the history, complexity and plurality of circularity discourses by conceptually differentiating them in a comprehensive discourse typology. To answer this question a critical literature review has been carried out, which first, examines and reflects on the core challenges, gaps and limitations of the CE concept. Second, this research develops a comprehensive timeline of circularity thinking, which identifies and conceptually classifies 72 different CE-related concepts from the Global North and South (such as Gandhian and steady-state economics, buen vivir, doughnut economics and degrowth). This leads to the development of a typology of circularity discourses, which classifies circularity visions according to their position on fundamental social, technological, political and ecological issues. This research thus seeks to provide a basis for a more inclusive and comprehensive discussion on the topic, which opens the imaginary regarding the many circular futures that can exist and allows for a cross-pollination of ideas, policy options, strategies, practices and solutions.
Article
Full-text available
How much finance should be provided to support climate change adaptation and by whom? How should it be allocated, and on what basis? Over the years, various actors have expressed different normative expectations on climate finance. Which of these expectations are being met and which are not; why, and with what consequences? Have new norms and rules emerged, which remain contested? This article takes stock of the first 25+ years of adaptation finance under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and seeks to understand whether adaptation finance has become more justly governed and delivered over the past quarter century. We distinguish among three "eras" of adaptation finance: (1) the early years under the UNFCCC (1992-2008); (2) the Copenhagen shift (2009-2015); and (3) the post-Paris era (2016-2018). For each era, we systematically review the justice issues raised by evolving expectations and rules over the provision, distribution, and governance of adaptation finance. We conclude by outlining future perspectives for adaptation finance and their implications for climate justice.
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on social exchange and positive emotions theories, we examined the differential effects of organizational justice on work engagement and organizational commitment among 347 Ghanaian public-sector workers. We hypothesized that three different components of organizational justice (distributive, procedural and interactional) would have different effects on work engagement and organizational commitment. We used regression test to investigate these effects. Despite subtle differences, the results show that distributive and procedural justice relate positively to vigour, dedication and absorption. However, interactional justice was unrelated to any of the work engagement components. We further observed that while distributive, procedural and interactional justice related positively to affective commitment, no other type of organizational justice related to continuance and normative commitment. Overall, not all justices create the same effect on workplace behaviour. Implications and limitations are discussed. Points for practitioners • Distributive justice and procedural justice (but not interactional justice) stimulate the levels of vigour, dedication and absorption among Ghanaian public-sector workers and produce an engaged workforce. Thus, management should channel investment into the creation and implementation of administrative practices that promote the perception of fairness in the distribution of resources within organizations. • Organizational justice enhances affective commitment – the emotional connection to and identification with their organization – among public-sector workers in Ghana.
Article
Full-text available
The circular economy concept has gained momentum both among scholars and practitioners. However, critics claim that it means many different things to different people. This paper provides further evidence for these critics. The aim of this paper is to create transparency regarding the current understandings of the circular economy concept. For this purpose, we have gathered 114 circular economy definitions which were coded on 17 dimensions. Our findings indicate that the circular economy is most frequently depicted as a combination of reduce, reuse and recycle activities, whereas it is oftentimes not highlighted that CE necessitates a systemic shift. We further find that the definitions show few explicit linkages of the circular economy concept to sustainable development. The main aim of the circular economy is considered to be economic prosperity, followed by environmental quality; its impact on social equity and future generations is barely mentioned. Furthermore, neither business models nor consumers are frequently outlined as enablers of the circular economy. We critically discuss the various circular economy conceptualizations throughout this paper. Overall, we hope to contribute via this study towards the coherence of the circular economy concept; we presume that significantly varying circular economy definitions may eventually result in the collapse of the concept.
