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Development of compounding and technology of a bakery product with the use of celery, cheese and bacon

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Expanding the range of bakery products using traditional and non-traditional ingredients is the main task in the development of modern Russian small and medium-sized bakery enterprises. The paper proposes formulation and technology for a new type of bakery product with the addition of stalks of celery, cheese and bacon. Based on practical development, technological schemes for products preparation were drawn up, a feature of which is the use of semi- finished autolysis and liquid pulish sourdough in the preparation of the dough. Celery stalks and sliced cheese and bacon were added to the product during the fermentation of the dough. The obtained prototype of the bakery product, in comparison with the control sample, was distinguished by more specific sensory indicators, including taste and smell. Herewith, the experimental specimen showed more pleasant taste, and calculations have shown raised nutrition value. In the future, sensory characteristics and nutritional value of the developed bakery product can be adjusted by changing the method of introducing celery into the dough, the ratio of the ingredients used, or the introduction of additional ingredients into the product formulation.
Content may be subject to copyright.
AIP Conference Proceedings 2419, 020019 (2021); https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0069767 2419, 020019
© 2021 Author(s).
Development of compounding and
technology of a bakery product with the use
of celery, cheese and bacon
Cite as: AIP Conference Proceedings 2419, 020019 (2021); https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0069767
Published Online: 29 October 2021
A. V. Kopylova, A. N. Sapozhnikov, T. A. Levin, et al.
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Development of Compounding and Technology of A Bakery
Product with the Use of Celery, Cheese and Bacon
A V Kopylova1, 2, a), A N Sapozhnikov1, b), T A Levin1 and
I Yu Rybakolnikova1
1Novosibirsk State Technical University, 630073, Prospekt K. Marksa 20, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Siberian Research Technological Design Institute of Processing of Agricultural Products SFSCA RAS, PO Box
267, 630501, Krasnoobsk, Novosibirsk Region, Russia
a) Corresponding author: kopylova@corp.nstu.ru
b) a.sapozhnikov@corp.nstu.ru
Abstract. Expanding the range of bakery products using traditional and non-traditional ingredients is the main task in the
development of modern Russian small and medium-sized bakery enterprises. The paper proposes formulation and
technology for a new type of bakery product with the addition of stalks of celery, cheese and bacon. Based on practical
development, technological schemes for products preparation were drawn up, a feature of which is the use of semi-
finished autolysis and liquid pulish sourdough in the preparation of the dough. Celery stalks and sliced cheese and bacon
were added to the product during the fermentation of the dough. The obtained prototype of the bakery product, in
comparison with the control sample, was distinguished by more specific sensory indicators, including taste and smell.
Herewith, the experimental specimen showed more pleasant taste, and calculations have shown raised nutrition value. In
the future, sensory characteristics and nutritional value of the developed bakery product can be adjusted by changing the
method of introducing celery into the dough, the ratio of the ingredients used, or the introduction of additional ingredients
into the product formulation.
INTRODUCTION
Bakery products are in high demand among the population of Russia. Its production is organized at enterprises of
various industries and capacities. The tasks facing the Russian bakery industry are primarily in regulating the
interaction and balance between large state-owned enterprises and enterprises of medium and small businesses [1].
While large enterprises produce traditional bakery products to cover the basic level of the populations need for
bakery products, small and medium-sized enterprises develop and introduce new types of bread and bakery
products, the formulations and production technologies of which are original and characteristic for each enterprise or
their network.
The development and practical implementation of new types of bakery products, which are distinguished by the
original production technology, the list of ingredients used, the absence of chemical additives and improvers, and
with sensory properties attractive to the consumer, is the main direction in the non-state sector of Russian bakery
production.
Another important direction in the Russian bakery industry is the development and implementation of
formulations for bakery products enriched with various ingredients of natural origin, which increase not only the
sensory properties of the finished product, but also its nutritional value. In this regard, plant raw materials are of
great interest, which can be used both in natural and processed form.
