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Empowering Mothers through Mentoring on 6-60 Months Children’s Nutrition Care: An Effort to Prevent Child Malnutrition

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Electronic Journal of General Medicine
2021, 18(6), em324
e-ISSN: 2516-3507
https://www.e Original Article OPEN ACCESS
Empowering Mothers through Mentoring on 6-60 Months Children’s
Nutrition Care: An Effort to Prevent Child Malnutrition
Sri Umijati 1,2*, Sri Kardjati 1,2, Ismudijanto 1,2, Sunarjo 1,2
1 Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, INDONESIA
2 Dr. Soetomo Hos pital, Surabaya, INDONESIA
*Corresponding Author: sri-u@fk
Citation: Umijati S, Kardjati S, Ismudijanto, Sunarjo. Empowering Mothers through Mentoring on 6-60 Months Children’s Nutrition Care: An Effort
to Prevent Child Malnutrition. Electron J Gen Med. 2021;18(6):em324.
Received: 8 Sep. 2021
16 Oct. 2021
The prevalence of malnutrition in Indonesia in the last 20 years remains high. This shows that management
curative aspects is not enough. A new strategy is needed to solve the problem as well as to overcome
factors. The root cause of malnutrition in Indonesia is the lack of maternal knowledge and power towards
status. This study aims to determine the mentoring that To do through a tutorial module on
factors. This expects to empower mothers on caring for 6-60 months old children. This research is a two
experimental study with controls. Respondents were mothers who had children aged 6-60 months. A
39 mothers choose a control group and 38 mothers as a treatment group. The mentoring method was given
treatment group while providing counseling to the control group: multivariate ANOVA and independent t-
show maternal empowerment. Mentoring on caregiving was very effective in increasing mothersabilities
for their children’s nutrition (p <0.05). Hence, the mentoring method could empower mothers to care for
(p = 0.005). It took six months to empower 13.2% of mothers with a minimum knowledge score of 2.5
of 3.1 times, respectively, much higher than the counseling method. Mothers who are
will be aware of any deviation in their children’s nutritional status.
Keywords: caregiving, children, mentoring, mother empowerment, risk factors
In Indonesia, the government is against malnutrition in
curative aspects, either through maternal skills in feeding
children, or high economy, or infection. The same with the
opinion [1], the district is being prominent in the district with
malnutrition-related to the mother’s nutritional status and
maternal independence. Inadequate nutrition is born nutrients
were lack of energy, protein, or other micronutrients due to its
adverse effects on the problem and function of tissues and
clinical results [2]. Curative control cannot be practical to the
mother in the environment (including children’s frogs), bound
to happen [3,4]. In Indonesia, the prevalence of childhood
malnutrition was unchanged from 2003 to 2013, about 19% [5,
6], although slightly decreased in 2018 by 17.7% [7].
Malnutrition incidence in children under five years old in
Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia in 2005 remained high at 28.9%
[8], sustainable development goals (SDGs) in 2025 (22.3%) [9].
These figures show that the problem has not changed in the
past two decades. Malnutrition is one of the primary victims of
death in toddlers and one of the most common factors that
pose a threat to children’s life and health [10]. malnutrition has
a mortality rate of about 45% in children under five, despite
concerted efforts in malnutrition [11]. For malnutrition of
origin, the factors causing it are still present and diking [12].
New strategies are needed to control malnutrition in children
to the root of the problem and at the same time to address risk
factors [13]. Factors that influence include maternal
knowledge, household socio-economic conditions, and
distance [14]. Therefore, the prevention aspect can consider as
an alternative approach.
The root cause of malnutrition in Indonesia is the lack of
maternal skills to care for their child’s nutritional status (p =
0.02) [8]. The role of mothers is the most crucial factor in
alleviating the negative impact of dietary problems through
their care. Concerning risk factors related to malnourished
children in Indonesia are nutrition and health care,
breastfeeding, feeding, and environmental management [15].
Child nutrition care consists of the mother’s ability to recognize
the signs of malnutrition beforehand and monitor the child’s
growth. Watching a child’s development is essential for a
health assessment. Energy intake adjusts to energy needs to
achieve normal body weight and height for age [16]. The
recommended growth graph for use in evaluating children’s
growth by the World Health Organization (WHO) is compiled
based on National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) data [17].
