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Abstract and Figures
Well-being is considered one of the highest values in human life. Although previous studies have discussed the tourists’ well-being outcomes, the impact of tourism on residents’ happiness has received less empirical attention in tourism research. This study aims to explore the effects of tourism development on residents’ happiness in a group of countries by using panel data analysis. The results demonstrate that tourism arrivals negatively influence residents’ happiness in the short term and have positive effects on residents’ happiness in the long term. These findings contribute to describing the well-being impacts of tourism, differentiating between long- and short-term outcomes, and providing recommendations for destination management and tourism authorities.
... Tourism-health nexus is the fastest growing research debate internationally in the recent era. Following the studies of (author?) (38,39), we explore the effects of tourism and other control variables on health in Asian countries; the econometric model framework in the study is as follows: ...
... However, tourism development has an insignificant impact on human health in the short-run. The insignificant impact in the shortrun can be justified as the tourism development results in overcrowding traffic congestions and escalates the crime level that may negatively impact human health and increase the level of stress (39). The long-run positive association between tourism development and human health is supported by Coghlan (33), who stated that tourism development increases social interactions that influence longevity and physical health. ...
Most Asian economies consist of tourism attraction destinations. The traditional literature explores the cultural, social, and economic effects of tourism; thus, there exists a vacuum related to the impacts of tourism development on the human health of local people. Hence, the current study examines the impact of tourism development on health outcomes of the tourism-based selected Asian economies. The panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) methodology is used to deduce the short-run and long-run impacts of tourism development on health outcomes. The results disclose that tourism activities insignificantly influence health outcomes in the short run. However, tourism development brings improvement in health outcomes in the long run. This research offers a new approach highlighting the significance of tourism development for human health and emphasizes the importance of tourism development for destination management and marketing.
... As a modern leisure lifestyle, tourism has importance for life satisfaction and subjective well-being (Godovykh et al. 2021;Lee et al. 2020;Miyakawa and Oguchi 2022;Uysala et al. 2016). With economic development and the improvement of people's living standards, tourism has received unprecedented attention from the Chinese government. ...
Tourism is a large, environment-dependent global industry. As an important policy tool for environmental protection, environmental regulation plays a significant role in development of the tourism industry. Using the panel data of 284 prefecture-level cities in China from 2004 to 2018, this paper innovatively analyzes the impact mechanism of environmental regulation on China’s tourism development from the perspective of the integration of institutional and environmental economics. At the same time, this paper uses the instrumental variable two-stage least squares method (IV-2SLS) to solve the endogeneity problem of environmental regulation and China’s tourism development, which makes the research conclusions more robust. The main results were as follows: (1) environmental regulation significantly promoted the development of the tourism industry. Specifically, tourist arrival (TA) and tourism revenue (TR) increased 8.79% and 8.64%, respectively, when the intensity of environmental regulation increased by 1%. This effect was still robust after applying a series of tests; (2) the impact of environmental regulation on the development of the tourism industry was heterogeneous for three aspects: the domestic and inbound tourism market, urban type, and urban location; (3) environmental regulation contributed to China’s tourism industry development through industrial structure upgrading, technological innovation, and urban image promotion. Our findings offer valuable insight for the concerned authority and tourism sector to understand the positive role of environmental regulation in promoting high-quality development of the tourism industry by corresponding policy-making, industrial structure upgrading, technological innovation, and urban reputation building.
... For example, Rivera et al. (2016) found that tourism development is positively related to individuals' happiness in Aruba. However, in a recent study on the effects of tourism development on residents' happiness, Godovykh et al. (2021) showed that tourism arrivals have positive effects on residents' happiness only in the long term and this relationhip is negative in the short term. A community's support is crucial for successful implementations of tourism attraction strategies as friendly and hospitable hosts can shape memorable experiences for tourists, which increases the likelihood of their returning to a destination (Andereck & Nyaupane, 2011;Kim et al., 2013;Nawijn & Mitas, 2012). ...
This paper investigates the travel spending behaviour of international tourists inside happier destinations. The empirical model is tested for 58 developed and developing countries. Applying various estimation methods and two different measures of nations' happiness, the results show that tourists spend more on travelling inside a destination where local people are happier. In addition, we find that foreign tourists' expenditures on travelling are higher in countries with a higher quality of travel infrastructure and larger numbers of World Heritage sites. Our results provide some implications for tourism planners and authorities.
... The developed scale can be used in relation to the discourse around reshaping tourism amid and after the COVID-19 pandemics. The current practice of evaluating major impacts of tourism development includes the number of tourism arrivals, taxes, revenues, while the psychological impacts of tourism do not receive enough attention (Godovykh, Ridderstaat, & Fyall, 2021). The personality transformation scale can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the rescue plans and post-COVID tourism development initiatives, assess the impacts of tourism on local communities, and design better programs aimed at contributing to tourists' and residents' quality of life and well-being through transformative experiences. ...
