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Single and Multiple Orgasm Experience Among Women in Heterosexual Partnerships. Results of the German Health and Sexuality Survey (GeSiD)

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Abstract

Background Orgasm occurrence plays an important role in general sexual satisfaction for women. Until now, only few studies have focused on examining a broad spectrum of sexuality- and relationship-specific factors associated with orgasm in heterosexual women currently in a long-term relationship or on differences between the overall experience of orgasm and multiple orgasms. Aim The present study aims to understand how various sexuality- and relationship-associated factors are related to experiencing partnered orgasm among heterosexual women having stable relationships in Germany. Moreover, the study aims to differentiate between the overall experience of orgasm and the experience of multiple orgasms and shed light on their impact on general sexual satisfaction. Methods Within the nationwide representative survey GeSiD (German Health and Sexuality Survey), n = 1,641 sexually active women aged between 18 and 75 years in heterosexual relationships reported their experience of orgasm during the latest sexual encounter. Data on the type of sexual practices, frequency of sexual activity and of masturbation, relationship satisfaction, feelings of love, closeness, and general sexual satisfaction were analyzed. Outcomes The overall experience of orgasm, the experience of multiple orgasms, and associations between experiencing orgasm and sexual satisfaction. Results Frequency of sexual activity, relationship satisfaction, feelings of love and closeness were moderately to strongly positively correlated with each other and each showed positive associations with the likelihood of orgasm. Greater number of sexual practices and frequency of sexual activity were associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing multiple orgasms, which in turn was correlated with higher sexual satisfaction. Clinical Implications In clinical and therapeutic work with women who have difficulty achieving orgasm, central issues should be the perceived relationship quality as well as regular sexual activity with the partner. Strengths & Limitations The present population-representative study is the first in Germany to identify significant factors associated with the experience of orgasm among heterosexual women in relationships. Further studies ought to include the frequency of orgasms in partnered sex over a longer period of time as well as the experience of orgasm during masturbation. Conclusion The experience of orgasm for women is related to a variety of complex interpersonal mechanisms and to be associated with sexual satisfaction. Cerwenka S, Dekker A, Pietras L, et al. Single and Multiple Orgasm Experience Among Women in Heterosexual Partnerships. Results of the German Health and Sexuality Survey (GeSiD). J Sex Med 2021;XX:XXX–XXX.

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... Orgasm, being one of the human sexual response phases, has been considered an indicator of sexual functioning, one goal for sexual activities and an important source of SS [58,59]. Research on orgasm is rich and varied, although sometimes controversial: e.g., some results show that many women do not consider it central for their valuation of SS [60], while others have found that women who consider orgasm to be important are more likely to experience orgasms compared to those who think that it is not important to them [61]. ...
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A stratified probability sample survey of the British general population, aged 16 to 44 years, was conducted from 1999 to 2001 (N = 11,161) using face-to-face interviewing and computer-assisted self-interviewing. We used these data to estimate the population prevalence of masturbation, and to identify sociodemographic, sexual behavioral, and attitudinal factors associated with reporting this behavior. Seventy-three percent of men and 36.8% of women reported masturbating in the 4 weeks prior to interview (95% confidence interval 71.5%-74.4% and 35.4%-38.2%, respectively). A number of sociodemographic and behavioral factors were associated with reporting masturbation. Among both men and women, reporting masturbation increased with higher levels of education and social class and was more common among those reporting sexual function problems. For women, masturbation was more likely among those who reported more frequent vaginal sex in the last four weeks, a greater repertoire of sexual activity (such as reporting oral and anal sex), and more sexual partners in the last year. In contrast, the prevalence of masturbation was lower among men reporting more frequent vaginal sex. Both men and women reporting same-sex partner(s) were significantly more likely to report masturbation. Masturbation is a common sexual practice with significant variations in reporting between men and women.
Article
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In order to examine factors associated with orgasm in heterosexual encounters, we analyzed data from the Australian Study of Health and Relationships, a national telephone survey of sexual behavior and attitudes and sexual health knowledge carried out in 2001-2002 with a representative sample of 19,307 Australians aged 16 to 59. Respondents were asked whether at their last sexual encounter they gave or received manual stimulation and oral sex, had vaginal intercourse or anal intercourse, and whether they had an orgasm. Vaginal intercourse was the dominant practice: 95% of encounters included it. Of the 64 possible combinations of these practices, 13 account for 93% of encounters: vaginal intercourse alone (12%), vaginal + manual stimulation of the man's and/or woman's genitals (49%), and vaginal intercourse + manual + oral (32%). Encounters may also have included other practices. Men had an orgasm in 95% of encounters and women in 69%. Generally, the more practices engaged in, the higher a woman's chance of having an orgasm. Women were more likely to reach orgasm in encounters including cunnilingus. This is the first large-scale empirical study worldwide to link specific practices with orgasm. Demographic and sexual history variables were comparatively weakly associated with orgasm.