The parenting risk approach is a new strategy in addressing
the problem of malnourished children. Child health and
nutritional care are essential for their survival and growth.
Children’s development reflects their nutritional status [18-20].
Malnutrition can cause physical problems and decrease the
quality of life [21]. Mothers should be sensitive in detecting risk
factors in parenting that can lead to child malnutrition. That
2 / 6 Umijati et al. / ELECTRON J GEN MED, 2021;18(6):em324
way, mothers can make plans to control children’s nutrition
and addressing problems that may arise [19,22]. The
importance of meeting the needs of balanced nutrition is to
prevent the disease in the future, especially chronic diseases
among the disease Focus on child health work [23].
Malnutrition information is a significant challenge for
mothers. It encourages women’s empowerment to build family
and community support to increase knowledge and eliminate
misinformation about diet to improve health and nutrition [24].
Do an assignment with mentoring. This includes individual
learning through mentoring on parenting risks in the Parenting
Skills Training Course Module and natural parenting learning
[22,25]. Do the teaching well through social media and direct
knowledge [26]. Nutrition assistance is currently emphasizing
counseling, where role models and partnerships are still
needed to solve existing problems rather than on society’s
potential. Based on the explanation, this study aims to
determine that mentoring through a tutorial module based on
parenting risk factors can empower mothers in caring for
children aged 6-60 months.
This was a two-sample experimental study with controls.
There were treatment and control groups divided into four
subgroups based on respondents education level and
occupation. The story of education impacts the knowledge that
someone has [27]. The mentoring method was provided to the
treatment group, while the control group received the
counseling method.
Both groups received learning material consisting of
caregiving risk factors related to child malnutrition. The risk
factors were general caregiving, growth monitoring, body
weight and height measurement, child’s nutrition
maintenance, breastfeeding, feeding, recognizing the early
signs of illness, and maintaining hygiene as well as
environmental sanitation.
Risk factor learning in mentoring was provided through the
module tutorial strategy, while in the control group by
counseling. The mentoring group was also given caregiving
skill training and learning in the field. Skill training materials
were done by measuring weight and height, growth
monitoring, feeding, and recognizing early signs of illness in the
child. Indicators of the success of intervention were caregiving
empowerment, which includes increased knowledge,
attitudes, and practices of mothers to care for their children.
This study was conducted in three poor sub-districts of
Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. Based on the sample size
formula experimental design. The proportion of maternal
empowerment from each group before the treatment was
12.9% (the USAID WVI 2005 Surabaya survey results showed
that only 12.9% of mothers received good care). The expected
proportion reached 45%, with α 0.05 and β 0.2 after the
treatment. It was found that 38 mothers in the treatment group
and 39 mothers in the control group. The inclusion criteria were
non-broken families, poor, urban families, having one
physically average child and the mothers as the primary
caregiver, having formal education diplomas, and participating
in mentoring for six months.
The sampling technique was random cluster sampling. One
Public Health Centre (PHC) was selected from each sub-district,
then 3 Integrated Health Centre (IHC) were chosen from each
PHC. Ten mothers who met the inclusion criteria were selected
from each IHC. Furthermore, they were divided into treatment
or control groups.
The dependent variable of this study was the
empowerment of mothers in child nutrition care, and the
independent variable was the mentoring of caregiving.
Multivariate ANOVA and independent-two-sample t-tests were
used to determine maternal assignment in caregiving their
child [28]. Before the intervention, the respondents have
explained the treatment. Afterward, respondents were asked
to sign an agreement to participate in this study.
This study collected 39 mothers as a control group and 38
mothers as a treatment group from three poor subdistricts of
Table 1 showed that respondentsage, education level,
and occupation do not differ in both groups (p> 0.05). Likewise,
their ability to care for sick children was not different before
treatment, and the data had normal distribution (p> 0.05).
Descriptively, the difference in the average value of the
mentoring group was higher than that of the control group. The
result of empowerment is better for the mentoring group.
Based on standard deviation values, both groups showed
significant variations in learning outcomes. In the mentoring
group, significant variations showed the results of the
individual teaching applied. Differences in the average value of
Table 1.