Tourist transformation has recently received ample attention. Although personality traits are considered to be overall stable across time, there is evidence that personality might change under the influence of different environmental and contextual factors such as those offered in transformative travel experiences. This study developed and validated a scale to measure travelers’ personality changes after transformative travel experiences. The steps of the study include
personality change scale item generation, scale purification, and construct validation with principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The study results indicated the validity of a six-dimensional tourist transformation scale that may be effective in capturing travelers’ personality change through travel experiences.
Keywords: transformation, transformative experience, tourism, personality traits, self-change
... The current period of time is ideal to invite people to visit virtual destinations, which combine advantages of realism and immersion with opportunities to design new travel scenarios and apply different subjective and objective measures of the visitor experience . One more promising direction of future interdisciplinary research in using virtual tourism experience is the exploration of important health , transformation [87,88], and wellbeing outcomes [89,90] of tourism activities. Modern mobile technologies make it possible to capture important indicators of positive feelings and health (e.g. ...
Virtual reality has become a more common phenomenon in both destination marketing and on-site experience. The recent challenges such as overtourism and the COVID-19 pandemic have created a pressing need to examine virtual tourism as an alternative to traditional travel. This conceptual article aims at clarifying virtual experience in tourism, discussing the main antecedents and outcomes of virtual experience, and proposing a conceptual model of virtual tourism experience. The review of the literature revealed that virtual experience in tourism is influenced by factors related to information, quality, technology acceptance, and affective involvement and has significant effects on tourists’ attitudes and behavioral intentions. This paper contributes to knowledge and practice by classifying the main groups of factors influencing virtual tourism experience, introducing the conceptual model, discussing opportunities for future research, and providing recommendations for tourism practitioners.
... Tourism's positive outcomes in a community include cultural exchange and economic benefits, such as employment rate, increased economic activity, infrastructure for commerce, and a higher quality of life . Nonetheless, tourism may also cause conflict over resources, degradation of the physical environment, and negative social effects, such as the introduction of crime . Tourism may have simultaneous impacts, as is the case with ethnic tourism, which may assist with cultural preservation but also lead to commoditization and inaccurate representation . Similarly, major economic benefits may come to a community from tourism development, but communities may be impacted by gentrification or displacement . ...
COVID-19 has significantly influenced tourism, including tourists’ and residents’ attitudes toward tourism. At the same time, attitudes and consumer confidence are important for economic recovery in the tourism sector. This study explores the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on people’s attitudes toward tourism by analyzing time-series data on the number of COVID-19 positive cases, vaccinations, news sentiment, a total number of daily mentions of tourism, and the share of voice for positive and negative sentiment toward tourism. The applied data analysis techniques include descriptive analysis, visual representation of data, data decomposition into trend and cycle components, unit root tests, Granger causality test, and multiple time series regression. The results demonstrate that the COVID-19 statistics and media coverage have significant effects on interest in tourism in general, as well as the positive and negative sentiment toward tourism. The results contribute to knowledge and practice by describing the effects of the disease statistics on attitudes toward tourism, introducing social media sentiment analysis as an opportunity to measure positive and negative sentiment toward tourism, and providing recommendations for government authorities, destination management organizations, and tourism providers.
Consumer well-being (CWB) is an important multifaceted concept which contributes directly to consumers’ need satisfaction at the material, emotional, social, and physical levels. Despite interest in the concept, contemporary research on CWB is limited in agreement over its definition, measurement and characterisation leaving The term ambiguous, abstract, and with no universally agreed upon conceptualisation. We seek to provide a concise review of current research on the concept of CWB. Our review comprises 265 peer-review articles drawn from scholarly databases, which have been analysed according to a range of theoretical and methodological foci. An in-depth systematic literature review approach was followed. With regard to CWB foci, the review illustrates that CWB research has focused on individual consumer entities with a self-beneficiary foci. Secondly, the review identifies four CWB themes, namely wellbeing, well doing, well having and well becoming. Although, scholars refer to all of these as CWB, they vary in their theoretical conceptualisation, operationalisation and reference to temporal states. Thirdly, the review identifies two mega themes within CWB research namely definition centrality and problem centrality. A framework for CWB is subsequently proposed according to context-based versus object-based modelling. The review concludes by presenting a researcher guideline for CWB and an agenda for future research.
Tourism has been widely recognized as a powerful tool for economic growth in rural communities around the world. The growth of rural tourism has always been a significant start in targeting poverty alleviation and promoting economic change in rural China. Rural tourism development is the participation of rural people in tourism and full integration into tourism development. Rural tourism development depends on the participation and support of rural residents. Therefore, this research explores the influencing factors of rural tourism residents’ happiness and their influence on tourism support. The sample was selected from Anren Town, Chengdu City, China, and the research subjects were residents of Anren Town. In this study, data were collected from 370 residents of Anren Town via a questionnaire survey. The results show that Community Involvement (CI) and Community Attachment (CA) positively affect residents’ Authentic Happiness (AH). This research found that improving residents’ support for tourism development can promote the development of rural tourism. The study finding provides a new perspective for the treatment of residents’ problems in tourism development and has guiding significance for the improvement of residents’ happiness index in tourism destinations. If the community is better, the happiness of the residents will be stronger.