Article
The German Health and Sexuality Survey (GeSiD) was carried out in 2018/2019 to provide up-to-date measures of sexual behavior, sexual attitudes and sexual lifestyles of the adult population. We describe the methods used in GeSiD which surveyed the general population in Germany aged 18–75 years (with oversampling of younger adults aged 18–35 years). This article focuses on study design, recruitment, and response rate and discusses the strategies implemented to enhance the response rate compared to the pilot study. Overall, 4.955 interviews were completed with a response rate of 30.2%. The data were weighted by age, gender, education, nationality, and region to reduce possible bias. Compared to the German 2018 census, the weighted sample provides good representativeness for selected respondent characteristics. The computer-assisted interviews consisted of a combination of face-to-face and self-completion components. They covered a broad perspective on sexual health, which included topics such as online sexual activities, pleasure, sexual dysfunction, and sexual violence. Reliable data on sexual and reproductive health in Germany are urgently needed for evidence-based prevention and health promotion work, to inform sexual health policy and for cross-national comparisons of the development of sexual behavior in Europe.
Article
Background: The 11th edition of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is due to come into force in 2022. The goal of the present partial evaluation of the GeSiD study findings is to provide the first ever estimate of the prevalence of different types of sexual dysfunction in Germany as defined by the diagnostic guidelines that are soon to take effect. Methods: The representative GeSiD study was carried out in 4955 men and women who belonged to a doubly stratified random sample of data from residence registration offices across Germany. The participation rate was 30.2%. Various types of sexual dysfunction were ascertained for the first time by means of a screening instrument based on the new ICD-11 guidelines. Results: The reported prevalence of one or more sexual problems, including mild distress, in the previous 12 months was 33.4% in men (95% confidence interval [31.0; 35.9]) and 45.7% in women [43.0; 48.4]. Some 80.4% of men and 72.1% of women stated that they had had at least one sexual contact in the past year. Sexual dysfunction causing marked distress, as per the ICD-11 guidelines, was reported by 13.3% [11.6; 15.1] of the sexually active men (most commonly, erectile dysfunction in 6.6% and early ejaculation in 4.5%), and by 17.5% [15.6; 19.6] of the sexually active women (most commonly, hypoactive sexual desire in 6.9% and orgasmic dysfunction in 5.8%). Orgasmic dysfunction was approximately twice as common in women as delayed ejaculation was in men. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction increased with age, while that of early ejaculation decreased. Women felt particularly impaired by pain associated with sexual activity. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate the importance of sexual dysfunction as an obstacle to sexual health. The study provides the first prevalence estimates for the new ICD-11 guidelines and simultaneously offers a screening instrument for sexual dysfunction that can be used economically in routine practice.
Article
Zusammenfassung Ziele der Studie Bislang fehlten für Deutschland breit angelegte, bevölkerungsrepräsentative Daten zur Analyse von Lebenszeit-Erfahrungen heterosexueller Erwachsener mit verschiedenen sexuellen Praktiken. Generationenunterschiede wurden daraufhin untersucht, ob sich bestimmte sexuelle Erfahrungen in der Generation der 18- bis 30-Jährigen (der Digital Natives) weiter verbreitet zeigten als in den älteren Generationen, insbesondere mit Bezug auf die Generation der 61- bis 75-Jährigen, deren sexuelle Sozialisation noch nicht in die Präsenz der neuen Medien eingebettet war. Für das junge Erwachsenenalter wurde überdies analysiert, inwieweit sich Erweiterungen des sexuellen Repertoires abbilden lassen. Methodik Im Rahmen einer Pilotstudie (1) zu GeSiD – Gesundheit und Sexualität in Deutschland – wurde im Jahr 2017 eine repräsentative Befragung an 1155 Personen im Alter von 18 bis 75 Jahren durchgeführt. Die Angaben heterosexueller Männer und Frauen zu Lebenszeit-Erfahrungen mit unterschiedlichen sexuellen Praktiken und sexualitätsbezogenen Erlebnissen wurden analysiert. Ergebnisse In der Generation der 18- bis 30-Jährigen waren Erfahrungen mit oralen Praktiken und dem Gebrauch von Dildos/Vibratoren bei Frauen sowie mit sado-masochistischen/BDSM-Praktiken bei Frauen und Männern weiter verbreitet als in den älteren Generationen. Während sich bei Frauen kaum Unterschiede zwischen 18- bis 25-Jährigen und 26- bis 30-Jährigen zeigten, hatte ein höherer Anteil junger Männer eine Reihe von sexuellen Erfahrungen noch nicht gemacht. Orale Praktiken, aktive anale Stimulation und sexuelle Rollenspiele wurden von 26- bis 30-jährigen Männern etwas häufiger als von Älteren angegeben. In der Generation der 61- bis 75-Jährigen zeigten sich Erfahrungen mit oralen und manuellen Praktiken bei Frauen sowie anale Praktiken und die Benutzung eines Dildos/Vibrators bei Frauen und Männern seltener als in jüngeren Generationen. Diskussion Die fortschreitende digitale Revolution Ende des 20. Jahrhunderts leitete einen fundamentalen gesellschaftlichen Wandel ein, der sich auch in unterschiedlichen Bandbreiten sexueller Erfahrungen der Generationen widerspiegelt. Schlussfolgerung Aus den Befunden lassen sich erste Einblicke über heterosexuelle Praktiken unterschiedlicher Generationen in Deutschland gewinnen, die wertvolle Hinweise zur Steuerung von Informations- und Aufklärungskampagnen und eine psychoedukative Grundlage für die paar- und sexualtherapeutische Arbeit liefern können.
