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Hygrocybe calciphila, an uncommon species of the genus was found for the first time in Southeastern Europe in forests of Pinus heldreichii in Bulgaria. Description and illustrations of the finding are presented. The European distribution of the species is summarized and briefly discussed, with emphasis on the scarce previous findings in Southern Europe.

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Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Algeria , Phaeoacremonium adelophialidum from Vitis vinifera . Antarctica , Comoclathris antarctica from soil. Australia , Coniochaeta salicifolia as endophyte from healthy leaves of Geijera salicifolia , Eremothecium peggii in fruit of Citrus australis , Microdochium ratticaudae from stem of Sporobolus natalensis , Neocelosporium corymbiae on stems of Corymbia variegata , Phytophthora kelmanii from rhizosphere soil of Ptilotus pyramidatus , Pseudosydowia backhousiae on living leaves of Backhousia citriodora , Pseudosydowia indooroopillyensis , Pseudosydowia louisecottisiae and Pseudosydowia queenslandica on living leaves of Eucalyptus sp. Brazil , Absidia montepascoalis from soil. Chile , Ilyonectria zarorii from soil under Maytenus boaria . Costa Rica , Colletotrichum filicis from an unidentified fern. Croatia , Mollisia endogranulata on deteriorated hardwood. Czech Republic , Arcopilus navicularis from tea bag with fruit tea, Neosetophoma buxi as endophyte from Buxus sempervirens , Xerochrysium bohemicum on surface of biscuits with chocolate glaze and filled with jam. France , Entoloma cyaneobasale on basic to calcareous soil, Fusarium aconidiale from Triticum aestivum , Fusarium juglandicola from buds of Juglans regia . Germany , Tetraploa endophytica as endophyte from Microthlaspi perfoliatum roots. India , Castanediella ambae on leaves of Mangifera indica , Lactifluus kanadii on soil under Castanopsis sp., Penicillium uttarakhandense from soil. Italy , Penicillium ferraniaense from compost. Namibia , Bezerromyces gobabebensis on leaves of unidentified succulent, Cladosporium stipagrostidicola on leaves of Stipagrostis sp., Cymostachys euphorbiae on leaves of Euphorbia sp., Deniquelata hypolithi from hypolith under a rock, Hysterobrevium walvisbayicola on leaves of unidentified tree, Knufia hypolithi and Knufia walvisbayicola from hypolith under a rock, Lapidomyces stipagrostidicola on leaves of Stipagrostis sp., Nothophaeotheca mirabibensis (incl. Nothophaeotheca gen. nov.) on persistent inflorescence remains of Blepharis obmitrata , Paramyrothecium salvadorae on twigs of Salvadora persica , Preussia procaviicola on dung of Procavia sp., Sordaria equicola on zebra dung, Volutella salvadorae on stems of Salvadora persica . Netherlands , Entoloma ammophilum on sandy soil, Entoloma pseudocruentatum on nutrient poor (acid) soil, Entoloma pudens on plant debris, amongst grasses. New Zealand , Amorocoelophoma neoregeliae from leaf spots of Neoregelia sp., Aquilomyces metrosideri and Septoriella callistemonis from stem discolouration and leaf spots of Metrosideros sp., Cadophora neoregeliae from leaf spots of Neoregelia sp., Flexuomyces asteliae (incl. Flexuomyces gen. nov.) and Mollisia asteliae from leaf spots of Astelia chathamica , Ophioceras freycinetiae from leaf spots of Freycinetia banksii , Phaeosphaeria caricis-sectae from leaf spots of Carex secta . Norway , Cuphophyllus flavipesoides on soil in semi-natural grassland, Entoloma coracis on soil in calcareous Pinus and Tilia forests, Entoloma cyaneolilacinum on soil semi-natural grasslands, Inocybe norvegica on gravelly soil. Pakistan , Butyriboletus parachinarensis on soil in association with Quercus baloot . Poland , Hyalodendriella bialowiezensis on debris beneath fallen bark of Norway spruce Picea abies . Russia , Bolbitius sibiricus on а moss covered rotting trunk of Populus tremula , Crepidotus wasseri on debris of Populus tremula , Entoloma isborscanum on soil on calcareous grasslands, Entoloma subcoracis on soil in subalpine grasslands, Hydropus