Wildfire is one of the main natural disturbances in Russian forests, with some 2-17. million hectares being burned annually. The trend of large-scale wildfires, with areas burnt exceeding 2,000. ha, having increased over recent years, is making significant contributions to atmospheric emissions that contribute to climate change, and highlights the need for and complexity of fire risk management ... [Show full abstract] and monitoring. The challenges faced in monitoring and risk management can be understood in relation to the natural conditions of forest environments in Russia. Given the vast nature of the geographical area to be managed, satellite techniques are the primary means for wildfire monitoring in most part of the boreal forest zone of Russia. This increases both the efficiency of wildfire detection and the capacity to obtain information on wildfire attributes. The chapter then proceeds to discuss how the scale and remoteness of much wildfire activity, a lack of transport routes, and low density of population in northern regions of Siberia results in a high level of burn and a significant number of extreme large-scale wildfires annually. The chapter also discusses how fire risk management must accommodate the modern state politics in forestry, climate change, and the growing anthropogenic impact on fire risk.