Article
Introduction: The relationship between masturbation activities and their effect on partnered sex is understudied. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the alignment of activities between masturbation and partnered sex, and to determine whether different levels of alignment affect orgasmic parameters during partnered sex. Methods: 2,215 women completed an online survey about activities during masturbation and reasons for orgasmic difficulty during masturbation, and these were compared with activities and reasons for orgasmic difficulty during partnered sex. Main outcome measure: Degree of alignment between masturbation activities and partnered sex activities was used to predict sexual arousal difficulty, orgasmic probability, orgasmic pleasure, orgasmic latency, and orgasmic difficulty during partnered sex. Results: Women showed only moderate alignment regarding masturbation and partnered sex activities, as well as reasons for masturbation orgasmic difficulty and reasons for partnered sex orgasmic difficulty. However, those that showed greater alignment of activities showed better orgasmic response during partnered sex and were more likely to prefer partnered sex over masturbation. Clinical implications: Women tend to use less conventional techniques for arousal during masturbation compared with partnered sex. Increasing alignment between masturbation and partnered sexual activities may lead to better arousal and orgasmic response, and lower orgasmic difficulty. Strength & limitations: The study was well-powered and drew from a multinational population, providing perspective on a long-standing unanswered question. Major limitations were the younger age and self-selection of the sample. Conclusion: Women that align masturbation stimulation activities with partnered sex activities are more likely to experience orgasm and enhanced orgasmic pleasure, with sexual relationship satisfaction playing an important role in this process. Rowland DL, Hevesi K, Conway GR, et al. Relationship Between Masturbation and Partnered Sex in Women: Does the Former Facilitate, Inhibit, or Not Affect the Latter? J Sex Med 2019;XX:XXX-XXX.
Article
Background Human masturbation is and has been a very heatedly and controversially discussed topic in human sexuality. Studies investigating aspects of human masturbatory behavior and female sexual pleasure remain scarce. This lack of knowledge opens the door to further controversies and misconceptions. Aim To conduct an explorative study on female masturbatory behavior to gain more insight into this nonreproductive sexual behavior and provide an empiric basis for future research. Methods A total of 425 German women (mean age 26.6 years), 61.4% of whom were in a committed relationship, completed a comprehensive 76-item online survey consisting of study-specific, self-constructed questions and validated and standardized questionnaires. Main Outcome Measure Correlation and comparative analyses were performed. Results are presented numerically as means and percentages. Results The majority (94.5%) of women indicated having masturbated at least once in their life, with a mean age at first masturbation of 14 years. 85.9% of women described masturbation as “genital self-stimulation until reaching orgasm.” The majority of women reported masturbating 2 or 3 times a week (26.8%) or once a week (26.3%). Factors independently associated with masturbation frequency were relationship status, orgasm frequency, openness to new experience, and body acceptance. Almost all women (91.5%) reported masturbating also when in a relationship. For the 5.5% of women who had never engaged in autoerotic stimulation, the 2 main reasons were “I hardly every feel sexual desire” and “sex is a partner-only thing.” 7.6% reported never experiencing an orgasm during masturbation, whereas 50.3% indicated that they always reached orgasm during autostimulation. The reasons cited for engaging in masturbation were manifold, ranging from sexual desire to relaxation and stress reduction. The most common fantasy included the partner; however, 20.7% fantasized about being “defenseless,” and 8.7% thought about a “disturbing” scenario that they chose not to elaborate further. Clinical Implications For many women, masturbation does not represent “a partner substitute” to seek sexual pleasure, but rather is a stress coping and relaxation strategy. Strengths & Limitations This is one of the very first studies to provide more in-depth insight into a variety of aspects related to female masturbation. The representativeness of the data is limited to this particular sample of German women. Conclusion Our findings highlight the huge diversity in terms of masturbation frequency, motivations, styles, and preferences that can be observed in this particular population sample of German women.