lecythiocystis on rotted wood of Betula pendula , Meruliopsis faginea on fallen dead branches of Fagus orientalis , Metschnikowia taurica from fruits of Ziziphus jujube , Suillus praetermissus on soil, Teunia lichenophila as endophyte from Cladonia rangiferina . Slovakia , Hygrocybe fulgens on mowed grassland, Pleuroflammula pannonica from corticated branches of Quercus sp. South Africa , Acrodontium burrowsianum on leaves of unidentified Poaceae , Castanediella senegaliae on dead pods of Senegalia ataxacantha , Cladophialophora behniae on leaves of Behnia sp., Colletotrichum cliviigenum on leaves of Clivia sp., Diatrype dalbergiae on bark of Dalbergia armata , Falcocladium heteropyxidicola on leaves of Heteropyxis canescens , Lapidomyces aloidendricola as epiphyte on brown stem of Aloidendron dichotomum , Lasionectria sansevieriae and Phaeosphaeriopsis sansevieriae on leaves of Sansevieria hyacinthoides , Lylea dalbergiae on Diatrype dalbergiae on bark of Dalbergia armata , Neochaetothyrina syzygii (incl. Neochaetothyrina gen. nov.) on leaves of Syzygium chordatum , Nothophaeomoniella ekebergiae (incl. Nothophaeomoniella gen. nov.) on leaves of Ekebergia pterophylla , Paracymostachys euphorbiae (incl. Paracymostachys gen. nov.) on leaf litter of Euphorbia ingens , Paramycosphaerella pterocarpi on leaves of Pterocarpus angolensis , Paramycosphaerella syzygii on leaf litter of Syzygium chordatum , Parateichospora phoenicicola (incl. Parateichospora gen. nov.) on leaves of Phoenix reclinata , Seiridium syzygii on twigs of Syzygium chordatum , Setophoma syzygii on leaves of Syzygium sp., Star­merella xylocopis from larval feed of an Afrotropical bee Xylocopa caffra , Teratosphaeria combreti on leaf litter of Combretum kraussii , Teratosphaericola leucadendri on leaves of Leucadendron sp., Toxicocladosporium pterocarpi on pods of Pterocarpus angolensis . Spain , Cortinarius bonachei with Quercus ilex in calcareus soils, Cortinarius brunneovolvatus under Quercus ilex subsp. ballota in calcareous soil, Extremopsis radicicola (incl. Extremopsis gen. nov.) from root-associated soil in a wet heathland, Russula quintanensis on acidic soils, Tubaria vulcanica on volcanic lapilii material, Tuber zambonelliae in calcareus soil. Sweden , Elaphomyces borealis on soil under Pinus sylvestris and Betula pubescens . Tanzania , Curvularia tanzanica on inflorescence of Cyperus aromaticus . Thailand , Simplicillium niveum on Ophiocordyceps camponoti-leonardi on underside of unidentified dicotyledonous leaf. USA , Calonectria californiensis on leaves of Umbellularia californica , Exophiala spartinae from surface sterilised roots of Spartina alterniflora , Neophaeococcomyces oklahomaensis from outside wall of alcohol distillery. Vietnam , Fistulinella aurantioflava on soil. Morphological and culture characteristics are supported by DNA barcodes.
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132 taxa of fungi regularly found in seminatural grasslands from the genera Camarophyllopsis, Clavaria, Clavulinopsis, Dermoloma, Entoloma, Geoglossum, Hygrocybe, Microglossum, Porpoloma, Ramariopsis and Trichoglossum were selected. Their habitat specificity was investigated based on 39818 records from Norway. Approximately 80% of the records were from seminatural grasslands, ca. 10% from other open habitats like parks, gardens and road verges, rich fens, coastal heaths, open rocks with shallow soil, waterfall meadows, scree meadows and alpine habitats, while 13% were found in different forest types (some records had more than one habitat type, the sum therefore exceeds 100%). Of all records in forests, at least 85% were from rich types (both deciduous and coniferous forests), while relatively few were from poor forests. Differences in habitat specificity between the taxa were analyzed. 70 taxa (53%) had less than 10% of their records in forests, while 23 (17%) had more than 20% of their records in forests. The taxa which had the highest frequency in forests in Norway are mostly the same as the most common species in forests in Sweden.