Distribution of frequency for respondentscharacteristic of treatment and control groups with proportion value of t-test
Total Independent t-test between treatment and control groups
Age (year)
Educational level
Low educational level was described as less than or equal to 9-year formal education.
2. High educational level was described as more than or equal to 10-year formal education
Umijati et al. / ELECTRON J GEN MED, 2021;18(6):em324 3 / 6
knowledge and practice in the two groups (p <0.005) can be
seen in Table 2.
Mentoring using child caregiving module learning
effectively increased motherscaregiving abilities related to
their child’s nutrition (p <0.05). The slightest difference
between the two groups (2.5 times) occurred in the mothers
knowledge about measuring the child’s weight and height.
52.5% of mothers had this ability for more than 70%, so it took
11.4 months for all mothers to understand this care properly.
In the treatment group, changes in the average value of
caregiving practices that were more than 100 (like measuring
child weight and height, maintaining their hygiene and
sanitation, recognizing signs of a sick child) are shown as
results of motherstraining activities. Thus, it can be concluded
that behavior change with repeated training showed more
tremendous activity changes.
Descriptively Table 3 shows that those who receive
mentoring may improve their ability to care for sick children.
A few mothers who managed at the end of the mentoring
correctly showed that the care provided was new to the
mother. Conversely, more than 50% of mothers who had the
ability at the end of the mentoring showed that caregiving’s
theme was often done in their daily lives or could be caused by
provided training during mentoring.
The tutorial module learning resulted in better
empowerment efforts compared to counseling (p <0.005). The
module tutorial gave a difference in mean caregiving
knowledge at least 2.5 times higher than counseling. In
contrast, the average difference in caregiving practices was at
least 3.1 times higher. The intermediate parenting practice is
higher than the mother’s knowledge due to skills training or
parenting norms that mothers often carry out. The more senses
are used in influencing behavior change, the easier the
behavior change occurs.
Mentoring is better than counseling because of the
following reasons. Tutorial learning is individualized, while
counseling is done together [29]. It presents an explanation
that builds actual events that exist as a problem and can
explore mothersexperiences as students in similar cases that
need to be discussed. Thus, various issues that exist and the
potential of each participant can be used by other participants
Table 2.
Mean difference, standard deviation, and probability value of the T and multivariate
Mean difference
Mean difference
Caregiving for children
aged 6-60 month
Manova test
Maintaining child’s
Manova test
Measuring body’s weight
and height
Manova test
Maintaining child’s
Manova test
Independent t-test
Manova test
Maintaining good hygiene
and environmental
Independent t-test
Recognizing early signs of
a sick child
Independent t-test
Table 3. Frequency distribution in percent of mothers who have the ability of caregiving based on treatment group
Treatment group, n=38
Control Group, n=39
Caregiving for child aged 6-60 month
Maintaining child’s growth
Measuring body’s weight and height
Maintaining child’s nutrition
Maintaining good hygiene and environmental sanitation
Recognizing early signs of a illness or sickness
Note: Assessment of motherscaregiving abilities is calculated at more than 70%
4 / 6 Umijati et al. / ELECTRON J GEN MED, 2021;18(6):em324
as experience to be known as a process that must be done in
solving problems. Negative experiences often leave a deep
impression on the participants. If the occasion is appropriately
discussed, it can lead to a lasting positive outlook. Every
mother becomes a rich source of learning, and at the same
time, she provides a broad base for learning something new.
Factors of the level of intelligence, self-confidence, and
controlled feelings must be recognized as individual personal
rights. The decisions participants make do not have to be
always the same.
The tutorial learning involves all participants in learning
activities and giving ideas, not only from the theory presented
by the supervisor, thus enabling the optimal development of
each individual. They feel valuable and had self-respect in front
of their peers, having confidence in themselves. Togetherness
in groups does not always have to be the same because it
acknowledges one truth without criticism that shows the
differences, including the differences in their potential.