Article
Pleasure is critically important to the experience of sexual behavior, yet few studies have examined factors that influence it. We explored orgasmic pleasure during masturbation and partnered sex in women with and without orgasmic difficulty, as well the mutual influence of each type of activity on the other. Data were collected from 2059 women through online surveys and paper-and-pencil tests in both the USA and Hungary. Among women who both masturbated and had partnered sex, orgasmic pleasure was higher during partnered sex. Although women with orgasmic difficulty exhibited a similar pattern of greater pleasure during partnered sex, they reported lower pleasure during partnered sex than women without orgasmic difficulty. Women struggling most to reach orgasm were likely to view masturbation as equally or more satisfying than partnered sex. Several covariates were relevant to pleasure during partnered sex, including the importance of sex, the frequency of partnered sex, and the relationship quality, affirming the idea that relational factors play a critical role in orgasmic pleasure in women. Pleasure during masturbation was associated with higher age, frequency of masturbation, and shorter latencies to orgasm, suggesting that pleasure during masturbation was related to greater experience with masturbation and greater efficiency in reaching orgasm.
Article
Objective: Previous research has established a gap in orgasm frequency between men and women. This study investigates explanations for the gender gap in orgasm. Methods: Crosstab analysis and logistic regression are used to examine the gender gap in orgasms from one Canadian city: Hamilton, Ontario (N = 194). Results: We find a strong association between women’s orgasms and the type of sexual behavior in which partners engage. Women who receive oral sex are more likely to reach orgasm. Conclusion: Sexual practices focused on clitoral stimulation are important to reducing the gender gap in orgasms.
Article
Zusammenfassung Einleitung: Für Deutschland liegen bisher keine repräsentativen Daten zum sexuellen Verhalten und zur sexuellen Gesundheit der erwachsenen Bevölkerung vor. Solche Daten sind dringend erforderlich für die evidenzbasierte Präventionsarbeit und Gesundheitsförderung sowie für länderübergreifende Vergleiche zur Entwicklung des Sexualverhaltens in Europa. Forschungsziele: Ziel der Pilotstudie ist es, die Machbarkeit einer Bevölkerungsbefragung zum Thema Sexualität in Deutschland zu testen sowie einen Methodenvergleich (Face-to-Face-Interviews versus postversandte Papierfragebögen) vorzunehmen. Methoden: Im Rahmen einer Zufallsstichprobe von Adressen über Einwohnermeldeämter (25 Sample Points, zweistufiges probabilistisches Verfahren) wurden N = 1 155 Personen im Alter von 18 bis 75 Jahren zu ihren Erfahrungen mit Sexualität, Partnerschaft und ihrer sexuellen Gesundheit befragt. Ergebnisse: Eine Sexualbefragung der Erwachsenenbevölkerung in Deutschland ist durchführbar; es ist gelungen, alle Bevölkerungs- und Altersgruppen zu erreichen, auch wenn ältere Menschen seltener teilgenommen haben. Im Vergleich der beiden Erhebungsmethoden zeigt sich, dass die Interviews (CAPI/CASI) den postversandten Fragebögen überlegen sind. Dies bezieht sich einerseits auf die doppelt so hohe Rücklaufquote (9 % bei postversandten Fragebögen, 18 % bei Face-to-Face-Interviews) und andererseits auf die Stichprobenqualität: Die Face-to-Face-Erhebung bildet die Bevölkerungen bezüglich wichtiger soziodemografischer Merkmale besser ab und sie erlaubt eine bessere Kenntnis des Ausfallgeschehens (Verweigerndenbefragung). Schlussfolgerung: Angesichts der geringen Teilnahmequote lassen sich selbst mit der vorgenommenen Gewichtung der Daten nur vorsichtige Aussagen treffen. Darüber hinaus ist die Stichprobe zu klein, um Fragestellungen zu behandeln, die nur bestimmte Teilgruppen betreffen. Weitergehende Analysen sind dringend erforderlich, sie sollten im Rahmen einer Hauptstudie mit einer deutlich größeren Stichprobe durchgeführt werden.