Article
Full-text available
Material resources exploitation and the pressure on natural ecosystems have raised concerns over potential future resource risks and supply failures worldwide. Interest in the concept of Circular Economy has surged in recent years among policy makers and business actors. An increasing amount of literature touches upon the conceptualisation of Circular Economy, the development of ‘circular solutions’ and circular business models, and policies for a Circular Economy. However, relevant studies on resource efficiency policies mostly utilise a case-by-case or sector-by-sector approach and do not consider the systemic interdependencies of the underlying operational policy framework. In this contribution, a mapping of the existing resource policy framework in the European Union (EU) is undertaken, and used as a basis for identifying policy areas that have been less prominent in influencing material resource efficiency. Employing a life cycle approach, policies affecting material efficiency in the production and consumption stages of a product have been found to be poorly utilised so far in the EU. Taking this as a point of departure, three policy areas that can contribute to closing material loops and increasing resource efficiency are thoroughly discussed and their application challenges are highlighted. The three policy areas are: (1) policies for reuse, repair and remanufacturing; (2) green public procurement and innovation procurement; and (3) policies for improving secondary materials markets. Finally, a potential policy mix, including policy instruments from the three mentioned policy areas—together with policy mixing principles—is presented to outline a possible pathway for transitioning to Circular Economy policy making.
Article
Full-text available
While the terms Circular Economy and sustainability are increasingly gaining traction with academia, industry, and policymakers, the similarities and differences between both concepts remain ambiguous. The relationship between the concepts is not made explicit in literature, which is blurring their conceptual contours and constrains the efficacy of using the approaches in research and practice. This research addresses this gap and aims to provide conceptual clarity by distinguishing the terms and synthesising the different types of relationships between them. We conducted an extensive literature review, employing bibliometric analysis and snowballing techniques to investigate the state of the art in the field and synthesise the similarities, differences and relationships between both terms. We identified eight different relationship types in the literature and illustrated the most evident similarities and differences between both concepts.
Article
Full-text available
This article begins with a review and synthesis of some of the key theories, scholars, case examples, debates, methods, and (multiple) interpretations of environmental justice (EJ), as well as its expansion and globalization. We then look to some newly emerging themes, actions, and strategies for EJ and just sustainabilities. First, we look at the practices and materials of everyday life, illustrated by food and energy movements; second, the ongoing work on community and the importance of identity and attachment, informed by urban planning, food, and climate concerns; third, the growing interest in the relationship between human practices and communities and nonhuman nature. We also expand on the longstanding interest in just sustainabilities within this movement, illustrated by a wide range of concerns with food, energy, and climate justice. These new areas of work illustrate both recent developments and a set of paths forward for both the theory and practice of EJ. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Environment and Resources Volume 41 is October 17, 2016. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
Article
Full-text available
A new relationship with our goods and materials would save resources and energy and create local jobs, explains Walter R. Stahel.
Article
Full-text available
This article argues that the contradictory character of Ecuador's current development project is made evident through a focus on energy resource management from a feminist ecological perspective. The hydrocarbon exploitation fundamental to these projects transforms women's roles in social reproduction and production, their relationship with nature, and their dependence on state-institutionalized energy regimes. We examine changes in women's territorially based work of care at sites in Ecuador's petroleum circuit. An ethnographic focus on the transformation of women's daily lives at sites of petroleum exploration, exploitation, and processing in Ecuador reveals an often overlooked dimension of the socioenvironmental conflicts produced by the intensification of national economic insertion into the global energy market. This article thus examines the intersection of state development policies and the gendered construction of subjects of development. The exploitation of natural resources transforms the meanings and values of nature and development, of women's work of care, and of the participation of these in different energy regimes.
Article
Full-text available
Those of us living in the global north are increasingly urged to divert cast-off clothing from the local waste stream and donate it for reuse and recycling. It is argued that this is the right thing to do, since it is environmentally responsible behaviour, conserves resources, and supports charities via collection systems. Second-hand clothing is thereby culturally framed as waste, as a surplus, and as a morally-charged product that has a powerful redemptive capacity for donors, multiple recyclers and secondary consumers. Two-thirds of collected used clothing is commercially exported for reuse in developing countries, and it is as a freely-traded commodity that it is claimed to grow markets and support livelihoods in the global south, rather than a fairly-traded product. As policy-makers in Northern Europe seek to improve sustainable systems of textile reuse and recycling, ethical issues associated with distant destination markets in the global South are beginning to garner attention. Imported used clothing is ubiquitous in India despite highly restrictive tariff barriers, and the Indian market provides a thought-provoking example since in this case the trade is neither fair nor free. The paper evidences the complexity of the market as vertical hierarchies of dealers negotiate and expand the multiple spaces between legal and illegal commodity flows, and formal and informal economies, to build successful businesses. It reflects upon debates in India around democracy, development and neoliberal economics, and suggests that efforts to introduce ethical interventions in end markets will have to negotiate the nexus of power, politics and corruption.
