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Vietnam was a remarkable COVID-19 success story, logging zero cases for months on end and keeping life close to normal for much of the population. For much of the pandemic, cases and deaths per 100,000 remained among the lowest in the world (Dong, Du and Gardner 2020, 533-534). But in late April 2021, the highly transmissible Delta variant began to take hold in Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh City - the country’s economic engine, where 13 million people live and work - became the locus of struggle against the virus: amid mass testing many thousands of cases are logged daily. Social distancing measures used to control previous variants have proven ineffective against the virulent Delta strain, and this prompted the Vietnamese authorities to impose increasingly strict lockdowns (Figure 1) and scale back contact tracing efforts to focus on treating the sick entering hospitals. This dispatch, written in late July 2021, offers first-hand observations from Vietnam’s megacity as the country’s fourth wave of COVID-19 hit. It draws on conversations with city dwellers as they try to make sense of huge disruption in their daily lives and suggests lessons that can be drawn from this phase of Ho Chi Minh City’s COVID-19 experience that may interest readers studying pandemic responses in other cities.
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© 2021 by the American Anthropological Association. All rights reserved
DOI: 10.1111/ ciso12413
1
City & Society
Ho Chi Minh City during the fourth wave of COVID-19 in
Vietnam
Rachel Tough, Doctoral Researcher, School of International Development,
University of East Anglia, United Kingdom
Vietnam was a remarkable COVID-19 success story, logging zero cases for months on end
and keeping life close to normal for much of the population. For much of the pandemic, cases and
deaths per 100,000 remained among the lowest in the world (Dong, Du and Gardner 2020, 533-
534). But in late April 2021, the highly transmissible Delta variant began to take hold in Vietnam
and Hồ Chí Minh City - the country’s economic engine, where 13 million people live and work - is
now the locus of struggle against the virus: amid mass testing many thousands of cases are logged
daily. Social distancing measures used to control previous variants have proven ineffective against
the virulent Delta strain, and this prompted the Vietnamese authorities to impose increasingly strict
lockdowns (Figure 1) and scale back contact tracing efforts to focus on treating the sick entering
hospitals. This dispatch, written in late July 2021, offers first-hand observations from Vietnam’s
megacity as the country’s fourth wave of COVID-19 hit. It draws on conversations with city
dwellers as they try to make sense of huge disruption in their daily lives and suggests lessons that
can be drawn from this phase of Hồ Chí Minh City’s COVID-19 experience that may interest
readers studying pandemic responses in other cities.
DOI: 10.1111/ ciso12413
2
Figure 1: Hồ Chí Minh City lockdown timeline. Graph courtesy of Barnaby Flower
(@Barnaby_Flower), adapted from VNExpress.net
Vietnam’s fourth wave began on April 27 (Vietnam Government Portal 2021). As COVID-
19 spread, an infographic produced by the Hồ Chí Minh City Center for Disease Control (Trung
Tâm Kiểm Soát Bệnh Tật Thành Phố Hồ Chí Minh (HCDC)) circulated on social media and instant
messaging channels listing locations, flights and bus routes with confirmed cases and providing
instructions to either isolate at home or enter a government quarantine facility depending on one’s
exposure to the virus. When arranging to meet friends and research participants, I was often sent
this graphic, asked to confirm that I hadn’t been in one of the affected places and probed further on
my whereabouts in the preceding days and weeks before individuals felt comfortable with a face-
to-face meeting. And in other conversations, many people confessed to being scared (sợ) that they
or their family members could get infected at any time.
© 2021 by the American Anthropological Association. All rights reserved
DOI: 10.1111/ ciso12413
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Fear of Infection
Relatively high levels of public anxiety around COVID-19 in Vietnam have been captured
in surveys conducted by YouGov (2020) with online panelists in 28 countries since early 2020: the
percentage of respondents in the Vietnam sample who have said they are ‘very’ or ‘somewhat’
scared of contracting coronavirus - ranging from a low of 75 per cent in July 2020 to a high of 88
per cent in July 2021 - puts Vietnam in the top two most fearful nations surveyed throughout the
pandemic. This may be surprising, given that Vietnam protected its population remarkably well
from the spread of COVID-19 for so long, winning plaudits from the World Bank (2020) and
others for its low case rates. Citizens’ well-founded anxieties about hospital capacity for treating
victims and fears about losing income due to ill health may be behind such high levels of concern.