Article
Introduction: Despite the popularity and analytical relevance of the concept of successful aging, little efforts have been made to address its relationship to sexuality in older individuals. Aim: To explore the relationship between successful aging and the (retrospectively assessed) change in sexual interest and enjoyment in the past 10 years, using a new multidimensional model of successful aging. Methods: The data for this study was collected in 2016 using national probability-based surveys in four European countries (Norway, Denmark, Belgium and Portugal). In total, information from 2,461 sexually active and inactive participants aged 60-75 years was used for analyses. Multigroup structural equation analysis was employed to address the associations between key constructs. Main outcome measure: The dependent variable was a composite (two-item) indicator of change in sexual interest and enjoyment in the past 10 years; a multifaceted model of successful aging predicted the change by country and gender. Results: Tested cross-culturally, the proposed model of successful aging demonstrated a good fit to the data. Furthermore, its metric characteristics enabled direct comparisons across gender and national cultures. Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, higher successful aging scores were consistently related to lower reduction in sexual interest/enjoyment among men and women across the 4 countries. Clinical implications: Given an increased life-expectancy and focus on healthy aging in many countries, the findings about the associations between sexual expression, quality of life and aging well are valuable to professionals working in the area of healthy sexual aging. Strength & limitations: This is the first study to systematically address the relationship between successful aging and sexuality. Furthermore, it provides a multidimensional measure of successful aging for a wide range of sexologic studies. Among limitations, possible self-selection bias (toward more sexually permissive and sexually active participants) and the fact that the findings are restricted to older heterosexual individuals, should be considered. Conclusion: Without stigmatizing the absence of sexual expression in aging individuals, the findings from this cross-cultural study point out that sustained sexual interest and sexual enjoyment are linked to successful aging in both genders. Štulhofer A, Hinchliff S, Jurin T, Hald, GM, Træen B. Successful Aging and Changes in Sexual Interest and Enjoyment Among Older European Men and Women. J Sex Med 2018;XX:XXX-XX.
Article
Background: Self-reported orgasm, perception of partner's orgasm, and misperception of partner's orgasm have each been correlated with individual sexual and relationship satisfaction, but these associations have rarely included dyadic data, have not fully accounted for potentially confounding variables such as sexual communication, and have never been simultaneously studied with a nationally representative sample. Aim: To provide a more complete picture of how the orgasmic experience within the heterosexual couple influences individual and partner sexual and relationship satisfaction. Methods: Using a nationally representative dyadic sample of 1,683 newlywed heterosexual couples, a structural equation model was estimated to test associations between husband and wife self-reported orgasm frequency, husband and wife report of the other partner's orgasm frequency, and husband and wife misperception of their partner's orgasm frequency, as correlates of relationship and sexual satisfaction. Outcomes: Both husband and wife completed the Couples Satisfaction Index to assess their own relationship satisfaction, and completed a sexual satisfaction instrument designed for the CREATE study. Results: 87% of husbands and 49% of wives reported consistently experiencing orgasm. 43% of husbands misperceived how often their wives experienced orgasm. The final structural equation model, including sexual communication, explained moderate amounts of variance in wives' and husbands' relationship satisfaction, and a high level of variance for wives' and husbands' sexual satisfaction. Wives' relationship satisfaction was positively associated with wives' and husbands' sexual communication. Wives' sexual satisfaction was positively associated with self-reported orgasm frequency, and both wives' and husbands' sexual communication. Husbands' relationship satisfaction was positively associated with husbands' and wives' sexual communication. Husbands' sexual satisfaction was positively associated with husbands' perception of wives' orgasm frequency, and both husbands' and wives' sexual communication. Clinical translation: When counseling couples, clinicians should give particular attention to the wife's orgasm experiences, to potentially help both husbands and wives have higher sexual satisfaction. Strengths & limitations: Strengths of this study include the use of a nationally representative sample and dyadic data. Limitations include cross-sectional data, and the assessment of sexual experiences only in newlywed couples. Conclusion: Wives' orgasm (wives' self-report of frequency and husbands' perception of frequency) has a unique positive association with sexual satisfaction, even after taking into account other aspects of the orgasm experience and sexual communication. Leonhardt ND, Willoughby BJ, Busby DM, et al. The Significance of the Female Orgasm: A Nationally Representative, Dyadic Study of Newlyweds' Orgasm Experience. J Sex Med 2018;XX:XXX-XXX.
Article
Researchers have demonstrated that several dimensions of sexual functioning (e.g., sexual desire, arousal, orgasm) are associated with the sexual satisfaction of individuals in a committed mixed-sex (male–female) relationship. We extended this research by comparing a dyadic model that included both own (i.e., actor effect) and partner (i.e., partner effect) domains of sexual functioning to an individual model that included only actor effects. Participants were 124 mixed-sex couples who completed online measures of sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction. Data analysis using the actor–partner interdependence model (APIM) and structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that the dyadic model had a better fit than the individual model. Women’s sexual desire and orgasm and men’s erectile functioning were significant positive predictors of both own and partner’s sexual satisfaction. These results are discussed in terms of the importance of taking a dyadic approach to research and clinical work related to sexual satisfaction.
Article
The study purpose was to assess, in a U.S. probability sample of women, experiences related to orgasm, sexual pleasure, and genital touching. In June 2015, 1,055 women ages 18 to 94 from the nationally representative GfK KnowledgePanel® completed a confidential, Internet-based survey. More than one-third of American women (37%) reported they needed clitoral stimulation in order to experience orgasm during intercourse and 18% said that vaginal penetration was sufficient for orgasm. Women reported diverse preferences for genital touch location, pressure, shape, and pattern. Clinical, therapeutic, and educational implications are discussed.