Learning with modules aims to make students become
themselves, understand lifes necessities, and carry out their
social role assignments. Empowerment does not dominate
class groups much and seeks to find alternatives to develop
participants personalities based on their potential and
experience. Tutorials can form intensive communication of
existing problems because of the guaranteed closeness of the
mother and empowerment, increasing the mother’s sensitivity
to aspects of life that affect health according to the individual’s
Learning is not a self-adjustment imposed by others as
counseling but needs to deal with life problems that are always
dynamic in line with risk factors for caregiving skills. Learning
together by tutorial helps mothers deal with the dynamics of
behavior change that will produce long-lasting positive
behavior [30,31]. Resilience to this positive behavior is formed
based on personal experience adjusted by the awareness of the
potential risks with consequences. Furthermore, they
simultaneously respond and act according to their potential,
leading to new stimuli adapted to other new concepts based
on existing experience. Thus, this process continues and
develops to form self-improvement efforts. In counseling,
forced behavior changes will not last long and cannot follow
Learning about a child’s weight and height measurements
increases mothersempowerment to monitor a child’s growth.
Growth indicators are dynamic which can be followed from
time to time when the weight deviation occurs. The application
of mentoring to the nutrition prevention program can
significantly improve the child’s nutritional status. Policy in
several countries in ASEAN applies the nutritional status of
children as an indicator of the progress of the people’s welfare,
not by the average supply or consumption of energy and
protein [30]. Adequate food supply does not guarantee every
household member to get adequate food and good nutritional
status, so it is necessary to understand that it is very important
to reduce malnourished and micronutrient people deficiency
[32]. Adequate food supply does not guarantee that every
household member gets sufficient food and good nutritional
status. Many other factors can interfere with the process of
establishing a good nutritional status, including clean water,
environmental hygiene, and essential health services.
Likewise, the application of the module to maintain a
child’s hygiene and sanitation and to recognize the early signs
of the sick child in a nutrition improvement program can
support a child’s nutrition status. Changes in the environment
and incidence of a sick child can indicate a dynamic on a child’s
health and interfere with a child’s nutrition status. The success
of the nutrition program will be more quickly achieved by
improving the environment.
Only 13.2% of mothers have the caregiving ability after
mentoring for six months. Thus, it took at least 46 months to
empower all mothers to care for children with a minimum
capability of 70%. The empowerment of caregiving must be
carried out as early as possible before the mother is pregnant
for the first time or when the mother is still a teenager.
Generally, mothers have the initial concept that caring for
children is natural; mothers are obliged to keep children alive.
Likewise, to maintain children’s growth, children are
miniatures of adults so that in caring for children, mothers care
for children as they care for adults. Mothers are not aware of
the differences in life needed for children from adult life,
including children’s growth. The new concept is that mothers
must be caregivers according to the child’s growth and
Changing behavior in something new takes a long time,
especially at the stage of contemplation. Mothers begin to
realize the importance of caregiving their children and
maintaining their growth. With the consideration of mothers
potential, there is a strong sense of ambivalence about
changing behavior in a better directionconversely,
behavioral changes in things that have been done as a habit.
Mothers have been in the maintenance stage; it does not
require a long time to change the behavior.
Mentoring can be used as a new effort in solving child
nutrition problems. This effort uses an integrative risk care
approach based on community potential, uses indicators of
child growth dynamics, and pays attention to the risks of
environmental hygiene and children’s hygiene. Mothers who
had already been empowered will be aware of any deviation in
their children’s nutritional status. Moreover, the success of the
nutrition program will be more quickly achieved by
empowering mothers. This study suggests that health
policymakers and clinicians prioritize empowering mothers as
one of the solutions to prevent child malnutrition.
Author contributions: All authors have sufficiently contributed to the
study, and agreed with the results and conclusions.
Funding: This research was supported by the Faculty of Medicine,
Universitas Airlangga, and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia
c.q. Minister of Education and Culture through Post-Sarar Education
Scholarship (BPPS). Thank the Faculty of Medicine of Universitas
Airlangga’s ethics research committee that gave ethical clearance no.
Declaration of interest: No conflict of interest is declared by authors.