But the social ostracization linked to a COVID diagnosis - at least during the long period when
cases were very low - has been another reason to fear infection.
A district 11 resident recounted how the family of a COVID positive airline worker living
in an alley opposite his apartment block faced moralizing gossip for undermining the community’s
efforts to stay covid-free due to failing to adhere to the government’s so-called 5K campaign (Khẩu
trang - face mask, Khử khuẩn - disinfection, Khoảng cách - distance, Không tụ tập - no gathering,
Khai báo y tế - health declaration). And the infected (‘covid suspects’) have been scapegoated in
articles that publish their movements around the city prior to their diagnosis. As during the 2007-
2010 cholera outbreaks in northern Vietnam (see Lincoln, forthcoming for a detailed analysis of
these epidemics) the COVID-19 pandemic has prompted cadre, citizens, and the media to set forth
visions of moral behavior and social order that they link to controlling the virus and to highlight
conduct that does not conform to these visions. Thôi (2020), for example, describes angry criticism
aimed at residents of the Phú Mỹ Hưng new urban zone during last year’s short nationwide
lockdown for their perceived failure to respect social distancing regulations while exercising
© 2021 by the American Anthropological Association. All rights reserved
DOI: 10.1111/ ciso12413
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outdoors.
Until mid-July, when the HCDC signaled that the city’s COVID-19 response would now
concentrate on treating the sick (HCDC 2021), health officials focused on aggressive contact
tracing and quarantining. Outbreak areas were quickly sealed off while life in other parts of the city
could continue as usual. A notice posted on my local ward committee noticeboard (Figure 2)
invited a representative from each household to participate in community testing. This involved
multiple samples being pooled and then tested with every individual in any positive pools called
back for resampling and retesting. This strategy has been used across Vietnam to reduce the time
needed to screen large numbers of individuals and conserve tests and other consumables. It brings
down costs significantly.
Figure 2: Local ward committee information board “NOTICE. Regarding COVID testing: On July
1, one household representative is invited to attend School 58 on Đinh Tiên Hoàng Street between
7pm and 8.30pm to take a covid test.” Photo by the author.
District authorities kept citizens informed about localized lockdowns affecting alleys,
streets, and individual buildings by sharing and periodically updating maps on social media
© 2021 by the American Anthropological Association. All rights reserved
DOI: 10.1111/ ciso12413
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channels (Figure 3). In addition, emergency vehicles (xe cấp cứu) with red flashing lights and
loudspeakers toured city neighborhoods broadcasting recorded messages to the public. One often
paid evening visits to the alleyway (hẻm) I lived on to remind citizens of the day’s case rates and
the ongoing complicated pandemic situation and to tell everyone to go inside and close their doors.
On its departure, hastily concealed badminton nets and plastic tables and chairs would reappear,
and the evening would continue as before. On the first day of a citywide ban on informal street
markets (chợ cóc), the van returned at 6am and for 20 noisy minutes urged women touting fruit and
vegetables from bowls and baskets on the pavement to pack up their wares and clear the area.
Figure 3: Map produced by the Division of Communication and Culture of District 11, June 2021
“Quarantine areas due to COVID-19 in District 11, Hồ Chí Minh City”
Impacts on Traders
Street traders have faced severe financial hardship during the COVID-19 pandemic in Hồ
Chí Minh City due to bans on hawking during periods of social distancing. Sellers interviewed by
Pham, Nguyen, and Earl (2021) estimated that around thirty per cent of their old customers did not
return even when the curbs had been eased. Delivery apps such as Grab and Gojek were already
hugely popular with food and beverage outlets in Hồ Chí Minh City before the pandemic. Many
© 2021 by the American Anthropological Association. All rights reserved
DOI: 10.1111/ ciso12413
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independent traders have now turned to them in a bid to keep selling. Vegetables, breads, fruit,
snacks, and regional specialties can also be bought from sellers’ personal Facebook pages -
bartering and delivery arrangements are made through comments exchanged beneath photos of the
produce. Not only traditional hawkers but also office professionals seeking extra income engage in
these informal Facebook sales which involve the seller or a member of their family delivering the
goods on their own scooter and taking a cash payment on delivery. Even when Hồ Chí Minh City’s
street traders can resume in-person trading, e-hawking will likely stay popular with sellers now
skilled in using online platforms, some of whom have found their products in high demand with
buyers across the city. Electronic payments have become more widely used as online purchasing
platforms have gained popularity, leading some to speculate about the end of cash in the city.