Article
A stratified probability sample survey of the British general population, aged 16 to 44 years, was conducted from 1999 to 2001 (N = 11,161) using face-to-face interviewing and computer-assisted self-interviewing. We used these data to estimate the population prevalence of masturbation, and to identify sociodemographic, sexual behavioral, and attitudinal factors associated with reporting this behavior. Seventy-three percent of men and 36.8% of women reported masturbating in the 4 weeks prior to interview (95% confidence interval 71.5%-74.4% and 35.4%-38.2%, respectively). A number of sociodemographic and behavioral factors were associated with reporting masturbation. Among both men and women, reporting masturbation increased with higher levels of education and social class and was more common among those reporting sexual function problems. For women, masturbation was more likely among those who reported more frequent vaginal sex in the last four weeks, a greater repertoire of sexual activity (such as reporting oral and anal sex), and more sexual partners in the last year. In contrast, the prevalence of masturbation was lower among men reporting more frequent vaginal sex. Both men and women reporting same-sex partner(s) were significantly more likely to report masturbation. Masturbation is a common sexual practice with significant variations in reporting between men and women.
Article
Introduction: Women's primary issue with the orgasmic phase is usually difficulty reaching orgasm. Aims: To identify predictors of orgasmic difficulty in women within the context of a partnered sexual experience; to assess the relation between orgasmic difficulty and self-reported levels of sexual desire or interest and arousal in women; and to assess the interrelations among three dimensions of orgasmic response during partnered sex: self-reported time to reach orgasm, general difficulty or ease of reaching orgasm, and level of distress or concern. Methods: Drawing from a community-based sample using the Internet, 866 women were queried on a 26-item survey regarding their difficulty reaching orgasm during partnered sex. Four hundred sixteen women who indicated difficulty also responded to items assessing arousal and desire difficulties, level of distress about their condition, and their estimated time to reach orgasm. Main outcome measures: Answers to a 26-item survey on surveyed women's difficulty reaching orgasm during partnered sex. Results: Age, arousal difficulty, and lubrication difficulty predicted difficulty reaching orgasm in the overall sample. In the subsample of women reporting difficulty, approximately half reported issues with arousal. Women with arousal problems reported greater difficulty reaching orgasm but did not differ from those without arousal problems on measurements of orgasm latency or levels of distress. Slightly more than half the women experiencing difficulty reaching orgasm were distressed by their condition; distressed women reported greater difficulty reaching orgasm and longer latencies to orgasm than non-distressed counterparts. They also reported lower satisfaction with their sexual relationship. Conclusion: This study indicates the importance of assessing multiple parameters when investigating orgasmic problems in women, including arousal issues, levels of distress, and latency to orgasm. Results also clarify that women with arousal problems do not differ substantially from those without arousal problems; in contrast, women distressed by their condition differ from non-distressed women along some critical dimensions. Although orgasmic problems decreased with age, the overall relation of this variable to distress, arousal, and latency to orgasm was essentially unchanged across age groups.
Article
Research into the changes in the frequency of sexual intercourse is (with few exceptions) limited to cross-sectional analyses of marital duration. We investigate the frequency of intercourse while taking into account relationship duration as well as the duration of cohabitation and marriage, effects of parenthood, and relationship quality. For the analysis we apply fixed effects regression models using data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), a nationwide randomly sampled German panel survey. Our findings imply that the drop in sex frequency occurs early in the relationship, whereas neither cohabitation nor marriage affects the frequency of intercourse to a significant extent. Sex frequency is reduced during pregnancy and as long as the couple has small children, but becomes revived later on. Relationship quality is found to play a role as well. These results are contrary to the honeymoon effect found in earlier research, but indicate that in times of postponed marriage an analogous effect may be at work in the initial period of the relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
The current research reports a dyadic analysis of sexual satisfaction, relationship happiness, and correlates of these couple outcomes in a large multinational dataset consisting of 1,009 midlife heterosexual couples (2,018 individuals) recruited in Japan, Brazil, Germany, Spain, and the United States (Heiman et al., 2011). Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) identified correlates of sexual satisfaction that included individuals' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater relationship happiness. Even after controlling for individual-level effects, partners' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater relationship happiness contributed significantly to predicting and understanding individuals' sexual satisfaction. Correlates of relationship happiness included individuals' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater sexual satisfaction, and once again, even after controlling for individual-level effects, partners' reports of each of these correlates contributed significantly to predicting and understanding individuals' relationship happiness. Interactions of individual and partner effects with participant gender are also reported. Current results demonstrate empirically that the partner "matters" to an individual's sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness and indicate that a comprehensive understanding of factors contributing to these couple outcomes requires a couple-level research strategy. Partner effects, even when controlling for individual effects, were consistently observed, and explanation of sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness always depended on identifying and understanding mutual and concurrent individual and partner influences.