Article
Full-text available
There have long been calls from industry for guidance in implementing strategies for sustainable development. The Circular Economy represents the most recent attempt to conceptualize the integration of economic activity and environmental wellbeing in a sustainable way. This set of ideas has been adopted by China as the basis of their economic development (included in both the 11th and the 12th ‘Five Year Plan’), escalating the concept in minds of western policymakers and NGOs. This paper traces the conceptualisations and origins of the Circular Economy, tracing its meanings, and exploring its antecedents in economics and ecology, and discusses how the Circular Economy has been operationalized in business and policy. The paper finds that while the Circular Economy places emphasis on the redesign of processes and cycling of materials, which may contribute to more sustainable business models, it also encapsulates tensions and limitations. These include an absence of the social dimension inherent in sustainable development that limits its ethical dimensions, and some unintended consequences. This leads us to propose a revised definition of the Circular Economy as “an economic model wherein planning, resourcing, procurement, production and reprocessing are designed and managed, as both process and output, to maximize ecosystem functioning and human well-being”.
Article
Full-text available
Heightened concerns about long-term sustainability have of late enlivened debates around the circular economy (CE). Defined as a series of restorative and regenerative industrial systems, parallel socio-cultural transformations have arguably received less consideration to date. In response, this paper examines the contributions human geographical scholarship can make to CE debates, focusing on ‘generative spaces’ of diverse CE practices. Concepts infrequently discussed within human geography such as product service systems and ‘prosumption’ are explored, to argue that productive potential exists in bringing these ideas into conversation with ongoing human geographical research into practices, materialities, emergent political spaces and ‘everyday activism’.
Article
Full-text available
nicky.gregson@durham.ac.uk m.a.crang@durham.ac.u sara.fuller@mq.edu.au h.holmes@sheffield.ac.uk Biographical notes: Nicky Gregson is a Professor of Human Geography at Durham University. She led the ESRC-funded Waste of the World programme and has published extensively on waste and recycling in economies. Mike Crang is a Professor of Geography at Durham University who has worked on waste, cultural values and landscape. He has published several books and is currently finishing 'Unbecoming Things' with Nicky Gregson and a work on Wastescapes in photography. Helen Holmes is a Research Assistant at the University of Sheffield, currently working on the EPSRC-funded interdisciplinary project 'Solar Energy for Future Societies'. As the project's ethnographer, Helen's role builds upon her interest in practice by exploring interdisciplinary practices among the research team. Sara Fuller is a lecturer in the Department of Environment and Geography at Macquarie University, Australia. Her research explores concepts and practices of justice and democracy in the field of environment, with empirical focus on grassroots, community and activist responses to climate change. Prior to joining Macquarie, she worked and conducted research in the UK and Hong Kong. Abstract The concept of the circular economy has gained increasing prominence in academic, practitioner and
Article
Full-text available
With specific focus on two environmental regimes (the Basel Convention on the Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and the Climate Change Convention), this paper seeks to indicate the prospects and limitations of the aspirations for distributive justice by the political South within the context of sustainability in general, and the institutions for global environmental governance in particular. It is argued that while these aspirations have produced important normative shifts in the rule-structure of global environmental management, they have not proved momentous enough to generate policies outside of what the prevailing neoliberal socio-economic regime might permit. Hence, although the texts of global environmental agreements accommodate concepts that express egalitarian notions of justice, core policies remain firmly rooted in market-based neoliberal interpretations of justice, which mainly serve to sustain the status quo.