However, in ethnographic research exploring the function of money in everyday life in Hồ Chí
Minh City, Truitt (2013) has shown that the anonymity offered by cash is an important quality for
Vietnamese purchasers. This quality is absent in networked systems of payment: when a prominent
individual’s electronic purchase history was leaked online revealing spending on an affair,
judgement from netizens was fierce and the individual’s reputation was seriously damaged.
Decentralizing the Infected
As case numbers have rocketed in Hồ Chí Minh City, the policy of incarcerating the
infected (known as f0) and their direct contacts (known as f1) in centralized facilities - the former
in hospitals, the latter in high schools, university dorms and other institutions around the city - has
proven unsustainable. First f1s and now some f0s have been permitted to isolate at home (Tuổi Trẻ
2021) meaning it’s becoming more common to have a virus sufferer or sufferers living in your
alleyway or apartment building. Over the past few months, many residences with an f1 or an f2 (a
close contact of an f1) quarantining inside have had red signs affixed to them by the local peoples’
committee to warn the community of an infected or potentially infected person inside (Figure 4). A
© 2021 by the American Anthropological Association. All rights reserved
DOI: 10.1111/ ciso12413
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city resident who underwent 14 days of self-isolation with such a sign on her door thought it an
unnecessary step but one that she was powerless to object to, given it was mandated by the
authorities. It is unknown whether these acts of COVID-19 signposting will continue as isolating at
home becomes more commonplace. But, anecdotally, objections from the community appear to be
lessening as the city’s pandemic response shifts to account for a virus now circulating widely in the
community. One student said “The situation (with stigma) is changing. Now f0s are quarantined in
their own homes and since there have been so many cases, people no longer gossip. It is less
shocking than before.” Future anthropological research with recovered COVID-19 sufferers, their
families, officials, and neighbors could help to understand how Hồ Chí Minh City’s close-knit
alleys, dilapidated tenements, new luxury developments and other residential settings have shaped
how individuals experience living with COVID-19 in the community, away from institutional
settings like hospitals and collective quarantine facilities.
Figure 4: Sign affixed to a residence containing quarantining people in Thủ Đức, Hồ Chí Minh
City. “Center for Disease Control of Tam Phú Ward. NOTICE. This family has (a) member(s)
quarantining at home. Please: do not come into contact with them. Note: family members must
wear masks and stay at least 2 meters away from the person who is quarantining” Photo from
Nongnghiep.vn.
© 2021 by the American Anthropological Association. All rights reserved
DOI: 10.1111/ ciso12413
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The State Spectacle of Pandemic Control
What tackling the COVID-19 disaster in Vietnam’s biggest city looks like has clearly been
important to the authorities. Throughout the pandemic, state media has evoked themes of war and
sacrifice and the government has used the slogan “Fighting the epidemic is like fighting the
enemy” (“chống dịch như chống giặc”). After the citywide stay at home order was introduced on
July 10, COVID-19 prevention measures became even more elaborately choreographed. During a
seven-day decontamination effort, army personnel in protective uniforms sprayed over fifty
hectares of near-deserted city streets with six tons of chloramine B disinfectant (Figure 5). Official
images from the event show rows of soldiers being briefed in a municipal depot ahead of their
mission and a cavalcade of specialized military vehicles crossing Sài Gòn Bridge en route to
disinfect high risk areas. One resident dismissed this as a mere exercise in public health theatre that
would do little to stop the spread of the virus, while joking that it might helpfully kill off a few
mosquitos or cockroaches. District 1 pensioner Nguyen Hoang Thinh, quoted in Nguyen and Van
(2021), was less skeptical about the sight of the army trucks: "My neighborhood has been blocked
for a week now because of dozens of infections, now seeing the soldiers spray chemicals I feel
more secure". In recent days the Vietnamese Ministry of Health has told local authorities to end
this practice, as it contravened World Health Organization advice on the appropriate use of
disinfectants in tackling infectious diseases.