In the study there was set the tasks to assess the level of development of the tourist potential of Russian territories, to determine its role in ensuring the quality of life of the local population, and to analyze regional differentiation according to these indicators. To ensure the comprehensiveness of the study, the authors relied on the obtained empirical data and official statistics; the key research method was a questionnaire survey of heads of municipalities (N = 306). The article used the materials of the quality of life rating for a comparative analysis with the research data. The authors have confirmed the hypothesis that the level of development of the key tourist resources of the territory correlates with the assessments of the quality of life of the population. Still it is impossible to answer definitely the question: which of these indicators of territorial development is dominant. On the one hand, it may be assumed, that the tourist potential plays a significant role in ensuring the quality of life of the local population, allowing the development of the transport network, the cultural and historical complex of the territory, and a comfortable urban environment. At the same time, it is impossible to exclude the opposite influence, where the high quality of life in the region is a determinant of increasing its tourist potential. In any case, the study confirms the presence of interconnection and mutual influence of these indicators that draws attention to the prospect of focusing the authorities' attention on the tourist potential of the territory. Most of the heads of municipalities noted the availability of tourism resources that, if used rationally, would allow implementing strategies for development of domestic tourism and improving the quality of life of the local population.
The recent situation with COVID-19 led to significant changes in the event industry and forced event planners to organize virtual events. However, virtual events are lacking social interactions and are characterized by lower levels of engagement. This study aims at exploring relationships between event types and attendees’ behavioral intentions using experimental design. The measurement model fit and constructs’ validity were assessed with Confirmatory Factor Analysis, while the study hypotheses were tested with the Structural Equation Modelling. The results demonstrate that event types have significant effects on attendees’ risk perceptions that influence attendees’ visit intentions. The study also revealed significant moderating effects of attendees’ age on the relationship between event type and visit intentions. The study provides important theoretical and managerial implications by introducing new factors affecting attendees’ behavioral intentions amid the COVID-19 pandemic, describing the relationship between risk perceptions and attendees’ behavioral intentions, and providing practical recommendations for event planners.
A considerable amount of literature describes concepts that predict theme park visitor behavior. Although previous studies made an effort to measure the impact of several variables on theme park visitors’ loyalty, there is a lack of empirical attention on the impact of some consumption variables such as previous experience, perceived queuing quality, waiting time, using of virtual queuing, and the role of anticipating and remembering the visit. The current study introduces several new experience concepts that were not previously discussed in the literature: the amount of pleasure from anticipation, visiting, and remembering the experience, and time allocation for waiting in lines, amusement activities, and food consumption. Factors that explain these variables, as well as factors that explain perceived value, queuing quality, satisfaction, and loyalty were investigated through survey data from a cross-sectional study. The results demonstrate that the previous theme park experience has a significant influence on customer loyalty and explains the amount of pleasure visitors receive from anticipation, remembering, and the actual visiting experience. Another important finding is related to the role of virtual queuing, which has relationships with perceived value, perceived waiting time, perceived queuing quality, satisfaction, loyalty, as well as the amount of pleasure from anticipation, visiting, and remembering the theme park visit. Theoretical and managerial implications and future research directions are discussed.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the emergence of overtourism, outline the issues and contributing factors, as it relates to cities, and to suggest possible mitigation measures that might be taken by policy makers.
This paper draws from a review of literature looking at longitudinal issues of tourism development overtime and what has contributed to the phenomena of overtourism. A discussion of implications is provided from this review.
As tourism is an industry which has historically been poorly managed, greater political will and actual acknowledgement of the problem, as well as action by all levels of government are the necessary first steps to address overtourism.
This paper outlines key elements that contribute to overtourism and provides global examples which may help practitioners identify key critical issues in their own destinations and identify appropriate actions.
This paper identifies issues raised by local resident populations and possible responses.
This paper provides a critical overview of overtourism issues, as it relates to cities and discusses potential mitigation and reduction efforts, thereby providing an explanation of why overtourism has become so prevalent.
This study attempts to scrutinize the fluctuations of the Fijian tourism market and forecast the early warning signals of tourism market vulnerability using the tourism composite indicator (TCI). The data employed on a monthly basis from 2000M01 to 2017M12 and the indicator construction steps were adopted from the ideology of the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). A parsimonious macroeconomic and non-economic fundamental determinant are included for the construction of TCI. Subsequently, the procedure then employed the seasonal adjustment using Census X-12, Christiano-Fitzgerald filtering approach, and Bry-Boschan dating algorithm. Empirical evidence highlighted the signalling attributes against Fijian tourism demand with an average lead time of 2.75 months and around 54 percent of directional accuracy rate, which is significant at 5 percent significance level. Thus, the non-parametric technique can forecast the tourism market outlook and the constructed TCI can provide information content from a macroeconomic perspective for policymakers, tourism market players and investors.