Article
The effect of stratification and clustering on the asymptotic distributions of standard Pearson chi-squared test statistics for goodness of fit (simple hypothesis) and independence in a two-way contingency table, denoted as X and XI , respectively, is investigated. It is shown that both X and XI are asymptotically distributed as weighted sums of independent χ1 random variables. The weights are then related to the familiar design effects (deffs) used by survey samplers. A simple correction to X , which requires only the knowledge of variance estimates (or deffs) for individual cells in the goodness-of-fit problem, is proposed and empirical results on the performance of corrected X provided. Empirical work on XI indicated that the distortion of nominal significance level is substantially smaller with XI than with X . Some results under simple models for clustering are also given.
Article
In a large representative sample of the Swedish female adult population (N = 1256), having an orgasm from purely penile stimulation of the vagina (as opposed to orgasms from clitoral stimulation) was associated with greater satisfaction (with sex life, mental health, relationships with both partners and friends, and life in general), more frequent sexual desire, greater likelihood of having one's first ever orgasm from intercourse rather than masturbation, and lesser recent masturbation frequency. The association of vaginal orgasm with these measures was unconfounded by a marginal association of vaginal orgasm with frequency of vaginal intercourse (which was independently associated with most of the measures of greater satisfaction). Vaginal orgasms were not associated with having had orgasms from partner masturbation or cunnilingus. The results are discussed in terms of recent advances in sexual physiology showing different pathways for vaginal versus clitoral sensation and orgasm, other empirical research showing psychological and physiological advantages of penile – vaginal intercourse over other sexual behaviours, psychoanalytic theory, and the need to overhaul the practices of sex therapy and sex education.
Article
INTRODUCTION. : Female orgasmic disorder (FOD) is the second most prevalent sexual disorder in women. According to the most recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition (DSM-IV-TR), the term "marked distress" is central to the diagnosis of FOD. In practice, the term "distress" for use as a criterion for a clinical diagnosis is a medical construct and may not correlate with the language used by women with FOD to describe what they are experiencing. The objective of this study was to explore the terminology used by women to describe their feeling associated with difficulties in achieving orgasm. Women experiencing difficulties in achieving orgasm were invited to participate in a focus group. The focus groups included a characterization, picture sort and language exploration exercise and completing the Female Sexual Distress Scale-Desire, Arousal, Orgasm (FSDS-DAO) to determine the impact and emotional associations of decreased/lack of orgasms. Patient reported terminology for characterization of their FOD, and validity of question 15 of FSDS-DAO. Sixty-seven percent (44/66) of the women used the word "frustrated" when asked, "What one word would you use to describe your orgasm difficulties?" In the language exploration exercise, the most common term used to describe emotions associated with decreased orgasm was "frustration." Responses (0 = never to 4 = always) to question 15 (frustrated by problems with orgasm) of the FSDS-DAO, ranged from 1 to 4 (mean 3.0) indicating that women were very frustrated. The term "frustrated" was the most relevant and common emotion women feel when they have difficulties in achieving orgasm. Additionally, the women consistently supported the content validity of question 15 of the FSDS-DAO. Despite the use of the term "distress" in the DSM-IV-TR criteria for FOD, the term reflects the medical construct required to become a sexual dysfunction and does not appear to be an accurate representation of most women's feelings of orgasm difficulties. Kingsberg SA, Tkachenko N, Lucas J, Burbrink A, Kreppner W, and Dickstein JB. Characterization of orgasmic difficulties by women: Focus group evaluation. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.
Article
In 2 studies, the Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) Scale, a single-item, pictorial measure of closeness, demonstrated alternate-form and test–retest reliability; convergent validity with the Relationship Closeness Inventory (E. Berscheid et al, 1989), the R. J. Sternberg (1988) Intimacy Scale, and other measures; discriminant validity; minimal social desirability correlations; and predictive validity for whether romantic relationships were intact 3 mo later. Also identified and cross-validated were (1) a 2-factor closeness model (Feeling Close and Behaving Close) and (2) longevity–closeness correlations that were small for women vs moderately positive for men. Five supplementary studies showed convergent and construct validity with marital satisfaction and commitment and with a reaction-time (RT)-based cognitive measure of closeness in married couples; and with intimacy and attraction measures in stranger dyads following laboratory closeness-generating tasks. In 3 final studies most Ss interpreted IOS Scale diagrams as depicting interconnectedness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It has been asserted that women's likelihood or consistency of partnered orgasm (her orgasm as a result of sexual activities with a partner) is determined by duration of foreplay, but not by duration of penile-vaginal intercourse. The objective was to examine the extent to which women's likelihood or consistency of partnered orgasm is associated with duration of foreplay, duration of penile-vaginal intercourse, and age. In a representative sample of the Czech population, 2,360 women reported their consistency of orgasm with a partner (from "never" to "almost every time"), and estimates of their typical durations of foreplay and of penile-vaginal intercourse. The association of consistency of partnered orgasm with typical durations of both foreplay and penile-vaginal intercourse. In univariate analyses, consistency of partnered orgasm was more associated with penile-vaginal intercourse duration than with foreplay duration (consistency also correlated negatively with age). In multivariate analysis, foreplay ceased to be a significant correlate of partnered orgasm consistency (the exclusion of respondents reporting a penile-vaginal intercourse duration of 1 minute or less did not alter the results). When both sexual activity categories are examined in tandem on a population level, women's likelihood or consistency of partnered orgasm is associated with penile-vaginal intercourse duration, but not with foreplay duration. In contrast to the assumptions of many sex therapists and educators, more attention should be given to improve the quality and duration of penile-vaginal intercourse rather than foreplay.