The detection of new community cases brings its own spectacle - citizens blockaded inside
apartment buildings without warning while personnel in hazmat suits, their individuality obscured
by gas masks, fumigate the locality. Images showing barbed wire barricades and signs reading
‘Quarantine area - do not enter’ (‘khu vực cách ly - không vào’) with worried captions and tearful
emojis underneath often circulated on social media during and soon after these events. However,
some residents told me they felt reassured when they saw the authorities taking strong action to
protect their community in this way.
© 2021 by the American Anthropological Association. All rights reserved
DOI: 10.1111/ ciso12413
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Figure 5: Special vehicles of Military Region 7 spraying disinfectant on Hồ Chí Minh City streets
(July 2021). Photo from VNExpress.net
The narrative of Hồ Chí Minh City during the COVID-19 pandemic has been crafted
through clothing as well as through disinfection drives and sloganeering. Protective blue suits
(quần áo bảo hộ) are ubiquitous in hospitals, clinics, and airports, and are also worn by health
officials conducting community testing and Vietnamese returning home on repatriation flights.
This utilitarian garb speaks to the situation under COVID-19 - business not as usual. A nurse
monitoring foreign arrivals at a quarantine hotel in Tân Bình district told me how uncomfortable
these one-size-fits-all suits can get over the course of a shift, especially during Hồ Chí Minh City’s
hottest months. As the city’s vaccination drive gets underway, health workers and citizens will
hope that the days of quần áo bảo hộ are numbered and that Hồ Chí Minh City can begin its
pandemic recovery in earnest. But many concede that this is unlikely to happen soon and accept
© 2021 by the American Anthropological Association. All rights reserved
DOI: 10.1111/ ciso12413
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that the blue suits and the collective sacrifice of the city’s health workers wearing them will be
needed for some time yet.
Conclusion
Hồ Chí Minh City’s recent COVID-19 experience offers lessons that may be of interest to
readers considering other cities’ pandemic responses. Firstly, however successfully a city may have
controlled the virus through a zero COVID strategy in the past, this approach is unsustainable in
the long term. As Hồ Chí Minh City has imposed increasingly strict lockdowns (phong tỏa) case
rates have escalated. This shows how persisting with harsh measures in the face of a more
infectious variant brings diminishing returns. Resources should be focused on vaccination efforts –
these have brought a return to near normal life in other cities worldwide. Secondly, city authorities
risk eroding rather than increasing public confidence in their COVID-19 response measures if these
are not grounded in science. Hồ Chí Minh City authorities had to end their highly publicized
neighborhood disinfection drives after the Ministry of Health told them to stop the practice,
invoking World Health Organization (WHO) guidance. This shows how, during a global pandemic,
local authorities are subject not only to the usual scrutiny from national government but also the
scrutiny of outside bodies. Removed from the political context in any particular nation, external
experts are at liberty to call out measures used in some authoritarian settings that aim to boost
morale or project state power but do not protect the population from infectious disease. Finally,
while the pandemic may have popularized electronic payments among city dwellers, predictions of
the demise of cash do not account for cultural factors behind an ongoing need for discreet ways for
city populations to transact as well as the important role of paper money in shaping people’s sense
of belonging. These factors mean that cash will likely be a persistent artifact in city economies
when normal life returns post-lockdown.
© 2021 by the American Anthropological Association. All rights reserved
DOI: 10.1111/ ciso12413
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Acknowledgements
I am grateful to the Leverhulme Trust for supporting my doctoral research on Vietnamese war
memory and I would like to thank the editor for their comments on this dispatch.
References
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track COVID-19 in real time.” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20(5): 533-534.
doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30120-1
Hồ Chí Minh City Center for Disease Control (2021),Thông tin về dịch bệnh COVID-19 tại
TP.HCM (cập nhật 7g ngày 29/7/2021) [Information about the COVID-19 epidemic in Ho
Chi Minh City (updated 7am, Jul 29)]. Available at: https://hcdc.vn/category/van-de-suc-
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ngay-2972021-878699935da8e5285e4af6b87936df12.html
Lincoln, Martha. Forthcoming. Epidemic Politics in Contemporary Vietnam: Public Health and the
State. London: I.B. Tauris, an imprint of Bloomsbury.