Article
Full-text available
Ethical consumer discourse is organized around the idea that shopping, and particularly food shopping, is a way to create progressive social change. A key component of this discourse is the “citizen-consumer” hybrid, found in both activist and academic writing on ethical consumption. The hybrid concept implies a social practice – “voting with your dollar” – that can satisfy competing ideologies of consumerism (an idea rooted in individual self-interest) and citizenship (an ideal rooted in collective responsibility to a social and ecological commons). While a hopeful sign, this hybrid concept needs to be theoretically unpacked, and empirically explored. This article has two purposes. First, it is a theory-building project that unpacks the citizen-consumer concept, and investigates underlying ideological tensions and contradictions. The second purpose of the paper is to relate theory to an empirical case-study of the citizen-consumer in practice. Using the case-study of Whole Foods Market (WFM), a corporation frequently touted as an ethical market actor, I ask: (1) how does WFM frame the citizen-consumer hybrid, and (2) what ideological tensions between consumer and citizen ideals are present in the framing? Are both ideals coexisting and balanced in the citizen-consumer hybrid, or is this construct used to disguise underlying ideological inconsistencies? Rather than meeting the requirements of consumerism and citizenship equally, the case of WFM suggests that the citizen-consumer hybrid provides superficial attention to citizenship goals in order to serve three consumerist interests better: consumer choice, status distinction, and ecological cornucopianism. I argue that a true “citizen-consumer” hybrid is not only difficult to achieve, but may be internally inconsistent in a growth-oriented corporate setting.
Article
Full-text available
Content analysis is a widely used qualitative research technique. Rather than being a single method, current applications of content analysis show three distinct approaches: conventional, directed, or summative. All three approaches are used to interpret meaning from the content of text data and, hence, adhere to the naturalistic paradigm. The major differences among the approaches are coding schemes, origins of codes, and threats to trustworthiness. In conventional content analysis, coding categories are derived directly from the text data. With a directed approach, analysis starts with a theory or relevant research findings as guidance for initial codes. A summative content analysis involves counting and comparisons, usually of keywords or content, followed by the interpretation of the underlying context. The authors delineate analytic procedures specific to each approach and techniques addressing trustworthiness with hypothetical examples drawn from the area of end-of-life care.
Article
Despite widespread recognition of the need to transition toward more sustainable production and consumption and numerous initiatives to that end, global resource extraction and corresponding socio-ecological degradation continue to grow. Understanding the causes of this persistent failure is a necessary step towards more effective action. This article contributes to that understanding by synthesizing theory and evidence that links unsustainable production-consumption systems to power and inequality. While sustainable consumption and production research and action mostly focuses on technological or behavioral change, the socioecological inequalities driving production-consumption systems built into the organization of our global political economy, remain largely overlooked. In response, we propose a structural political economy orientation that seeks explicitly to reduce these inequalities and advance environmental justice and, thus, create the conditions for sustainable production-consumption systems. We then propose three important arenas of research and action towards sustainable productionconsumption systems: justice, governance, and co-production of knowledge and action. These arenas, collectively and individually, can serve as entry points to study and act on the dynamics of (un)sustainable production-consumption systems. This can be done at the micro level, with respect to specific commodity chains or systems of provisioning, or at meso and macro levels with respect to national and global production networks. Our proposed orientation helps distinguish research and practice proposals into those emphasizing management and compensation resulting often in persistence of unsustainability, from those proffering structural changes in unsustainable production-consumption systems. We invite critique and collaboration to develop this research and action agenda further.
Article
Crimes against humanity in Guinea have caused many thousands of deaths, the exile of countless individuals, and the rape of hundreds of women. Since its independence in 1958, Guinea has been ruled by various authoritarian regimes and experienced periods of grave violence, most notably from 1958 to 1984, under the rule of Sékou Touré and, more recently, in 2009, under the rule of Moussa Dadis Camara. While some effort has been made to address these crimes, victims continue to demand justice. This raises the question: what does justice mean for victims of crimes against humanity in Guinea? In this paper, we examine the meaning of justice for 31 Guinean victims of crimes against humanity. Using justice theory as a framework, we examine the perceptions and experiences of these victims regarding justice to promote reconciliation and lasting peace.
Article
In this contribution we introduce Part I of the special issue on qualitative content analysis (QCA). We start by describing the rationale on which this special issue is based and our considerations in dividing the topic into two separate parts. We then provide an overview of concerns in the current methodological discussion of QCA, identifying four core areas: 1. the conceptualization of QCA as a hybrid of quantitative and qualitative elements or as a genuinely qualitative method; 2. the relationship between the German and the international discourse on QCA; 3. the question of whether theoretical and / or epistemological foundations of QCA can be identified; and 4. the lack of transparency in documenting the application of QCA. Next, we outline the process of putting together this special issue and provide an overview of the structure and how the contributions relate to each other. In this current Part I, we focus on contributions in which authors deal with questions concerning the conceptualization of QCA, and on discussions of challenges that arise during the application of QCA and how these challenges were met. We conclude that there are multiple conceptualizations of QCA in the literature, and that this multiplicity is reflected in the variety of challenges and creative solutions described by the authors in this first part of the special issue.