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... Table 1 explains that family empowerment, especially for mothers, is carried out by measuring the knowledge and abilities of mothers on 8 aspects of parenting. Aspects of caregivers in question are parenting patterns, monitoring growth, measuring weight and height, feeding patterns, breastfeeding, patterns, recognizing early signs of child health problems, and mother's efforts to maintain personal and environmental hygiene (Umijati et al., 2021). Indicators of women's empowerment are assessed based on the mother's education and occupation, wealth index, household size, and ability in decision making (Shafiq et al., 2019). ...
... Based on the analysis in table 1, it can be defined that parental empowerment is an effort to increase knowledge and skills (Rosa Fernández Valero, Ana Maria Serrano, Robert Alexander McWilliam, 2020); (Umijati et al., 2021) (Akintunde et al., 2021) and parental self-confidence (Rosa Fernández Valero, Ana Maria Serrano, Robert Alexander McWilliam, 2020); (Soharwardi & Ahmad, 2020) on care, parenting (Umijati et al., 2021) (Prasetyo et al., 2021) and child development. Indicators of parental empowerment are assessed based on education, work (Shafiq et al., 2019); (Dadzie et al., 2021); (Soharwardi & Ahmad, 2020), income, and ability in decision making (Shafiq et al., 2019); (Soharwardi & Ahmad, 2020). ...
... Based on the analysis in table 1, it can be defined that parental empowerment is an effort to increase knowledge and skills (Rosa Fernández Valero, Ana Maria Serrano, Robert Alexander McWilliam, 2020); (Umijati et al., 2021) (Akintunde et al., 2021) and parental self-confidence (Rosa Fernández Valero, Ana Maria Serrano, Robert Alexander McWilliam, 2020); (Soharwardi & Ahmad, 2020) on care, parenting (Umijati et al., 2021) (Prasetyo et al., 2021) and child development. Indicators of parental empowerment are assessed based on education, work (Shafiq et al., 2019); (Dadzie et al., 2021); (Soharwardi & Ahmad, 2020), income, and ability in decision making (Shafiq et al., 2019); (Soharwardi & Ahmad, 2020). ...
... In addition, several of the causes such as an unbalanced diet and daily nutritional inadequacy connects to poor support from their parents (20,21). Moreover, there is also the influence due to their parent's pattern of caring and an inappropriate or appropriate healthy environment (17,22,23). The majority of children in Indonesia who do not meet adequate nutritional standards and who have poor support from an appropriate environment were found in the orphanage setting. ...
School-age children have a very high risk of experiencing a nutritional problem during their development, consisting of an imbalance between their body mass index and the state of malnutrition due to their nutritional intake. The parenting at Muhammadiyah Orphanage is related to the nutritional status of the children managed in the group. This parenting status causes less attention to be paid to the children’s nutrition. This study aims to identify the food intake pattern in relation to the food delivery and nutritional status of school-aged children (6-12 years) in the Muhammadiyah Orphanage house setting.
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Background: Serious consequences leading to the increase of infectious diseases and mortality of children justifies the importance of interventions for eradication of malnutrition. Thus, this study aimed to provide a model for the prevention of malnutrition among children under 5 years old (CU5) in Iran. Methods: This paper is part of a bigger study, conducted in 2017 using a mixed methods approach. A model for prevention of malnutrition in CU5 was proposed based on the earlier steps, with the cooperation and consultation of experts and specialists. In the final step, a Delphi method was used to determine the validity of the proposed model. Results: The main dimensions of the prevention model of malnutrition for CU5 in Iran included four level: basic causes, interventions, outcomes and impact. The proposed interventions are presented based on twelve areas: structural, intersectoral, political, economic, sanitary, health-oriented, research, educational/cultural, evaluation related, production, infrastructures and legal. Based on these areas, 118 solutions were finally selected for the final model. This model is designed based on the current conditions in different regions of Iran, the factors related to child malnutrition, affective context on policy making, the content of previous policies, the process of policy making in Iran, and key stakeholders and actors in policy making. Conclusion: In order to prevent malnutrition, the causing factors should be identified and resolved. The adopted policies should be, more seriously, based on the presence of key stakeholders and actors. Most of the existing nutritional problems among children are because of inappropriate consumerism culture and habits in families and its transfer to children.