This empirical study aims to investigate the influence of socially supportive services provided by commercial senior living services on older customers’ social well-being. This study seeks to test the moderating role of social connectedness on the above associations. It explores necessary conditions and causal recipes from the combination of interactions and social connectedness to predict customers’ social well-being.
Data were collected from 190 older customers residing in commercial senior living services in Beijing, Shanghai and Shenyang in China. The proposed structural and configurational models were tested using structural equation modelling and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA).
The results of the model testing illustrate that peers have no influence on the social well-being of older customers. However, positive interactions with employees and outsiders are supportive resources that increase older customers’ social well-being. Social connectedness moderates the relationship between interaction with peers and the social well-being of customers. fsQCA results revealed that complex combinations of interactions and social connectedness predict social well-being. Interactions with employees, peers and outsiders appeared as necessary conditions to achieve social well-being.
This study provides evidence for how commercial senior living services can serve as a space to exchange socially supportive resources with employees and outsiders, which enhance older customers’ social well-being.
Although the improvement of well-being is often an implicitly-assumed goal of many, if not most, public policies, the study of subjective well-being (SWB) and travel has so far been confined to a relatively small segment of the travel behavior community. Accordingly, one main purpose of this paper is to introduce a larger share of the community to some fundamental SWB-related concepts and their application in transportation research, with the goal of attracting others to this rewarding area of study. At the same time, however, I also hope to offer some useful reflections to those already working in this field. After discussing some basic issues of terminology and measurement of SWB, I present from the literature four conceptual models relating travel and subjective well-being. Following one of those models, I review five ways in which travel can influence well-being. I conclude by examining some challenges associated with assessing the impacts of travel on well-being, as well as challenges associated with applying what we learn to policy.
Applying a meta-analysis approach, this study examines the applicability of SET on explaining residents’ impact perceptions of and attitudes toward tourism development. Findings confirm the applicability of SET in tourism impact studies when assessing the impacts of perceived benefits (positive impacts) on support. Findings reveal that perceived benefits produce substantial effects on support while perceived costs (negative impacts) have trivial effects, which suggest that measures and indicators used to assess residents perceptions of perceived costs (negative impacts) may have validity problems. Moreover, a closer examination of the mean effects of five exogenous determinants of impact perceptions reveal that none of those variables have significant effects on the perceptions of negative impacts further suggesting possible problems with the operationalization of negative impact perceptions. Findings clearly suggest that a closer examination of the measurement items used to assess the negative impact perceptions of tourism impacts is needed.
Using data from the UK Community Life Survey, we examine the relationship between social integration and subjective wellbeing. We measure social integration along various dimensions, including frequency of interaction with one’s neighbors, perceived strength of belonging to one’s immediate neighborhood and country, length of residence in a neighborhood, and trust in neighbors. Overall, we find that social integration is associated with higher levels of subjective wellbeing. Specifically, our results suggest that an increase in the frequency of interaction with one’s neighbors is associated with an increase in subjective wellbeing. Similarly, an increase in respondent’s perceived strength of belonging to their immediate neighborhood (and country) is associated with an increase in subjective wellbeing. We further discover that an increase in the length of residence in a neighborhood is associated with an increase in subjective wellbeing, and this is also the case for an increase in the level of trust in one’s neighbour.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the mechanisms of conflict between residents and tourists and to propose a conceptual model to assess the impact of such conflicts on city tourism and to suggest a framework to develop strategies to deal with such conflicts and mitigate negative impacts.
Based on desk research a conceptual model was developed which describes the drivers of conflicts between residents and visitors. Building blocks of the model are visitors and their attributes, residents and their attributes, conflict mechanisms and critical encounters between residents and visitors, and indicators of the quality and quantity of tourist facilities. Subsequently the model was used to analyse the situation in Hamburg. For this analysis concentration values were calculated based on supply data of hotels and AirBnB, app-data, and expert consultations.
The study shows that in Hamburg there are two key mechanisms that stimulate conflicts: (1) the number of tourists in relation to the number of residents and its distribution in time and space; (2) the behaviour of visitors measured in the norms that they pose onto themselves and others (indecent behaviour of tourists).
The model that was developed is a conceptual model, not a model with which hypotheses can be tested statistically. Refinement of the model needs further study.
Based on the outcomes of the study concrete strategies were proposed with which Hamburg could manage and control the balance of tourism.
City tourism has been growing in the last decades, in some cases dramatically. As a consequence, conflicts between tourists, tourism suppliers and inhabitants can occur. The rise of the so-called sharing economy has recently added an additional facet to the discussion. The ability to assess and deal with such conflicts is of importance for the way city tourism can develop in the future. This study is an attempt to contribute to the understanding of the mechanism behind and the nature of those conflicts, and the way they can be managed and controlled. Besides it illustrates how data generated by social media (apps) can be used for such purposes.