Article
The consumption of clothing fashioned from recycled textile fibre waste poses a challenge for buyers not simply due to fears of a loss of quality, but also to fears of ‘dirt’ and contagion. These concerns appear to reside in cast-off clothing’s intimate links with unknown bodies, and cultural perceptions of the recycling system’s ability to properly ‘clean’ these materials and transform them back again into textile fibres that can be worn again on the body. The fashion industry currently recycles less than 1% of its own cast-offs back into clothing, despite mainstream economists’ claims that keeping fibres in circulation for longer is not only environmentally sustainable but also economically advantageous: closed-loop business models secure resources in an increasingly competitive market still focused upon growth. Here it is argued that the drive towards a more circular fashion system in Europe brings competing frameworks of purity into the same field, where cultural values ascribed to clothing hygiene and cleanliness are confronted with the goals of sustainability and resource effectiveness. In their attempts to re-make post-consumer clothing fibres back into desirable fashion, manufacturers and retailers are trying to negotiate these complex value systems, with variable results. This article explores three, very different, contexts where manufacturers and retailers experiment with adding value to fashion made from mechanically-recycled wool: an ethical fashion trade fair in Berlin, textile specialists working with a British high street retailer, and a yarn wholesaler in Prato, Italy. The examples reveal the current precarity of the symbolic re-ordering of recycled textile materials as ‘clean and green’ rather than ‘old and dirty’, and how corporate actors struggle to re-shape their narratives of material sustainability at this increasingly visible frontier.
Article
The grassroots movement that placed environmental justice issues on the national stage around 1980 was soon followed up by research documenting the correlation between pollution and race and poverty. This work has established inequitable exposure to nuisances as a stylized fact of social science. In this paper, we review the environmental justice literature, especially where it intersects with work by economists. First we consider the literature documenting evidence of disproportionate exposure. We particularly consider the implications of modeling choices about spatial relationships between polluters and residents, and about conditioning variables. Next, we evaluate the theory and evidence for four possible mechanisms that may lie behind the patterns seen: disproportionate siting on the firm side, "coming to the nuisance" on the household side, market-like coordination of the two, and discriminatory politics and/or enforcement. We argue that further research is needed to understand how much weight to give each mechanism. Finally, we discuss some policy options.
Book
Oil is a curse, it is often said, that condemns the countries producing it to an existence defined by war, corruption and enormous inequality. Carbon Democracy tells a more complex story, arguing that no nation escapes the political consequences of our collective dependence on oil. It shapes the body politic both in regions such as the Middle East, which rely upon revenues from oil production, and in the places that have the greatest demand for energy. Timothy Mitchell begins with the history of coal power to tell a radical new story about the rise of democracy. Coal was a source of energy so open to disruption that oligarchies in the West became vulnerable for the first time to mass demands for democracy. In the mid-twentieth century, however, the development of cheap and abundant energy from oil, most notably from the Middle East, offered a means to reduce this vulnerability to democratic pressures. The abundance of oil made it possible for the first time in history to reorganize political life around the management of something now called "the economy" and the promise of its infinite growth. The politics of the West became dependent on an undemocratic Middle East. In the twenty-first century, the oil-based forms of modern democratic politics have become unsustainable. Foreign intervention and military rule are faltering in the Middle East, while governments everywhere appear incapable of addressing the crises that threaten to end the age of carbon democracy-- the disappearance of cheap energy and the carbon-fuelled collapse of the ecological order. -- Book jacket.
Article
The transition within business from a linear to a circular economy brings with it a range of practical challenges for companies. The following question is addressed: What are the product design and business model strategies for companies that want to move to a circular economy model? This paper develops a framework of strategies to guide designers and business strategists in the move from a linear to a circular economy. Building on Stahel, the terminology of slowing, closing, and narrowing resource loops is introduced. A list of product design strategies, business model strategies, and examples for key decision-makers in businesses is introduced, to facilitate the move to a circular economy. This framework also opens up a future research agenda for the circular economy.