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The Minangkabau people of West Sumatra in Indonesia are renowned for their matrilineal culture with property and land passing down from mother to daughter. Despite there being a fairly balanced social status for women in the community, the impact of health inequalities is uneven. This study was therefore carried out to explore the relationship between the social, cultural and economic contexts in such a distinctive community with maternal nutrition and pregnancy-related health outcomes, from the perspectives of the mothers, fathers and care providers. Qualitative methods were used to undertake this study in collaboration with partners from the University of Andalas in a suburban area of Padang district. The data collection method was qualitative, semi-structured interviews (n = 19) with women, men, midwives and community health workers. The data were recorded with informed consent, transcribed in the local language and then translated into English prior to being thematically analysed. The major themes which emerged from the data included ‘Minangkabau matrilineality and role of women’; ‘culture and supportive attitude towards pregnant women’; ‘dietary patterns, attitude and access to food’; and ‘limited access to information about food and nutrition’. The findings showed healthy dietary patterns such as regular consumption of vegetables and fruit among the participants. However, the issues of poverty, access to food, dietary taboos and inadequate nutritional information remained major challenges for the mothers and the families who participated in the study. The evidence from this study suggests that the matrilineal culture of the Minangkabau promotes the empowerment of women and offers an encouraging environment for enhancing reproductive health. This lends itself to co-developing locally sensitive and sustainable complex interventions incorporating professional support and building on family and community back-up, enhancing knowledge and demystifying dietary misinformation to improve maternal health and nutrition.
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Background Understanding the burden and contextual risk factors is critical for developing appropriate interventions to control undernutrition. Methods This study used data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to estimate the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting. Single multiple logistic regressions were used to identify the factors associated with underweight, wasting and stunting. The study involved 2720 children aged 0–59 months old and mother pairs. All analyses were done in STATA/IC version 15.0. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results The prevalence of underweight, wasting and stunting were 10.4%, 5.3%, and 18.4% respectively. The age of the child was associated with underweight, wasting and stunting, whereas the sex was associated with wasting and stunting. Normal or overweight/obese maternal body mass index category, high woman’s autonomy and middle-class wealth index were associated with a lower odds of undernutrition. The factors that were associated with a higher odds of child undernutrition included: low birth weight (<2.5 kg), minimum dietary diversity score (MDDS), a higher (≥4th) birth order number of child, primary educational level of husband/partner and domicile in the northern region of Ghana. Conclusion There is still a high burden of child undernutrition in Ghana. The age, sex, birth weight, birth order and the MDDS of the child were the immediate factors associated with child undernutrition. The intermediate factors that were associated with child undernutrition were mainly maternal related factors and included maternal nutritional status and autonomy. Distal level factors which were associated with a higher odds of child undernutrition were the wealth index of the household, paternal educational status and region of residence. We recommend that interventions and policies for undernutrition should address socioeconomic inequalities at the community level while factoring in women empowerment programmes.
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This highly regarded text has been revised and updated throughout with two new chapters on migration and on disease outbreaks and new information on the measurement of empowerment at a national level. The book includes a wider range of international case studies and innovative group exercises to help students to thoroughly understand how to apply the concepts of power and empowerment in public health practice.
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Background: Malnutrition is one of the main causes of death in children under 5 years of age and one of the most common factors threatening children's life and health. Nutrition policy analysis and solving existing problems in children can reduce the effects of malnutrition. This study aimed to analyze the current policies of malnutrition prevention in children under five years of age in Iran. Method: This study was conducted in 2017 to analyze policies using the "policy triangle framework". In order to examine the policy-making process, the Kingdon's multiple streams model was used. A combination of two sampling methods, including purposeful and snowball sampling, was applied to select the interviewees. In relation to the implemented documents and policies, the country's most important policies were selected based on the suggestions of policy makers as well as searching scientific databases and electronic portals. A data collection form was used to identify the current policies and documents and a semi-structured interview guide form was used for the interviews. The framework analysis and MaxQDA software were applied to analyze the data obtained from the interviews. Results: The key factors affecting policies in Iran included the status of indicators as well as economic, social, structural-legal, policy and international factors. Among the most important policies and implemented programs, the following can be mentioned: growth monitoring, oral rehydration, breastfeeding, immunization, female education, family spacing, food supplementation, nutrition for children under five years of age, and control of nutritional deficiencies. Currently there is a need for a nationwide program and comprehensive document in the field of the nutrition in children under 5 years of age, which requires strengthening of the political process. Participants and stakeholders in nutrition-related policies for children under the age of five were divided into four categories of governmental, semi-governmental, non-governmental, and international organizations. Conclusion: More attention should be paid to the shortage of some micronutrients, accurate implementation of breastfeeding programs, supplementary nutrition, fortification and supplementation programs for children and mothers, utilization of the advantages of each region and its resources, and better coordination between organizations and their policies, and finally strong incentives are needed to promote macro nutritional goals for children under five years of age.