This article presents a proposal for a questionnaire diagnosing the well-being of employees in terms of eudemonia. This questionnaire stems from two theories on psychological and social well-being, already used in positive psychology. The construction of this questionnaire and its subsequent confirmatory studies were conducted on the group of 724 working adults. In the final questionnaire version, four factors were istinguished:
positive organization; fit and development; positive relations with co-workers; and contribution to the organization. Additionally, by using the K-means cluster analysis (N = 609), four specific well-being profiles were distinguished: (1) moderate well-being based on relationships, (2) globally high well-being in the workplace, (3) globally low well-being in the workplace, (4) reduced well-being based on their own competences. Further analysis showed that people representing these profiles differ from each other in their level of attachment to the workplace. The guidelines regarding the actions of employers to increase the eudemonic well-being of their employees are also discussed.
This article presents a proposal for a questionnaire diagnosing the well-being of employees in terms of eudemonia. This questionnaire stems from two theories on psychological and social well-being, already used in positive psychology. The construction of this questionnaire and its subsequent confirmatory studies were conducted on the group of 724 working adults. In the final questionnaire version, four factors were distinguished: positive organization; fit and development; positive relations with co-workers; and contribution to the organization. Additionally, by using the K-means cluster analysis (N = 609), four specific well-being profiles were distinguished: (1) moderate well-being based on relationships, (2) globally high well-being in the workplace, (3) globally low well-being in the workplace, (4) reduced well-being based on their own competences. Further analysis showed that people representing these profiles differ from each other in their level of attachment to the workplace. The guidelines regarding the actions of employers to increase the eudemonic well-being of their employees are also discussed.
Introduction: The Cantril Scale (CS) is a simple visual scale which makes it possible to assess general life satisfaction. The result may depend on the health, living, and studying conditions, and quality of social relations. The objective of this study is to identify key factors influencing the CS score in Polish adolescents.
Material and methods: The survey comprised 1,423 parent-child pairs (54% girls; age range: 10–17; 67.3% urban inhabitants; 89.4% of parents were mothers). Linear and logistic models were estimated; the latter used alternative divisions into “satisfied” and “dissatisfied” with life. In addition to age and gender, child-reported KIDSCREEN-52 quality of life indexes were taken into account, along with some information provided by parents – child physical (CSHCN) and mental (SDQ) health, and family socio-economic conditions.
Results: According to the linear model, nine independent predictors, including six dimensions of KIDSCREEN-52, explain 47.2% of the variability of life satisfaction on the Cantril Scale. Self-perception was found to have a dominating influence (ΔR2 = 0.301, p < 0.001). Important CS predictors also included Psychological Well-being (ΔR2 = 0.088, p < 0.001) and Parent Relations (ΔR2 = 0.041, p < 0.001). The impact of socioeconomic factors was more visible in boys and in older adolescents. According to logistic models, the key factors enhancing the chance of higher life satisfaction are Moods and Emotions (cut-off point CS > 5) and School Environment (CS > 8 points). None of the models indicated a relationship between the CS and physical health.
Conclusions: The Cantril Scale can be considered a useful measurement tool in a broad approach to psychosocial adolescent health.
This article reports a study testing the hypothesis that, compared with community residents who are not affiliated with the tourism industry, residents affiliated with tourism are likely to perceive tourism impact more positively, and the more positive their perceptions of tourism development, the more likely they feel satisfied with their lives. The study involved a survey of community residents of four tourist destinations in the United States. A total of 407 responses were used for data analysis. The results provided support for the notion that the influence of community residents’ perceptions of tourism impact and their life satisfaction is dependent on whether the residents are affiliated or not affiliated with the tourism sector.
This chapter investigates the relationship between poverty relief, quality-of-life, and tourism within the context of developing countries. Discussion is provided regarding the three most prominent paradigms pertaining to the meaning and measurement of poverty. A review of literature reveals a debate regarding a clear definition of poverty, as well as the potential link between tourism and improvement of the global quality-of-life. Specifically, the study explores three specific propositions discussed in the literature and their policy implications: Tourism expansion may provide poverty relief to people falling under a defined poverty line, augment human development, and decrease the issue of income inequality in developing countries. The chapter affords a revealing and intriguing look into tourism’s role in reducing poverty levels in developing countries.
This chapter is Huta's most developed theoretical model of eudaimonia and hedonia to date. It details the nature of eudaimonia and hedonia in each of the four following definition categories: orientations, behaviors, experiences, and functioning. The chapter includes a proposal for the variables that may represent the one cell that has been previously ignored - healthy hedonic functioning - to complement Ryff's elements of eudaimonic functioning.
The purpose of this study is to understand hiking-tourist behavior by exploring tourist motivation, personal values, subjective well-being, and revisit intention. The study demonstrates the theoretical and empirical evidence of the relationships among the four constructs. Using a sample drawn from tourists in South Korea, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is carried out. As a result, “enjoying the natural environment and escaping from daily life”, “pursuing new type of travel”, “pursuing healthy life”, and “pursuing intimacy” are classified as motivations for hiking tourists. Moreover, in order to investigate the relevant relationships among the four constructs, a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach is used. The results indicate that revisit intention is affected by tourist motivation and subjective well-being. Furthermore, hiking-tourists’ motivation and personal values are effective predictors of subjective well-being.