Article
Farmers markets are much more than places to buy produce. According to advocates for sustainable food systems, they are also places to "vote with your fork" for environmental protection, vibrant communities, and strong local economies. Farmers markets have become essential to the movement for food-system reform and are a shining example of a growing green economy where consumers can shop their way to social change. Black, White, and Green brings new energy to this topic by exploring dimensions of race and class as they relate to farmers markets and the green economy. With a focus on two Bay Area markets-one in the primarily white neighborhood of North Berkeley, and the other in largely black West Oakland-Alison Hope Alkon investigates the possibilities for social and environmental change embodied by farmers markets and the green economy. Drawing on ethnographic and historical sources, Alkon describes the meanings that farmers market managers, vendors, and consumers attribute to the buying and selling of local organic food, and the ways that those meanings are raced and classed. She mobilizes this research to understand how the green economy fosters visions of social change that are compatible with economic growth while marginalizing those that are not. Black, White, and Green is one of the first books to carefully theorize the green economy, to examine the racial dynamics of food politics, and to approach issues of food access from an environmental-justice perspective. In a practical sense, Alkon offers an empathetic critique of a newly popular strategy for social change, highlighting both its strengths and limitations.
Article
An examination of political conflicts over pesticide drift and the differing conceptions of justice held by industry, regulators, and activists. © 2011 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights reserved.
Article
Exchanges have always had more than economic significance: values circulate and encounters become institutionalized. This volume explores the changing meaning of the circulation of second-hand goods from the Renaissance to today, and thereby examines the blurring of boundaries between market, gifts, and charity. It describes the actors of the market - official entities such as corporations, recognized professions, and established markets but also the subterranean circulation that develops around the need for money. The complex layers that not only provide for numerous intermediaries but also include the many men and women who, as sellers or buyers, use these circulations on countless occasions are also examined.
Article
The issue of business model innovation for sustainability is becoming increasingly relevant for fashion companies. This paper investigates how the resell of a fashion brand's own product can facilitate business model adaption towards sustainability. Based on a single revelatory case study the article highlights a premium fashion brand's endeavours in prolonging their products life through resell activities and the main issues, challenges and opportunities the brand can encounter in integrating this strategy into its existing business model.
Article
Professor Been argues that the major studies that purport to show that locally undesirable land uses (LULUs) have been disproportionately sited in poor and minority neighborhoods are methodologically flawed. These studies compare the current socioeconomic characteristics of host communities to those of non-host communities. Been, however, argues that such comparisons do not prove that the original siting decisions were made unfairly. Been explores the role market dynamics may play in the distribution of LULUs. A LULU's presence in a neighborhood often causes property values to fall, and that decline in turn changes the demographics of the neighborhood. Accordingly, the disproportionate burdens LULUs now impose upon poor and minority communities may have been caused by the dynamics of the housing market, rather than by flaws in the original siting process. If so, the proposed remedies for the problem are inadequate. To test the market dynamics theory, Been revises two leading studies of disproportionate siting by examining the characteristics of host neighborhoods at the time that the LULUs were sited and tracing demographic changes in the neighborhoods. One of the revisions shows that market dynamics play a major role in determining the demographics of host neighborhoods and therefore should be taken into account in the structure of any remedy for disproportionate siting.
Article
Numerous scholars have used political philosophy to characterise the US environmental justice (EJ) movement’s conception of justice. I build upon that work by identifying and critically evaluating the ideas of justice that manifest in mainstream (non-EJ) environmental politics. I do so through a comparative analysis of two groups of activists concerned with the threats posed by pesticides to human health in California. Mainstream agri-environmental activists’ narratives and practices evince libertarian and communitarian ideas of justice that support the neoliberalisation of an already compromised regulatory system, as they motivate and legitimise policies, practices, and discourses that undermine the state’s environmental protections and shift environmental responsibility to individuals. In contrast, California’s EJ activists, like the broader EJ movement, marshal a pluralist notion of justice as distribution, recognition, participation, and capabilities, which rejects the neoliberal project and explicitly criticises the social inequalities and relations of oppression that help produce environmental inequalities.
