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Management practices to minimize land use conflicts on large infrastructure projects: examples of dams construction in Pakistan

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In this research two cases of infrastructure development (Chotiari and Diamer Bhasha Dams) from Pakistan were studied in terms of a superposition of land uses and their consequences. For this purpose, we obtained qualitative information from both primary as well as secondary sources. Primary data were collected through a partially developed questionnaire from pre-selected experts of various professional backgrounds. National and regional dailies along with other published literature were used as a secondary source of information. The findings have identified the key groups of stakeholders and their relative social power at different levels of governance. The results further highlight that unfair land acquisition, improper displacement, mismanagement in compensation, etc., have caused negative impacts on local people and the surrounded environment. The article further emphasizes governance issues and conflicts among different actors due to the project. Finally, we recommend several actions to prevent strong opposition and conflicts in the infrastructural project in developing countries, like the enhancement of the capacities and the capabilities of the local population, the diffusion of information and the involvement of stakeholders, and the application of technical tools and devices.
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Management practices to minimize land use conflicts
on large infrastructure projects: examples of dams
construction in Pakistan
Habibullah Magsi .Muazzam Sabir .Andre Torre .Abbas Ali Chandio
Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published online: 25 October 2021
ÓThe Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V. 2021
Abstract In this research two cases of infrastructure
development (Chotiari and Diamer Bhasha Dams)
from Pakistan were studied in terms of a superposition
of land uses and their consequences. For this purpose,
we obtained qualitative information from both pri-
mary as well as secondary sources. Primary data were
collected through a partially developed questionnaire
from pre-selected experts of various professional
backgrounds. National and regional dailies along with
other published literature were used as a secondary
source of information. The findings have identified the
key groups of stakeholders and their relative social
power at different levels of governance. The results
further highlight that unfair land acquisition, improper
displacement, mismanagement in compensation, etc.,
have caused negative impacts on local people and the
surrounded environment. The article further empha-
sizes governance issues and conflicts among different
actors due to the project. Finally, we recommend
several actions to prevent strong opposition and
conflicts in the infrastructural project in developing
countries, like the enhancement of the capacities and
the capabilities of the local population, the diffusion of
information and the involvement of stakeholders, and
the application of technical tools and devices.
Keywords Infrastructure Conflict Proximity
relations Superposition Pakistan
JEL Classification D74 H54 O16
Introduction
Superposition of land use expectations and competi-
tion over land uses for different projects have
produced conflicts, mainly due to ignorance of rights
(physical or social), forceful displacement, and
delayed justice (Magsi et al., 2017; Torre et al.,
2014; Wehrmann, 2008). The large development
projects especially the dams are directly proportionate
to the increase in the population (demand); but, mainly
affected agricultural lands (Ha et al., 2016), natural
resources (Ostrom & Nagendra, 2006), which has
H. Magsi (&)
Department of Agricultural Economics, Sindh Agriculture
University, Tandojam, Pakistan
e-mail: hmagsi@sau.edu.pk
M. Sabir
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of
Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan
e-mail: muazzam.sabir@uos.edu.pk
A. Torre
INRAE AgroParisTech, University Paris-Saclay, Paris,
France
e-mail: andre.torre@wanadoo.fr
A. A. Chandio (&)
College of Economics, Sichuan Agricultural University,
Chengdu, China
e-mail: alichandio@sicau.edu.cn
123
GeoJournal (2022) 87:4851–4861
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10708-021-10532-0(0123456789().,-volV)(0123456789().,-volV)
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... In Pakistan, development-induced displacement problems are caused by the more-than -a-century-old Land Acquisition Act (LAA) of 1894, which lacks provisions for resettlement support and livelihood assistance (ul Haq & ul Haq, 2021;Magsi et al., 2021). The LAA has a 'compulsory acquisition' rule that allows the state to acquire land for the 'public interest' and for other public and private purposes (Ali & Nasir, 2010;Torre et al., 2021). ...
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