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In order to contribute to the knowledge of the fungal diversity in the Parque Nacional de Ordesa y Monte Perdido, a taxonomic revision of the species collected throught 2014 has been made, classified in three levels: a) new or very special interest species, b) interesting or uncommon species, c) other species. Given the breadth of the territory that has been studied, prospecting areas have been limited to the bassins of the Ara, Arazas, Bellós, Yaga and Cinca rivers. 311 taxa were identified, corresponding 240 to Phyllum Basidiomycota, 61 to Ascomycota and 10 to Myxomycota; the most representative orders are Agaricales, Russulales, Pezizales, Polyporales, Boletales and Helotiales. Among the identified species, have been found 9 between the proposals for the catalog of protected species of the Iberian Peninsula and/ or Aragón. In this paper a first contribution to the catalog is showed, first as a list of all identified taxa and then, a taxonomic description with its macro and microscopic iconography for 16 of them, corresponding with interesting or uncommon species.
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Species of Hygrocybe (waxcaps) are mostly colorful mushrooms, which are characteristic of undisturbed grasslands. These fungi are endangered in many places worldwide, but their biology remains a mystery: while isotopic signatures indicate that waxcaps are neither mycorrhizal nor saprotrophic, they were recently observed in plant roots and molecularly detected in aboveground tissues. We aimed to establish a model system of Plantago lanceolata plants colonized by H. coccinea for future detailed studies of the plant–fungus association, and species-specific primers were designed to control infection success and screen environmental samples for waxcaps. The experimentally treated plants grown from surface-sterilized seeds were indeed colonized by waxcaps after 22 weeks of incubation. However, the fungal infection was independent from the experimental treatment and apparently resulted from infected seeds. Screening of field material confirmed that at least one species, i.e., H. virginea, is a maternally transmitted endophytic fungus associated with P. lanceolata. In the experiments, it obviously expanded to the roots during or after seed germination. The endophytic growth is also consistent with the carbon isotopic signature of Hygrocybe, which deviates less from the host plants’ signature than known from ectomycorrhizal associations. However, waxcaps obviously acquire nitrogen (N) from a source outside the plant, like mycorrhizal fungi do. The extensive root system of P. lanceolata is hypothesized to facilitate reaching of nitrogen sources for Hygrocybe which are enriched in the heavier 15N isotope.
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Contribution to the knowledge of the alpine fungi of the Pyrenees of Catalonia, II. New data on alpine fungi, mainly collected in Nuria (Queralbs) in the Coma de l'Embut (2220-2400 m), associated to Dryas octopetala, Salix retusa (2220-2300 m) and S. herbacea (2400 m), in Ulldeter (Setcases) (2200-2550 m), linked with Salix herbacea, more rarely with S. retusa, and Malniu lakes (Meranges) (2255 m) in connection with Salix lapponum and bryophytes. The following species are of special interest and novelty: Chlorosplenium cenangium (De Not.) Korf, Colpoma juniperi (P. Karst.) Dennis, Octospora borealis (Eckblad) Caillet et Moyne, Amanita nivalis Grev., Collybia alpicola (Bon et Ballarà) Vila comb. nov., Cortinarius chamaesalicis Bon, C. diasemospermus Lamoure, C. epsomiensis P.D. Orton var. alpicola Bon, C. laevipileus J. Favre f. microsporus Bon et Vila ad int., C. polaris Hoiland, C. pratensis (Bon et Gaugué) Hoiland f. salicis-herbaceae Bon et Cheype ad int., Entoloma alpicola (J. Favre) Noordel. f. nanum (J. Favre) Vila comb. nov., E. exile (Fr.: Fr.) Hesler f. nuriense Vila et Esteve-Rav. ad int., Hygrocybe glacialis Borgen et Senn-Irlet, H. salicis-herbaceae Kühner, Lactarius robertianus Bon, Melanoleuca stridula (Fr.) Singer ss. Kühner, M. tristis M.M. Moser and Omphalina philonotis (Lasch) Quél.
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A comprehensive checklist of the species of larger basidiomycetes in Bulgaria does not exist. The checklist provided here is the first attempt to fill that gap. It provides a compilation of the available data on the larger basidiomycetes reported from, or known to occur in Bulgaria. An alphabetical list of accepted names of fungi, recognized as occurring in Bulgaria is given. For each taxon, the distribution in Bulgaria is presented. Unpublished records about the distribution of some species are also added. An index of synonyms based on literature records from Bulgaria is appended. A list of excluded records, with reasons for their exclusion, is also given. The complete checklist is available at:
Twenty-four species belonging to tneHygrophoraceae (Basidiomycetes) are recorded from high latitudes and altitudes in Russia. These species are placed within the list of all the Russian Hygrophoraceae and systematically arranged. Gliophorus citrinopallidus is proposed as a new combination.
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