Celery (Apium graveolens L.) is a promising plant material that can be used in formulations for a wide range of
bakery products.
Besides being used as a food ingredient, celery is rightfully considered a medicinal plant. It is known that due to
the presence in its composition of ascorbic acid caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, apigenin, luteolin, tannin,
International Conference on Food Science and Biotechnology (FSAB 2021)
AIP Conf. Proc. 2419, 020019-1–020019-8; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0069767
Published by AIP Publishing. 978-0-7354-4135-4/$30.00
020019-1
saponin and kaempferol, celery has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antifungal properties, and also
helps prevent and restrain the development of many chronic diseases [2, 3], including obesity [4] and diabetes [5].
Herewith, all parts of a plant including scapes [6] have antioxidant activity. Infusion and decoction of celery stalks
have a diuretic and choleretic effect and are practically non-toxic [7].
The use of root celery in the production of culinary products has been studied quite widely, however, the use of
celery stalks (petioles) is of no less interest. Earlier results obtained by other authors allow us to conclude that celery
stalks shall be introduced into bakery products in their natural form or in the form of a dried powder [8]. In this case,
the finished bakery product will have all the useful properties of celery. Herewith, it has been experimentally proven
that the use of aqueous celery extracts does not impart antioxidant properties to finished products, and also does not
improve its sensory characteristics [9].
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Used Raw Materials
The main raw materials were wheat flour of the highest grade and whole-grain flour of the French Shtuchka
trademark produced by ZAO Kombinat Khleboproduktov Starooskolsky (Belgorod Region, Stary Oskol), first-grade
flour of the Aleika trademark manufactured by Aleiskzernoprodukt ZAO n.a. S.N. Starovoitov (Altai Territory,
Aleysk) and pressed yeast produced by CJSC "Novosibirsk Yeast Plant" (Novosibirsk).
Additional raw materials: "Gollandskiy" cheese, bacon (raw smoked brisket), celery (petioles), sunflower oil, salt
was purchased in the retail network of Novosibirsk.
Bakery Product Sample Preparation
The preparation and quality assessment of the samples were performed in the laboratory of special technology of
the department of technology and organization of food production at the Novosibirsk State Technical University
NETI. In order to conduct a comparative assessment, a control sample of a bakery product without the addition of
celery, bacon and cheese (hereinafter sample No. 1) and a prototype with the specified additives (hereinafter
sample No. 2) were developed.
Technological schemes for the preparation of samples No. 1 and No. 2 with an indication of the parameters of
the technological process are presented in Figures 1 and 2, respectively.
A feature of the technology for preparing bread samples was the use of liquid sourdough pulish based on wheat
flour of the highest grade and yeast, as well as semi-finished product autolysis based on wheat flour of the first
grade, whole wheat flour and water, aged at 24 ... 26 ° C for 1 hour before kneading test.
The difference between the preparation technology of sample No. 2 from the sample consisted in the
introduction of diced cheese and bacon and diced celery stalks fried in vegetable oil during the second kneading of
the dough.
For both samples, the dough was kneaded in a spiral dough mixer Sigma TAURO 22-2 V (Italy), the billets were
baked in a Sveba Dahlen DC-12 hearth oven (Sweden). All other operations were performed manually using kitchen
utensils. Formation of test preparations was performed by means of rattan forms.