Nguyen, Thanh, and Dinh Van (2021), Phun 6 tấn hóa chất khuẩn toàn [Spraying six tons of
disinfectant chemicals throughout Ho Chi Minh City]. VNExpress.net, Jul 23. Available at:
https://vnexpress.net/phun-6-tan-hoa-chat-khu-khuan-toan-tp-hcm-4329347.html
Pham, Ngoc Bich, Nguyen, Hong Xoan, and Catherine Earl. 2021. "Ladies Selling Breakfast",
Anthropology in Action, 28(1): 34-38. doi.org/10.3167/aia.2021.280107
Thoi, Pham Thanh. 2020. ‘Ho Chi Minh City: The Front Line against COVID-19 in Vietnam’, City
& Society, 32(2): doi.org/10.1111/ciso.12284
Truitt, Alison (2013) Dreaming of Money in Ho Chi Minh City, Seattle; London: University of
Washington Press.
© 2021 by the American Anthropological Association. All rights reserved
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12
Tuổi Trẻ (2021), Ho Chi Minh City Health Department issues guidance on monitoring covid-19
patients at home, Jul 30. Available at: https://tuoitrenews.vn/news/society/20210730/ho-
chi-minh-city-health-department-issues-guidance-on-monitoring-covid19-patients-at-
home/62332.html
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https://yougov.co.uk/topics/international/articles-reports/2020/03/17/fear-catching-covid-19
© 2021 by the American Anthropological Association. All rights reserved
... According to the report of the Vietnam National Steering Committee on COVID-19 prevention and control, in the fourth wave, almost 100% of COVID-19 patients were infected with the Delta variant [11]. Infection control policies such as social distancing and mandatory mask-wearing did not seem to be effective at this stage [12]. ...
... An expected solution to the problem is vaccination; however, the Vietnamese government is facing a shortage of vaccine supplies and medical staff. The solution applied by the government was to prioritize vaccines based on people's risk factors and to administer the vaccines through a center-based policy, where people receive vaccines at larger, more crowded healthcare facilities [12]. The centralized vaccination process, however, has resulted in the exposure of uninfected individuals. ...
... The solution has proved effective when counting the number of people having access to the COVID-19 vaccine; specifically, by the end of September 2021 in District 5, Ho Chi Minh City, 98% of people over 18 years old have received COVID-19 vaccines, of which 31% have received two doses [13]. However, this approach has generated controversy throughout implementation regarding doubts about the evidence for the benefit of a single dose of vaccine [12,14]. Therefore, our study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of administering only one dose on the saturation of peripheral oxygen (SPO 2 ) index of future COVID-19 patients treated at home. ...
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a lot of ethical controversy in the equal provision of healthcare, including vaccination. Therefore, our study was designed to assess the impact of Ho Chi Minh City’s policy to hold the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Using a cross-sectional study design to assess low saturation of peripheral oxygen (SPO2) risk based on vaccination status, we included patients who were confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 and were treated at home. The stepwise method was used to determine participants’ low SPO2 risk-related factors. The average age of the 2836 respondents was 46.43 ± 17.33 (years). Research results have shown that seven factors are related to the low SPO2 status of participants, including age, sneezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and fainting as COVID-19 symptoms, the number of people living with COVID-19, and a history of lung disease. A statistically significant (p = 0.032) finding in this study was that fully vaccinated patients had a 6% lower risk of low SPO2 compared to the first dose less than 21 days group. This result was similar in the vaccine holder group (p < 0.001). Holding the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine is associated with a lower SPO2 risk than that of fully vaccinated patients. Therefore, this approach should be considered by governments as it could bring a greater benefit to the community.
... COVID-19 is also an associated risk factor. Although Vietnam had succeeded in keeping zero cases in the first, second, and third waves of COVID-19, at the end of April 2021, the highly transmissible Delta strain began to spread, and the country faced a fourth wave (Tough 2021). In the fourth wave, the number of COVID-19 cases in Vietnam was around 100 times higher than the total of the previous three waves. ...