Marketing academics and practitioners frequently employ cross-sectional surveys. In recent years, editors, reviewers, and authors have expressed increasing concern about the validity of this approach. These validity concerns center on reducing common method variance bias and enhancing causal inferences. Longitudinal data collection is commonly offered as a solution to these problems. In this article, the authors conceptually examine the role of longitudinal surveys in addressing these validity concerns. Then, they provide an illustrative comparison of the validity of cross-sectional versus longitudinal surveys using two data sets
and a Monte Carlo simulation. The conceptualization and findings suggest that under certain conditions, the results from cross-sectional data exhibit validity comparable to the results obtained from longitudinal
data. This article concludes by offering a set of guidelines to assist researchers in deciding whether to employ a longitudinal survey approach.
Social exchange theory (SET) has made significant contributions to research on residents’ support for tourism. Nevertheless, studies are based on an incomplete set of variables and are characterized by alternative, yet contradictory, and theoretically sound research propositions. Using key constructs of SET, this study develops a baseline model of residents’ support and compares it with four competing models. Each model contains the terms of the baseline model and additional relationships reflecting alternative theoretical possibilities. The models were tested using data collected from residents of Niagara Region, Canada. Results indicated that in the best fitted model, residents’ support for tourism was influenced by their perceptions of positive impacts. Residents’ power and their trust in government significantly predicted their life satisfaction and their perceptions of positive impacts. Personal benefits from tourism significantly influenced residents’ perceptions of the positive and negative impacts of tourism. The study provides valuable and clearer insights on relationships among SET variables.
This paper makes an argument supporting the notion that quality of life (QOL) indicators can also be treated as performance indicators, independently or in nested forms with conventional performance indicators in tourism. QOL indicators are reviewed and discussed in relation to three selected stakeholders, namely tourists, residents of host communities, and employees of tourism and hospitality firms. Specific examples of QOL indicators are described with case illustrations. The paper argues that there is a reciprocal relationship between conventional performance measures and QOL indicators. QOL indicators assist not only in gauging the level of destination competitiveness but also in ensuring sustainability of efficient and effective use of resources.
This study investigates the influence of the number of tourism arrivals on the physical health of local people in one of the most-visited destinations in the world. Although the literature traditionally describes the economic, social, and cultural impacts of tourism, there is a gap related to the effects of tourism on residents' health. The methodology involves applying the limited-information maximum likelihood instrumental variable approach. The results demonstrate that tourism arrivals negatively influence residents’ health in the short term, yet have positive impacts on long-term health outcomes. The study contributes to the theory and practice by offering a new approach to physical health outcomes of tourism, demonstrating the superiority of long-term positive impacts of tourism over short-term negative outcomes, and emphasizing the importance of evaluating the health impacts of tourism for destination marketing and management.
The subject of “well-being” has attracted a lot attention from tourism scholars, but differences and misuses in approach have meant that academic contributions and knowledge accumulation to the tourism literature remained relatively little. This paper aims to attempt to clarify the theoretical source of subjective well-being, and critically reflect on the problems existing in the study of well-being when applied to tourism. It is suggested that subjective well-being belongs to the category of “quality of life” and has multiple philosophical foundations and theoretical sources including theories of hedonism, expectation, happiness and various itemised lists of emotions. A hybrid research method is suggested when applying the concept to tourism.
Satisfaction is one of the most studied constructs in many fields, including tourism. As an important marketing metric, satisfaction is typically measured with self-reported retrospective evaluations of travel experience. However, the memory-based approaches have numerous limitations related to social desirability, availability heuristics, previous knowledge, mood at the time of answering questions and do not reflect the moment-by-moment nature of visitor experience. The shortcomings and limitations of self-reported retrospective evaluations could be eliminated by introducing pre-visit, on-site, and post-visit instant components of experienced utility as measures of visitor experience. The experienced utility allows eliminating the majority of self-report biases, capturing the affective components of visitor experience, analysing relationships between anticipation, experienced, and remembered utilities, and applying emerging moment-based research techniques. Therefore, this manuscript proposes a measurable definition of experienced utility and appropriate measures to assess visitor experience.
This study extends tourism research by examining whether residents’ perceptions of tourism development drives their participation in value co-creation with tourists. Moreover, we investigate the subsequent impact of this value co-creation activity on residents’ subjective wellbeing. Drawing upon self-determination and social exchange theories, we proposed an integrated theoretical model and tested it using data collected from residents in four major Chinese cities. The results indicate that residents’ participation in value co-creation with tourists has a positive effect on their subjective wellbeing. Furthermore, their perceptions of tourism development benefits positively influence their value co-creation with tourists, whereas the perceived costs of tourism have a negative effect. Finally, we found that support for tourism development is positively related to participation in value co-creation with tourists.