020019-2
Мука высшего
сорта
Дрожжи
прес сова нные Вода
Мука
цель ноз ернов ая
Соль
Мука 1-го
сорта
Перемешивание
Выдерживание при
24... 26 °C
в течени е 4 ч
Выдерживание при
4...6 °C
в течени е 12 ч
Разведение дрожжей в
воде
Пулиш п/ф
Соединение
Перемешивание
Выдерживание
при 24...26 °C
в течени е 1 ч
Автолиз п/ф
На
пулиш На тесто
Вымешивание в
тестомесе
на 1-й скорости
в течени е 5 мин
Пост епе нное
введение
Вымешивание в тестомесе
на 2-й скорости в течение 10 мин
Броже ние пр и 24...26 °C
в течени е 1...1,5 ч
Обминка
Броже ние при 24...26 °C
в течение 40...60 мин
Закат ывани е выброженного теста в шар
Выкладывание в ротанго вые фор мы
Расстойка при 24...26 °C
в течени е 1...1,5 ч
Выпечка в подовой печи при 235...24 5
°C, влажность 15% в тече ние 8…12 мин
Охлаждение при 24...26 °С в течение
2,5.. .4 ч
Хранение и реализация
Выпечка в подовой печи при 205. ..215
°C, влажность 0% в течение 15...25 мин
Обминка
Броже ние пр и 24...26 °C
в течение 40...60 мин
FIGURE 1. Technological scheme of preparation of sample No. 1.
Assessment of Sensory Indicators and Calculation of Nutrition Value
Sensory assessment of samples was performed in the period 2.5 4 h from the moment of the termination of
pastries pursuant to requirements of GOST 31986-2012 "Public catering service. Method of sensory evaluation of
catering products" by the specially created tasting commission in the number of 7 people consisting of 3 lecturers
and 4 students of the department.
High-grade flour
Pressed yeast
Water
Whole-wheat flour
1st grade flour
Dissolution of yeast in water
Connection
Mixing
Holding at 24...26 °C
for 1 h
Autolysis after
forming
24... 26 °C
during 4 h
4...6 °C
during 12 h
after forming
Salt
For ready-to-cook
product
For dough
Gradual
introduction
Kneading in a dough
mixer at 1st speed for
5 minutes
Mixing in the d ough mixer at the 2nd
speed within 10 min.
Fermentation at 24...26 °C during 1...1.5 h
Knock-back
Knock-back
Fermentation at 24...26 °C within 40...60
min.
Fermentation at 24...26 °C within 40...60
min.
Rolling of the fermented -out dough i n a
sphere
Laying in rattan forms
Proofing at 24...26 °C during 1...1.5 h
Baking in the hearth furnace at 235...245
°C, humidity of 15% within 12 min.
Baking in the hearth furnace at 205...215
°C, humidit y of 0% within 15...25 min.
Cooling at 24...26 °C during 2.5...4 h
Storage and sale
020019-3
Samples were evaluated in terms of appearance, consistency, colour, taste and smell. Each indicator was
assessed in the range from 1 to 5 points, where the lowest score was 1, the highest was 5.
With regard to the indicators of taste and smell as the most characteristic criteria when choosing bread by the
consumer, the descriptor-profile method was applied. The method used contributes to obtaining an objective
assessment in the analysis of individual properties of samples, which in the future will allow them to be regulated in
the process of changes and improvement of formulations and technologies of manufactured products [10].
Мука высшего
сорта
Дрожжи
прес сова нные Вода
Мука
цель нозер нова я
Соль
Мука 1-го
сорта
Перемешивание
Выдерживание при
24... 26 °C
в течение 4 ч
Выдерживание при
4...6 °C
в течение 12 ч
Разведение дрожжей в
воде
Пулиш п/ф
Соединение
Перемешивание
Выдерживание
при 24...26 °C
в течение 1 ч
Автолиз п/ф
На
пулиш На тест о
Вымешивание в
тестоме се
на 1-й скорости
в течение 5 мин
Постепенное
введение
Вымешивание в тестомесе
на 2-й скорости в течение 10 мин
Броже ние пр и 38...40 °C
в течение 40...60 мин
Обминка
Броже ние пр и 24...26 °C
в течение 40...60 мин
Закат ывание выброженного тест а в шар
Выкладывание в ротанго вые фор мы
Расстойка пр и 24...26 °C
в течение 1...1,5 ч
Выпечка в подовой печи при 235...24 5
°C, влажность 15% в течение 8…12 мин
Охлаждение при 24...26 °С в течени е
2,5.. .4 ч
Хранение и реализация
Выпечка в подовой печи при 205...21 5
°C, влажность 0% в течение 15...25 мин
Сыр
голла ндск ий
Сельдерей
(стебе ль)
Масло
подсолн ечное
Бекон
Срезание корок
Нарезка средним
кубиком
Мойка
Нагревание до
160…180
°C
Нарезка
ломтико м
Обминка
Броже ние пр и 24...26 °C
в течение 40...60 мин
Обжаривание до
золотистого
цвета
Нарезка средним
кубиком
FIGURE 2. Technological scheme of preparation of sample No. 3.