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This paper aims to identify risk awareness through factors that influence the intention to buy people’s life insurance in Daklak province of Vietnam and provide implications for life insurance companies. The data resources were conducted from the survey of 250 people in Daklak Province and applied the ordinal logit model for the analysis. Remarkably, as we conducted the study during the COVID-19 pandemic period, a dummy variable of COVID-19 was included in the analysis. The results of this research have some similarities and differences with other studies. As with the references, saving motivation was the most crucial factor affecting the dependent variable. Saving motivation, financial literacy, brand name, and risk awareness have a positive impact. While age and gender were differences that have a negative effect on the intention to buy life insurance, which means that young people and women have more intention to purchase life insurance than younger men. The four factors consisting of financial literacy, brand name, risk awareness, and gender were considered the second most important factors. COVID-19 and attitude were the third critical effect on the intention to purchase life insurance. Income was the less important factor.
... This shows that Vietnamese citizens chose not to actively participate in centralised peer surveillance. However, some individuals did request verbal confirmation from others of their having avoided of high-risk zones in the city before meeting them face-to-face (Tough 2021). Besides individual cooperation with the state, ongoing cooperation of medical staff, scientists, and various other professions-such as bus conductors, security guards, retailers, and other service providers-is also expected as pandemic policies and practices are in turn implemented and relaxed. ...
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Vietnam’s national response to the COVID-19 pandemic is informed by its past experiences of fighting endemic disease. This response involves an emerging biosocial paradigm of long-term adaptation to living with the co-presence of viral infections. Moving beyond traditional anthropological work, this article issues an invitation to (re)think crowds and COVID-19. I offer a path forward by engaging in an interdisciplinary dialogue, drawing inspiration from a wide range of sources to understand this unfolding problematic. Through the lens of its public transport service Saigon Bus and environmental protests, I examine how the 2020–21 ‘pandemic season’ (mùa dịch) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam’s largest city, has transformed consciousness about crowds, ways of being in (un)crowded public spaces, and the regulation of networked public space. In doing so, this article explores existing and emerging shifts in policymaking and transformations of urban Vietnamese social relations, in the context of the emerging biosocial paradigm. The article contributes to medical anthropology by analysing the impact of pandemic prevention policies on the transformation of crowds—from being viewed as anti-state assemblies requiring social control into a form of pro-state participatory citizenship, exemplified by public engagement with networked activist communities in a ‘more-than-human’ world.
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Objective This research was conducted to identify the prevalence and associated factors of depressive disorders, as well as evaluate the recognition rate of general practitioners in detecting these mental health issues in primary care. Method Five hundred and twelve participants (55.3% female, mean age = 46.35 years) were assessed by psychiatrists based on the DSM-5 clinical procedures over a two-month survey in a primary care facility in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Results There were 15.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.9-19.2) of the population having depressive disorders, with major depressive disorder being the most prevalent subtype at 8% (95% CI 5.9-10.6). General practitioners could detect depressive disorders in 2.5% of all cases (95% CI .5-7.7). Significantly linked with depressive disorders in multivariable analysis were Chinese ethnic or other minority races (adjusted odds ratios [aOR] = 4.10, 95% CI 1.04-16.12), and low economic status (aOR = 5.41, 95% CI 1.29-22.59). Conclusions The high prevalence of depressive disorders in outpatients of primary care clinics may raise the awareness of the practitioners about screening and other appropriate actions to tackle the issue.
Chapter
Extreme poverty has worsened since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. This global crisis—the scale of individual and collective effects of which many are still difficult to estimate—has triggered considerable disruptions to supply chains, fueling existing concerns about food insecurity and worsening social inequalities, particularly in countries in the midst of global market integration, such as Vietnam. Despite medium-high economic ‘growth’, a widening of social inequalities between rural and urban areas is noticeable in Vietnam. Vietnamese peasants cope with the rapid socio-geographic transformations associated with the increasingly productivist and commercially orientated global agricultural sector. Indeed, the decision-making power to participate in the global economic system can be extremely challenging for groups with already high levels of marginality, such as peasants. It is therefore crucial to assess how they evolve their decision-making power with regards to their participation in the global market, especially in times of crisis: do they gain or lose power? Given the significance of the changes expected in the agri-food and manufacturing sectors, better understanding of how peasants cope with such changes appears critical. This discussion presents, in the context of COVID-19, an analysis of peasant adaptation strategies to global market integration in Vietnam.