Article
This essay examines the intersection of environmental justice activism and state‐sponsored sustainable urban development—how is environmental justice activism enabled or disabled in the context of rapid urban development, consensual politics and the seemingly a‐political language of sustainability? Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City, I define a process I refer to as “environmental gentrification,” which builds on the material and discursive successes of the environmental justice movement and appropriates them to serve high‐end development. While it appears as politically‐neutral, consensus‐based planning that is both ecologically and socially sensitive, in practice, environmental gentrification subordinates equity to profit‐minded development. I propose that this process offers a new way of exploring the paradoxes and conundrums facing contemporary urban residents as they fight to challenge the vast economic and ecological disparities that increasingly divide today's cities.
Article
The concept of embeddedness has general applicability in the study of economic life and can alter theoretical and empirical approaches to the study of economic behaviors. Argues that in modern industrial societies, most economic action is embedded in structures of social relations. The author challenges the traditional economic theories that have both under- and oversocialized views of the conception of economic action and decisions that merge in their conception of economic actors atomized (separated) from their social context. Social relations are assumed to play on frictional and disruptive, not central, roles in market processes. There is, hence, a place and need for sociology in the study of economic life. Productive analysis of human action requires avoiding the atomization in the extremes of the over- and undersocialized concepts. Economic actors are neither atoms outside a social context nor slavish adherents to social scripts. The markets and hierarchies problem of Oliver Williamson (with a focus on the question of trust and malfeasance) is used to illustrate the use of embeddedness in explicating the proximate causes of patterns of macro-level interest. Answers to the problem of how economic life is not riddled with mistrust and malfeasance are linked to over- and undersocialized conceptions of human nature. The embeddedness argument, on the contrary, stresses the role of concrete personal relations and networks (or structures) in generating trust and discouraging malfeasance in economic life. It finds a middle way between the oversocialized (generalized morality) and undersocialized (impersonal institutional arrangements) approaches. The embeddedness approach opens the way for analysis of the influence of social structures on market behavior, specifically showing how business relations are intertwined with social and personal relations and networks. The approach can easily explain what looks otherwise like irrational behavior. (TNM)
Article
When we donate our unwanted clothes to charity, we rarely think about what will happen to them: who will sort and sell them, and finally, who will revive and wear them. In this fascinating look at the multibillion dollar secondhand clothing business, Karen Tranberg Hansen takes us around the world from the West, where clothing is donated, through the salvage houses in North America and Europe, where it is sorted and compressed, to Africa, in this case, Zambia. There it enters the dynamic world of Salaula, a Bemba term that means "to rummage through a pile." Essential for the African economy, the secondhand clothing business is wildly popular, to the point of threatening the indigenous textile industry. But, Hansen shows, wearing secondhand clothes is about much more than imitating Western styles. It is about taking a garment and altering it to something entirely local, something that adheres to current cultural norms of etiquette. By unraveling how these garments becomes entangled in the economic, political, and cultural processes of contemporary Zambia, Hansen also raises provocative questions about environmentalism, charity, recycling, and thrift.
Article
This paper is a description of inductive and deductive content analysis. Content analysis is a method that may be used with either qualitative or quantitative data and in an inductive or deductive way. Qualitative content analysis is commonly used in nursing studies but little has been published on the analysis process and many research books generally only provide a short description of this method. When using content analysis, the aim was to build a model to describe the phenomenon in a conceptual form. Both inductive and deductive analysis processes are represented as three main phases: preparation, organizing and reporting. The preparation phase is similar in both approaches. The concepts are derived from the data in inductive content analysis. Deductive content analysis is used when the structure of analysis is operationalized on the basis of previous knowledge. Inductive content analysis is used in cases where there are no previous studies dealing with the phenomenon or when it is fragmented. A deductive approach is useful if the general aim was to test a previous theory in a different situation or to compare categories at different time periods.
Trash in America: Moving from Destructive Consumption to a Zero-Waste System
  • Abi Bradford
  • Sylvia Broude
  • Alexander Truelove
Bradford, Abi, Sylvia Broude, and Alexander Truelove. 2018. "Trash in America: Moving from Destructive Consumption to a Zero-Waste System." US PIRG, Frontier Group, Toxics Action Center. https://uspirg.org/sites/pirg/files/reports/US% 20-%20Trash%20in%20America%20-%20Final.pdf.