For each characteristic of the indicator, a score of up to 0 to 5 points was taken, where 5 points meant the most
pronounced characteristic of taste and smell, 0 points the absence of the corresponding characteristic of taste and
smell.
Storage and sale
Cooling at 24...26 °C during
2.5...4 h
Baking in the hearth furnace at 205...215
°C, humidity of 0% within 15...25 min.
Baking in the hearth furnace at 235...245
°C, humidity of 15% during 8…12 min.
Proofing at 24...26 °C during 1...1.5 h
Laying in rattan forms
Rolling of the fermented-out dough in a
sphere
Fermentation at 24...26 °C within
40...60 min.
Knock-back
Fermentation at 24...26 °C within 40...60
min.
Knock-back
Fermentation at 3... 40 °C within
40...60 min.
Mixing in the dough mixer at the 2nd
speed within 10 min.
Bacon
Cutting by a
slice
Dutch cheese
Cutting of
crusts
Cutting by an
average cube
High-grade
flour
Mixing
Holding at
24...26 °С
during 4 h
Holding at
4... 6 °C
during> 12 h
Ready-to-cook
product after
forming
Pressed yeast
Water
Whole-wheat
flour
1st grade
flour
Celery (stalk)
Sunflower oil
Heating t o
160180 °C
Dish pan
Cutting by an
average cube
Frying to
golden
in colour
Connection
Mixing
Holding at
24...26 °C for
1 h
Autolysis after
forming
Salt
Dissolution of yeast in
water
For dough
For ready-to-
cook product
Gradual
introduction
Mixing in the
dough mixer at the
1st speed within 5
min.
020019-4
The nutritional value of the samples was determined by calculation based on reference data from the "Chemical
composition of Russian food products" (2002), considering the loss of nutrients during heat treatment.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The profilogramme of sensory evaluation of the control and experimental samples of the bakery product is
shown in Figure 3.
FIGURE 3. Sensory assessment of samples of a bakery product.
The figure shows that the scores for all indicators in the control sample were 5.0 points, while the taste indicator
was 4.7 points.
In turn, the value of the consistency and colour indices for sample No. 2 decreased slightly to 4.9 points, the
odour index decreased somewhat more 4.7 points, and to the greatest extent the appearance, to 4.4 points.
Herewith, the taste index increased and amounted to 4.9 points.
The decrease in the appearance index can be explained by the fact that the ingredients of sample No. 2 were not
evenly distributed due to insufficient mixing of the dough and the volume of the product was reduced, which is
shown in the photo of product samples in the section in Figure 4, where (a) is sample No. 1, and (b) is sample No. 2.
(a)
(b)
FIGURE 4. Sectional appearance of samples of a bakery product.
Herewith, a slight decrease in the index of consistency, colour and odour can be explained by the
unconventionality of sample No. 2 for the Russian consumer, since bakery products that use the introduction of
fillings directly into the dough are not common in Russia. Thus, in subsequent treatments, celery stalks can be
mashed or cut into smaller pieces prior to pre-cooking.
Appearance
Smell
Taste
Colour
Texture
Sample No. 1
(control)
Sample No. 2 (experimental)
020019-5
The change in the taste index for sample No. 2 towards improvement is explained by the introduction of celery,
cheese and bacon into the product formulation, which impart new flavours to the developed product. The results of
the profile-descriptor analysis of the taste and smell of the samples of the bakery product are shown in Figures 5 and
6, respectively.
FIGURE 5. Profile and descriptor analysis of taste of samples of a bakery product.