The concept of customer experience has received increasing attention in different disciplines. However, the pathway for handling experience has not been clearly set forth due to divergent conceptualizations and insufficient measures of customer experience. This study critically analyzes empirical and conceptual literature on experience, provides a holistic definition of experience, proposes an experience model with four main components (emotional, cognitive, sensorial, and conative), and suggests using a combination of several measures to capture the totality of tourism experience at pre-visit, onsite, and post-visit stages. These suggestions provide important implications for researchers and practitioners by offering new ways to explore customer interaction with tourist products, detect affective and sensory components leading to important consumption outcomes, investigate individual impacts of anticipation, onsite experience, and recall, as well as analyze effectiveness of destination marketing practices.
This paper examines the current state of research on well-being from tourism from the lens of positive psychology. A systematic review of 82 peer-reviewed articles published in English-language tourism journals indicate that tourist well-being is predominantly examined as a consequence of travel, rather than linked to tourism marketing and management. This study presents a conceptual framework of the antecedents, episodes and consequences of tourist well-being. Practically, results suggest strategies on how well-being can be used to generate better outcomes for tourism marketers and managers. By mapping what is known in the intersection between positive psychology and tourist well-being, this study identifies existing gaps and opportunities for future research in this area.
Tourism markets are heterogeneous, and their performance and effects can be better understood when considered separately. This paper investigates the linkages between tourism demand from several markets and quality of life, using Hong Kong as a case of study. The literature has, initially only considered a unilateral relationship running from aggregate tourism development to residents' quality of life, and a bilateral connection has only recently been recognized. The study contributes to the literature by considering a market-segmented (mainland China, Japan, the U.S., and other markets) approach to tourism demand, using a relatively underemphasized objectively-based method, and by providing building blocks for theoretical propositions. The methodology consists of unit root and cointegration testing, together with the application of the Three-Stage Least Squares method with the Seemingly Unrelated Regression approach on time-series data. The identified market-based differences can help academia and industry in better understanding the diverse markets and building a competitive edge.
This paper aims to analyse the factors influencing the impact of tourism trips on young visitors’ happiness using the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). Multivariate regression analyses were performed to analyse the influence of various factors on the impact of tourism on happiness. The results reveal that tourism has great potential to improve young tourists’ happiness. Positive outlook, well-being and cheerfulness are the happiness domains most influenced by tourism trips. The findings also reveal that the travel group composition, type of tourism destinations, some types of social encounters, and overall satisfaction with trips have a significant influence on the tourism impact on happiness. The paper ends with some conclusions and implications for improving the impact of tourism on happiness.
With the development of large and long panel databases, the theory surrounding panel causality evolves quickly, and empirical researchers might find it difficult to run the most recent techniques developed in the literature. In this article, we present the community-contributed command xtgcause, which implements a procedure proposed by Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012, Economic Modelling 29: 1450–1460) for detecting Granger causality in panel datasets. Thus, it constitutes an effort to help practitioners understand and apply the test. xtgcause offers the possibility of selecting the number of lags to include in the model by minimizing the Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, or Hannan–Quinn information criterion, and it offers the possibility to implement a bootstrap procedure to compute p-values and critical values.
This study aims to explain tourist happiness by examining a specific destination in which happiness is generated for tourists via their travel behavior at the destination. Building upon the spillover theory of happiness, we developed a destination-based model of tourist happiness, which is shaped by destination image and service quality and mediated by tourist satisfaction and life satisfaction. This model was tested using data from 1048 inbound tourists in Switzerland in 2015. We found that destination image is positively associated with life satisfaction, eudaimonia, and positive and negative affect; no evidence indicated the effect of service quality on life satisfaction and negative affect. In particular, life satisfaction can largely predict eudaimonia and positive and negative affect. We also discovered that negative affect is poorly explained by its antecedents in the tourism context, suggesting that tourists are reluctant to link their travel experiences to negative affect.
We reflect on our 2002 article and the impact this research report has had both within and beyond psychological science. This article was both one of the first publications to provide empirical support for hypotheses based on the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and a product of the genesis of positive psychology. We highlight empirical and theoretical advancements in the scientific understanding of upward spiral dynamics associated with positive emotions, with particular focus on the new upward spiral theory of lifestyle change. We conclude by encouraging deeper and more rigorous tests of the prospective and reciprocal relations associated with positive emotions. Such progress is needed to better inform translations and applications to improve people’s health and well-being.
Seligman (2011) hypothesized that PERMA (Positive Emotion, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Accomplishment) are the elements of well-being. Goodman, Disabato, Kashdan & Kaufmann (2017) reported strong evidence that subjective well-being is the final common path of such elements and their data are entirely consistent with Seligman’s hypothesis. They argued, incorrectly however, that he suggested that PERMA constituted a different kind of well-being rather than just its building blocks. The complicated issue, one that transcends psychometrics, of how to decide on elements of well-being is discussed.