Circular Charlotte: Towards a Zero Waste and Inclusive City
  • Eva Gladek
  • Erin Kennedy
  • Thomas Thorin
Gladek, Eva, Erin Kennedy, and Thomas Thorin. 2018. "Circular Charlotte: Towards a Zero Waste and Inclusive City." https://charlottenc.gov/SWS/CircularCharlotte/Documents/Circular%20Charlotte_Towards%20a%20zero%20waste %20and%20inclusive%20city%20-%20full%20report.pdf.
A Circular Vision for Sustainable Growth: How Companies Are Building a New 21st Century Economy
  • Jennifer Gerholdt
Gerholdt, Jennifer. 2017. "A Circular Vision for Sustainable Growth: How Companies Are Building a New 21st Century Economy." Text. U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation. June 28. https://www.uschamberfoundation.org/bestpractices/circular-vision-sustainable-growth-how-companies-are-building-new-21st-century.
How the US and Rwanda Have Fallen out over Second-Hand Clothes
  • Tara John
John, Tara. 2018. "How the US and Rwanda Have Fallen out over Second-Hand Clothes." BBC News, May 28, sec. Africa. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-44252655.
The Bridge to Circularity: Putting the New Plastics Economy into Practice in the US
  • Stephanie Kersten-Johnston
  • Dylan De Thomas
  • Sarah Dearman
  • Keefe Harrison
  • Katherine Huded
  • Jeff Meyers
  • Scott Mouw
  • Charlie Schwarze
Kersten-Johnston, Stephanie, Dylan de Thomas, Sarah Dearman, Keefe Harrison, Katherine Huded, Jeff Meyers, Scott Mouw, and Charlie Schwarze. 2019. "The Bridge to Circularity: Putting the New Plastics Economy into Practice in the US." The Recycling Partnership. https://recyclingpartnership.org/circularity/.
Opportunity and Disruption: How Circular Thinking Could Change US Business Models
  • Ing
ING. 2019. "Opportunity and Disruption: How Circular Thinking Could Change US Business Models." ING Group. https:// www.ingwb.com/media/2692501/ing_us-circular-economy-survey-05-02-2019.pdf.
The Circular Economy: Moving From Theory to Practice
  • Nathalie Remy
  • Eveline Speelman
  • Steven Swartz
Remy, Nathalie, Eveline Speelman, and Steven Swartz. 2016. "The Circular Economy: Moving From Theory to Practice." McKinsey Center for Business and the Environment. https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business% 20Functions/Sustainability/Our%20Insights/The%20circular%20economy%20Moving%20from%20theory%20to% 20practice/The%20circular%20economy%20Moving%20from%20theory%20to%20practice.ashx.
Closing the Material Loop: How Innovators from the Public and Private Sector Are Creating Value from Waste
  • Gina Lee
Lee, Gina. 2019. "Closing the Material Loop: How Innovators from the Public and Private Sector Are Creating Value from Waste." Upcyclers Network & Circular CoLab. https://www.upcyclersnetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/ Closing-the-Material-Loop_UPcyclers-Network_June2019a.pdf.
Circular Consumer Electronics: An Initial Exploration.” United States: Ellen MacArthur Foundation
  • Marco Meloni
  • Francois Souchet
  • Darlen Sturges
Meloni, Marco, Francois Souchet, and Darlen Sturges. 2018. "Circular Consumer Electronics: An Initial Exploration." United States: Ellen MacArthur Foundation. https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/publications/cities-in-thecircular-economy-an-initial-exploration.
The State of the Circular Economy in America: Trends, Opportunities, and Challenges
  • Gina Lee
Lee, Gina. 2018. "The State of the Circular Economy in America: Trends, Opportunities, and Challenges." Circular CoLab. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5a6ca9a2f14aa140556104c0/t/5ba2f9e403ce6463eafc51c8/1537407484112/ State+of+CE+in+America_Full+Report.pdf.
In Looking ‘We’ Become: Neoliberal Giving and Whole Planet Foundation’s Faces of Poverty by Anushka Perez
  • Anushka Peres
Peres, Anushka. 2017. "In Looking 'We' Become: Neoliberal Giving and Whole Planet Foundation's Faces of Poverty by Anushka Perez." New American Notes Online, no. 11 (July). https://nanocrit.com/issues/issue11/In-Looking-We-Become-Neoliberal-Giving-and-Whole-Planet-Foundation-Faces-of-Poverty.