FIGURE 6. Profile-descriptor analysis of the smell of samples of bakery products.
Pursuant to the assessment of the tasting committee, the taste of sample No. 2 in comparison with sample No. 1
became spicier (by 2.3 points), sweeter (by 0.9 points) and saltier (by 0.7 points), slightly bitter (0.3 points), and the
sour taste remained at the same level (1.3 points). Herewith, the smell became less pleasant (by 0.8 points), but at
the same time, it remained characteristic of the incoming raw materials. Herewith, it became more specific (by 2.3
points), sharp (by 2.2 points) and intense (by 2.4 points). Changes in indicators are explained by the introduction of
new ingredients into the formulation of sample No. 2. In this case, in the future, undesirable changes in taste and
smell can be corrected by introducing various spices and seasonings, combined with the main and additional
ingredients.
Table 1 shows the calculation of the nutritional value of bread.
The combination of ingredients introduced into sample No. 2 increased its fat content by 3.9 g, sodium by 58.9
mg, potassium by 67.2 mg, calcium by 66.1 mg, magnesium by 6.4 mg. phosphorus 34.6 mg. Accordingly,
Sharp
Intensive
Pleasant
Specific
Peculiar to the
entering raw
material
s
Sample No. 1 (control)
Sample No. 1
(control)
Sample No. 2 (experimental)
Sweet
Sour
Acute
Spicy
Bitter
Salty
Sample No. 2 (experimental)
020019-6
their percentage of the daily requirement increased, and the enrichment of the sample increased. Herewith, sample
No. 2 showed the decrease of the carbohydrate content by 9.4 mg. The content of iron, vitamins B1, B2 and PP, as
well as the energy value remained practically unchanged. Further correction of nutrition and power value can be
reached in the way mathematical modelling of compounding of products.
TABLE 1. Calculation of nutrition value of samples of bread.
Feedstuff designation
Standard
daily rate
Contents in 100 g
Percentage from standard
daily rate, %
sample
No. 1
sample
No. 2
sample
No. 1
sample
No. 2
Proteins,
75
4.9
5.05
6.5
6.7
Fats, g
83
0.7
4.6
0.8
5.5
Carbohydrates, g
211
32.7
23.3
15.5
11.0
Na, mg
2,400
366.6
425.55
15.3
17.7
K, mg
3,500
96.71
163.94
2.8
4.7
Ca, mg
1,000
21.4
87.56
2.1
8.8
Mg, mg
400
23.70
30.11
5.9
7.5
P, mg
1,000
69.36
103.94
6.9
10.4
Fe, mg
14
1.17
1.17
8.3
8.3
B1 vitamin, mg
1.5
0.13
0.11
8.9
7.4
B2 vitamin, mg
1.8
0.04
0.04
2.3
2.3
PP vitamin, mg
20
1.21
1.21
6.0
6.0
Energy value, kcal
2,500
156
154
6.2
6.2
CONCLUSIONS
The studies performed in relation to the development of formulations and production technology of a bakery
product using stalks of celery, cheese and bacon showed high performance of the developed product, as well as the
feasibility of further improving and optimizing formulations and production technology of the product in relation to
sensory characteristics and nutritional value of the product. In particular, it is recommended to perform various
methods of preparing the input of celery stalks into the dough, as well as its leaf part, and to check its effect on the
specific volume and porosity of the product. To confirm the obtained calculations of nutritional and energy value, it
is recommended to analyse the chemical composition of samples of bakery products.
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Plants are an important source of natural active products that are different, based on mechanism and biological properties. Celery ( Apium graveolens L) is a plant from the apiaceae family and phenolic and antioxidant compounds of this plant have been studied by several scientists. The aim of this study was to review systematically the antioxidant activity of celery. Required articles were searched from databases such as Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, and Springer. Keywords used in this study were Apium graveolens L, celery, antioxidant, free radical, leaf, and seed. Out of 980 collected articles (published in the period 1997-2015), 9 studies finally met the inclusion criteria and were considered. Celery, because of compounds such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, apigenin, luteolin, tannin, saponin, and kaempferol, has powerful antioxidant characteristics, to remove free radicals. It is clear that celery, with different compounds and diverse concentration can have varied healing effects. It is suggested that the next studies concentrate on other therapeutic and industrial attributes of celery.