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Introduction: The study of nutritional status and children growth monitoring can play an important role in the diagnosis of developmental disorders in the early stages of life. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the growth chart and nutrition supplements in children of 6-12 months old in Ilam. Materials and Methods: This study was performed using data from 200 health records of children aged 6-12 months who referred to Ilam health centers in 2017. The sampling method was multistage cluster sampling. Weight measurement performed in kilograms and height and head circumference measured in cm and all specimen measurements performed in identical conditions. Data analysis carried out using SPSS.21 with a confidence level of 0.5. Results: Out of 200 cases, 89(44.5%) were male and 111(55.5%) were female. The mean age was 9.44 ± 1.23 months. Among investigated children, 39% (78children) in terms of weight to age index, 18.5% (37children) in terms of height to age index of developmental delay, and 24% (48children) in terms of head circumference to the age had undesirable growth. In addition, 55.5% of children had started baby food in an improper time. In addition, 44.5% were breastfed. The findings demonstrated that there is a significant difference in the weight to age index in terms of gender (p=0.024). Moreover, height and head circumference to age indices had a statistically significant relationship with weight to age index (p<0.05). Conclusion: Underweight cases in boys were more than girls and chronic malnutrition in girls was higher than boys. Therefore, long-term studies are needed for more accurate evaluations.
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Background Malnutrition accounts for 45% of mortality in children under five years old, despite a global mobilization against chronic malnutrition. In Madagascar, the most recent data show that the prevalence of stunting in children under five years old is still around 47.4%. This study aimed to identify the determinants of stunting in children in rural areas of Moramanga and Morondava districts to target the main areas for intervention. Methods A case-control study was conducted in children aged from 6 to 59.9 months, in 2014–2015. We measured the height and weight of mothers and children and collected data on child, mother and household characteristics. One stool specimen was collected from each child for intestinal parasite identification. We used a multivariate logistic regression model to identify the determinants of stunting using backwards stepwise methods. Results We included 894 and 932 children in Moramanga and in Morondava respectively. Stunting was highly prevalent in both areas, being 52.8% and 40.0% for Moramanga and Morondava, respectively. Stunting was most associated with a specific age period (12mo to 35mo) in the two study sites. Infection with Trichuris trichiura (aOR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1–5.3) and those belonging to poorer households (aOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.6–3.4) were the major risk factors in Moramanga. In Morondava, children whose mother had activities outside the household (aOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–2.5) and those perceived to be small at birth (aOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.1) were more likely to be stunted, whereas adequate birth spacing (≥24months) appeared protective (aOR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3–0.7). Conclusion Interventions that could improve children’s growth in these two areas include poverty reduction, women’s empowerment, public health programmes focusing on WASH and increasing acceptability, and increased coverage and quality of child/maternal health services.
Resumen La desnutrición se define como el estado de nutrición en el que un déficit de energía, proteínas y/u otros nutrientes causa efectos negativos y medibles en la composición y función de los tejidos y órganos y, por tanto, en el estado global de la salud del individuo. La desnutrición no es exclusiva de los países en desarrollo; en nuestro medio es también elevada, relacionándose de forma importante con la enfermedad. Disponemos de diversos métodos de cribado nutricional para la detección de estos pacientes. Si el cribado nutricional resulta positivo, los pacientes son sometidos a una valoración nutricional. Hoy en día, los criterios más validados en la evaluación nutricional son: pérdida de peso no intencionada, bajo índice de masa corporal, pérdida de masa muscular, reducción de la ingesta o su absorción y/o carga de enfermedad/inflamación.