Article
Although it has been almost 20 years since recorded evidence of multiple orgasms among women emerged, there have been few recent investigations of this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to understand further the female multiorgasmic experience in relationship to the method of stimulatory activity, namely, masturbation, petting, and sexual intercourse. In addition, single-orgasmic and multiorgasmic women were compared by examination of various sexual and orgasmic behaviors, the role of sex partners, and perceptions of physiological and psychological sexual satisfaction. An anonymous 122-item questionnaire was utilized to obtain the responses of 805 college-educated female nurses, chosen for their perceived ability to verbalize data regarding the anatomical structures and physiological processes associated with sexual responsiveness. The findings indicated that 42.7% of the respondents had experienced multiple orgasms and that several significant differences existed between single-orgasmic and multiorgasmic women.
Article
Scientific interest in the impact of aging on women's sexual function and dysfunction has increased in the half century since Kinsey described age-related changes in women's sexual activities. However, a range of methodological issues limit the conclusions that can be drawn from many published studies in this area. To review community-based studies investigating changes in women's sexual function and sexual dysfunction with age, taking into account confounders to aging and methodological limitations. Electronic databases were searched for published studies investigating changes in sexual function and dysfunction with age. A critical review was carried out. Age-related changes in sexual function and dysfunction. There are inconsistencies in the way sexual function and sexual dysfunction are measured. Validated scales are infrequently used. Low response rates, limited age ranges, and restrictive inclusion criteria limit the generalizability of many studies. Confounders are often either not measured or not analyzed. Longitudinal studies are rare, making it difficult to separate the effects of birth cohort and aging. The evidence indicates that a woman's sexual function declines with age. This decline begins in a woman's late 20s to late 30s. Specifically, desire, frequency of orgasm, and frequency of sexual intercourse decrease with age. However, it is not clear whether arousal decreases or remains relatively constant. In longitudinal studies, decline in women's sexual function has also been detected, but patterns of stability and improved sexual function have also been observed for short periods of time. The prevalence of most sexual difficulties or dysfunctions changes little with age, with the exception of sexual pain, which may decrease. Age-related changes in sexually related personal distress may help explain why the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions remains constant with age while sexual function declines. More research is needed to demonstrate this.
Article
Anonymous data provided by 417 female and 179 male sexually active heterosexual respondents showed that in long term sexual relationships, sexual satisfaction was positively correlated with two different intimacy variables, the respondent's orgasm likelihood, and negatively correlated with conflict in the relationship. Multiple linear regression permitted us to measure the effect sizes of these variables as predictors of sexual satisfaction. These findings have important implications for treatment of symptomatic couples.
Article
A growing empirical literature demonstrates that the only sexual behavior consistently associated with indices of better physiological and psychological function is the one sexual behavior relevant to potential gene propagation. In the present study, 30 Portuguese women reported on their frequency of different sexual behaviors and corresponding orgasm rates and also completed the Perceived Relationship Quality Components (PRQC) Inventory. As hypothesized, frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse correlated positively with PRQC dimensions: Satisfaction, Intimacy, Trust, Passion, Love (all r >/= .40) and Global Relationship Quality (r = .55). Noncoital sexual behaviors with a partner were uncorrelated with the PRQC dimensions. Masturbation frequency was inversely associated with Love (r = -.38). Penile-vaginal orgasmic frequency correlated positively with PRQC dimensions: Satisfaction, Intimacy, Passion, Love (all r >/= .44) and Global Relationship Quality (r = .52). Penile-vaginal intercourse orgasmic consistency was inversely associated with masturbation frequency. Social desirability scores did not confound the associations. Results are discussed in terms of both evolutionary and psychoanalytic theories.
Sexual activity, and sexual satisfaction
  • Dekker
The National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles Questionnaire
  • Natsal
Sexual activity, and sexual satisfaction.
  • Dekker A
  • Matthiesen S
  • Cerwenka S