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The water of the breads was replaced with phenolic aqueous extracts from chicory, cabbage, celery, fennel, olive leaf, or grape marc wastes obtained through microwave-assisted extraction. The highest phenolic concentrations were found in the grape marc and in the bread enriched with it. The highest antioxidant activity values were measured in the crust of bread produced with the grape marc extract and in the crumb of bread with olive leaf extract. Generally, the replacement of water caused significant decreases of the specific volume, the shift of the crumb colour towards redder and yellower tones, and modification of gustatory and tactile attributes. © 2015, Institute of Agricultural and Food Information. All rights reserved.
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Apium graveolens Linn. (Apiaceae) is a plant widely used to treat various ailments such as rheumatism, gout, asthma, bronchitis, liver, and spleen diseases; it has diuretic, carminative, sedative, and antiseptic properties. The therapeutic potential of this plant is due to the presence of diverse bioactive compounds such as apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, α-tocopherol, glucosides, phylloquinone, l-tryptophan, 3-n-butylphthalide (NBP), and 3-n-butyl-4-5-dihydrophthalide. However, most biological studies on A. graveolens are restricted to crude extracts, and many biologically active compounds are not yet identified; a closer look is needed in order to base the traditional uses of A. graveolens on evidence-based data. The current trend toward the use of natural preservatives has triggered research on enhanced memory and neuroprotection, gastroprotection, and the anti-inflammation, anti-hypertention, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, and anti-oxidant properties of A. graveolens and its active compounds. This chapter presents morphological characteristics, vegetation compounds, and an evaluation of the therapeutic and toxic properties of this valuable medicinal plant. The chapter also provides an overview of anti-oxidant activity and the factors influencing the anti-oxidant content of this plant.
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In order to investigate the effects of celery powder (CP) on bread quality, wheat flour was replaced by CP which was produced from two celery varieties (‘Jinnan Shiqin’ and ‘Ventura’) at different levels (1, 2, 3 and 5/100 g flour). For both kinds of CPs, Mixolab analysis showed that the water absorption of dough increased with the increase of CP, while the protein network weakening (C2), peak viscosity (C3) and crystallinity of starch (C5–C4) decreased. The specific volume of bread decreased at higher CP level, whereas its crumb hardness and chewiness showed a reverse trend. The addition of CP significantly increased the total phenolics content of bread, and thus caused a significant improvement in antioxidant activities. The addition of CP significantly reduced the content of rapidly digestible starch in bread, while the contents of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch were increased. Additionally, bread prepared with a higher CP content showed a lower predicted glycaemic index. Based on the results of sensory analysis, bread incorporated with 2 g/100 g flour for ‘Jinnan Shiqin’ or 1 g/100 g flour for ‘Ventura’ didn’t show significant effect on its overall acceptability. The present study indicated that addition of CP could be an effective way to produce a bread with higher antioxidant activity and lower starch digestibility.
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N. N. Kalinin, L. V. Matraeva and S. G. Erokhin, "Mechanism of bakery market regulation efficiency improvement in socially oriented economy," in Conference on Ecological Agriculture and Sustainable Development (Chelyabinsk, Russia, 2019), pp. 129-139.
Chonpathompikunlert P. Celery
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P. Boonruamkaew and W. Sukketsiri, "Chonpathompikunlert P. Celery," in Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Fruits and Vegetables, edited by A. K. Jaiswal (Academic Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2020), pp. 107-120.
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B. O. Cho, D. N. Che, J. Y. Shin, H. J. Kang, J. H. Kim and S. I. Jang, Journal of Food Biochemistry 44(1), p. e13105 (2020).