This study assesses the relationship between quality of life (QOL), tourism specialization, and economic
growth as applied to small island destinations. The study is grounded on a QOL model and translog
production function and employs the limited information maximum likelihood estimator to investigate
the nature of this relationship in Malta. Results indicate that the relationship between tourism
specialization and both QOL and economic growth is only partial. Tourism specialization improves the
residents QOL but, only on the short term. The study enhances the existing empirical evidence of the
literature that examines the relationship between tourism specialization and residents' QOL in the
medium- and long-term in that it controls for endogeneity. The translog production function methodology
is novel as it allows for examining tourism returns and the factors that shape tourism preferences.
This permits supply and demand variables to be combined into a production and consumption system.
Explorations of kindness and gratitude, a felt sense of thankfulness, are missing from tourism studies. Such explorations shed light on psychological value of relationships and social capital. We adopted a positive psychology theoretical lens to explore acts of kindness from strangers towards tourists and to understand how these acts are valued. To meet that aim, we conducted a study with twenty Canadian tourists. Through thematic analysis of semi structured, in-depth interviews, we identified these themes: trust in the other person; a sense of risk or adventurousness; novelty or authenticity of the experience; and eudaimonic growth, that is, receiving kindness from strangers indicated well-being beyond experiencing pleasures. Costs and benefits to benefactors were identified. We developed a model that explains how acts of kindness are personally valued by tourists.
Wellbeing has been a philosophical and sociological concern since the beginning of time, and research has extended over time to disciplines such as psychology, health sciences and economics to name just a few. Tourism studies has also become more focused on wellbeing in the last few decades, both from a theoretical and methodological perspective. After examining the philosophical background of wellbeing from different perspectives, the paper takes a closer look at how these frameworks can inform tourism research and practices. It explores the relationship between diverse terminologies and perspectives as well as the ways in which hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing can be derived through tourism experiences. A spectrum and a model are proposed which outline the relationship between various types of wellbeing, tourism and activities.
Social media, an open space for the public's opinion and expression, has become an increasingly essential issue in crisis events, leading to secondary crisis communication. Realizing the potential risk of that, this study took the “Occupy Central” spreading on Weibo as a case, and applied topic clustering and sentiment analysis to examine the sequential characteristics of secondary crisis communication on social media in topics and emotions. Results show that the topics Weibo users discussed shifted from a political event to tourism boycott, with emotions turning increasingly negative. The turning point of such a transfer was aroused group conflicts and negative emotions elicited between people from mainland China and Hong Kong. The results indicate the necessity of emphasizing secondary crisis communication during a crisis due to the dynamic and sequential change of topics and public's emotions, which may result in new crises impacting the tourism destination where the initial crisis occurs.
Many cities consider development of cultural tourism as opportunity to sustain employment and economic growth of the area. However, increasing tourists’ flows affect local economies and lives of local residents in a number of ways, not excluding negative effects. Careful consideration of benefits and pitfalls of the development of city tourism is necessary in order to sustain balanced urban development. In the present article, we evaluate experience of tourism development in 10 German cities—capitals of German cultural tourism. Our analysis is focused on the effect of city tourism on the well-being of urban residents. To address this issue, we study the effect of tourists’ nights spent in the centers of cultural tourism on the satisfaction with life of urban residents. Based on the results of the study, we suggest policy implications for the development of urban tourism that leads to improvements of the quality of life of locals.
The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of quality of life (QOL) and residential status on resident attitudes toward further tourism development. The measurement of tourism and quality of life (TQOL) is modified. Using a sample of 562 residents from Shenzhen OCT community of China, this study has identified six TQOL domains and examines the effects of each TQOL domains based on the residential status and residents' attitudes in supporting further tourism development. The results reveal that the positive supporting attitudes of residents depends on the selected TQOL domains, especially on non-material improvements of TQOL. Tenants and dormitory residents have more positive attitudes than those house owners. This study also identifies four resident clusters with different attitudes and it is found that the residents’ attitudes of tourism development depend on whether they perceive the community as a place for earning a living or a place to live.
This study postulates that tourism development (TD) and residents' quality of life (QoL) may have an intrinsically reciprocal relationship. The possible connection between TD and QoL is investigated in the island of Aruba, with economic development as a mediating variable. This investigation contributes to the literature by emphasizing the active role of QoL in the relationship with TD through a subjective well-being approach, and by expanding our understanding of the development concept. The study also advances the scope of tourism theory by presenting new propositions. The methodology consists of applying exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses combined with structural equations modeling. The results suggest that TD has a direct and indirect impact on QoL, and that QoL has an indirect effect on TD, via economic development. These findings provide new insights on the dimensions that shape the link between TD and QoL.小岛旅游目的地旅游发展及居民生活质量间的双向因果关系链：实证分析本文假定旅游发展和居民生活质量有内在地相互关系，以阿鲁巴岛为对象，经济发展为中介变量进行研究，并有如下贡献：通过主观幸福感标准强调生活质量在旅游发展关系中的积极作用，深入了解发展概念及以新的命题扩展了旅游理论的范围。本文使用了探索性和验证性因素分析及结构方程模型的方法。结果显示旅游发展对生活质量有直接和间接的影响而反之通过经济发展的作用有间接影响。这些发现为联系旅游发展及生活质量提供了新的视角。