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An outbreak of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in China caused by the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARSCoV2) spreads rapidly across the world and has negatively affected almost all countries including such the developing country as Vietnam. This study aimed to analyze the spatial clustering of the COVID-19 pandemic using spatial auto-correlation analysis. The spatial clustering including spatial clusters (high-high and low-low), spatial outliers (low-high and high-low), and hotspots of the COVID-19 pandemic were explored using the local Moran’s I and Getis-Ord’s G* i statistics. The local Moran’s I and Moran scatterplot were first employed to identify spatial clusters and spatial outliers of COVID-19. The Getis-Ord’s G* i statistic was then used to detect hotspots of COVID-19. The method has been illustrated using a dataset of 86,277 locally transmitted cases confirmed in two phases of the fourth COVID-19 wave in Vietnam. It was shown that significant low-high spatial outliers and hotspots of COVID-19 were first detected in the NorthEastern region in the first phase, whereas, high-high clusters and low-high outliers and hotspots were then detected in the Southern region of Vietnam. The present findings confirm the effectiveness of spatial auto-correlation in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in the study of spatial clustering of COVID-19. The insights gained from this study may be of assistance to mitigate the health, economic, environmental, and social impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.
An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time
  • Ensheng Dong
  • Hongru Du
  • Lauren Gardner
Dong, Ensheng, Hongru Du, and Lauren Gardner. 2020. "An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time." The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20(5): 533-534. doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30120-1
Phun 6 tấn hóa chất khuẩn toàn
  • Thanh Nguyen
  • Dinh Van
Nguyen, Thanh, and Dinh Van (2021), Phun 6 tấn hóa chất khuẩn toàn [Spraying six tons of disinfectant chemicals throughout Ho Chi Minh City].
Ladies Selling Breakfast
  • Ngoc Pham
  • Bich
  • Hong Nguyen
  • Catherine Xoan
  • Earl
Pham, Ngoc Bich, Nguyen, Hong Xoan, and Catherine Earl. 2021. "Ladies Selling Breakfast", Anthropology in Action, 28(1): 34-38. doi.org/10.3167/aia.2021.280107
Ho Chi Minh City: The Front Line against COVID-19 in Vietnam
  • Pham Thoi
  • Thanh
Thoi, Pham Thanh. 2020. 'Ho Chi Minh City: The Front Line against COVID-19 in Vietnam', City & Society, 32(2): doi.org/10.1111/ciso.12284
Ho Chi Minh City Health Department issues guidance on monitoring covid-19 patients at home
  • Tuổi Trẻ
Tuổi Trẻ (2021), Ho Chi Minh City Health Department issues guidance on monitoring covid-19 patients at home, Jul 30. Available at: https://tuoitrenews.vn/news/society/20210730/hochi-minh-city-health-department-issues-guidance-on-monitoring-covid19-patients-athome/62332.html
Fourth wave of COVID-19 resurgence spreads to 58 localities
  • Vietnam Government Portal
Vietnam Government Portal (2021), Fourth wave of COVID-19 resurgence spreads to 58 localities, Jul 12. Available at: http://news.chinhphu.vn/Home/Infographic-Fourth-wave-of-COVID19-resurgence-spreads-to-58-localities/20217/44583.vgp
Containing the Coronavirus (SARS-COV-2): Lessons from Vietnam
  • World Bank
World Bank (2020), Containing the Coronavirus (SARS-COV-2): Lessons from Vietnam, Apr 20. Available at: blogs.worldbank.org/health/containing-coronavirus-SARS-CoV-2-lessonsvietnam
YouGov COVID-19 Tracker: Fear of Catching COVID-19
  • Yougov
YouGov (2020), YouGov COVID-19 Tracker: Fear of Catching COVID-19, Mar 17. Available at: https://yougov.co.uk/topics/international/articles-reports/2020/03/17/fear-catching-covid-19