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MEDICINAL USES OF AMLA, Phyllanthus emblica L. (GAERTN.): A PROSPECTIVE REVIEW

Authors:

Abstract

This article explores the traditional biological activity of the Phyllanthus emblica L. (Gaertn.) of the Phyllanthaceae (Euphorbiaceae) family in Indian gooseberry fruit 'Amla or Amlaki'. It shows how people usually treat amla on a regular basis in West Bengal, India. It also states that each component of amla's is helpful for the treatment of different illness conditions, but its fruit is the main portion. Amla fruits, alone or in combination with other plant components, are being used to cure a number of ailments, including the common cold and fever, as well as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, tone-like, diuretic, laxative, liver-tone, refrigerant, stomach, reparative, alteration, peptic ulcer, and digestive problems. It includes numerous physiologically active components, including alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, multi-vitamins and inorganic compounds are discovered in modern research. Studies have shown organic chemical components such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, ascorbic acid phyllembein, emblicanine A and B, and quercetin. The plant has demonstrated significant pharmacological characteristics, including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-cancer and antimicrobial. It was recognized since ancient times for its palliative effects, immunological booster, intestinal, renal and neuroprotective, antifungal, chemo-protective and radio-modulatory and anti-cancer properties. It sums up briefly the other health benefits and therapeutic benefits of this valuable medicinal plant. In the current review, the conventional Amla use for household treatment in indigenous people and its activities will be of tremendous potential and importance. Therefore, an effort has been made to increase knowledge of the medical importance and use of Amla as a rich natural source of novel bioactive components.
MEDICINAL USES OF AMLA, Phyllanthus emblica L. (GAERTN.):
A PROSPECTIVE REVIEW
Chandan Kumar Acharya
1
Dept. of Life Science,
Dr. C.V. Raman University
Naureen Shaba Khan
2
Dept. of Life Science,
Dr. C.V. Raman University
Nithar Ranjan Madhu
3
Department of Zoology,
APC College, WB State University
ABSTRACT
This article explores the traditional biological activity of the Phyllanthus emblica L. (Gaertn.) of the
Phyllanthaceae (Euphorbiaceae) family in Indian gooseberry fruit 'Amla or Amlaki'. It shows how people usually
treat amla on a regular basis in West Bengal, India. It also states that each component of amla's is helpful for the
treatment of different illness conditions, but its fruit is the main portion. Amla fruits, alone or in combination with
other plant components, are being used to cure a number of ailments, including the common cold and fever, as well
as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, tone-like, diuretic, laxative, liver-tone, refrigerant, stomach, reparative, alteration,
peptic ulcer, and digestive problems. It includes numerous physiologically active components, including alkaloids,
tannins, polyphenols, multi-vitamins and inorganic compounds are discovered in modern research. Studies have
shown organic chemical components such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, ascorbic acid phyllembein, emblicanine A
and B, and quercetin. The plant has demonstrated significant pharmacological characteristics, including
antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-cancer and antimicrobial. It was recognized since ancient times for its
palliative effects, immunological booster, intestinal, renal and neuroprotective, antifungal, chemo-protective and
radio-modulatory and anti-cancer properties. It sums up briefly the other health benefits and therapeutic benefits of
this valuable medicinal plant. In the current review, the conventional Amla use for household treatment in
indigenous people and its activities will be of tremendous potential and importance. Therefore, an effort has been
made to increase knowledge of the medical importance and use of Amla as a rich natural source of novel bioactive
components.
Keywords
Amla, Phyllanthus emblica L. (Gaertn.), Medicin uses, Phytochemicals, Therapeutic
potential.
1.
INTRODUCTION
The increase in population in some regions of the globe, particularly in developing nations like
India, has led to a continuing endeavour to create safer, reversible and simple treatment options
[1,2,3,4]. The discovery of novel medicines from plants is an appealing objective [5,6,7]. The author
has analysed the active components using GC-MS analysis, which is contained in the fruit of P.
emblica L (Gaertn.), from many geographical areas consumed by West Bengal tribals for the treatment
of several illness alignments [8,9]. P. emblica L (Gaertn.) has been studied extensively worldwide and
has been proven for its pharmacological and therapeutic activities. Pharmacological studies reveals that
the plant has Anti-oxidant [10, 11, 12, 13, 14], anti-mutagenic [11], anti-tumour [12],
Immunomodulatory [15], Carminative [16], cytoprotective [17], anti-antherogenic [18], anti-anaemic,
antihematuric, nervine tonic, hemorrhoids, menorrhagia, anti-epileptic, anti-viral [19],
anti-convulsant
[20], anti-leucorrhoea [21], anti-jaundice, anti-dyslipidemic, memory enhancer [22-33], anti-cataleptic
[32], anti-apoptotic [33], stomachic, hair tonic, anti-inflammatory [10,11,34,35], properties. The fruit of
amla contains several hydrolysable tannins. Both Emblicanin A and Emblicanin B have antioxidant
properties [10], whereas Emblicanin A alone has a strong growth inhibitory effect on prostate cancer
cells [36]. The presence of Phyllantidine, an alkaloid in fruits, has proven neuropharmacological
activity (CNS activity) [37]. Therapeutically the plant has been used as hepatoprotective [10,38,39],
nephroprotective [10, 40], anti-diabetic [10,41], immunostimulant, anti-cancer [10,42], anti-pyretic
[43], antitussive, dermo protective [10], pancreas disorder, anti-aging [10], eye disorder, Cerebro
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protective [10], osteoporosis, analgesic [10,21,34], anti-microbial [44-63], gastroprotective [10],
obesity, metabolic syndrome [10], cardio-protective [10], activities.
Our study represents that these fruits are a rich source of organic bioactive compounds, the majority
of which have long been used to treat and maintain human health. The fruit, used in Ayurveda for the
treatment of diarrhoea, jaundice and inflammation as a powerful Rasayan and in traditional medicine. It
has one of the highest amounts of vitamin C of any food, which acts as an antioxidant and helps fight
bacterial infections. The plant has been extensively studied and proven for its pharmacological and
therapeutic properties all over the world.
More than 95 research and review articles were consulted for preparing this manuscript. The
literature review was carried out by searching keywords like-‘Medicinal plant’,Phyllanthus emblica’,
‘Amla’, ‘Phytochemistry’, ‘Ethnic knowledge’, ‘Traditional knowledge’ etc. through various search
engines like ‘google’, ‘google scholar’, ‘research gate’, ‘science direct’, ‘pubmed’, ‘pubchem’etc.
2.
SYSTEMATIC
POSITION
OF
PHYLLANTHUS
EMBLICA
Cultivated (gramya) and wild (vanya) varieties of Amla are found in India. The wild amla is small
smooth and juicy. Taxonomic hierarchy of Phyllanthus emblica is-
Kingdom : Plantae -plants
Sub-kingdom: Tracheobionta -vascular plants
Super Division: Spermatophyta- seed plant
Division: Magnoliophyta-Flowering plant
Class: Magnoliopsida-Dicotyledons.
Sub-class: Rosidae.
Order : Malpighiales
Family : Phyllanthacae
Genus : Phyllanthus L. (Leaf-flower)
Species : Phyllanthus emblica L. (Emblic)
3.
SYNONYMS
Phyllanthus emblica, also known as Cicca emblica (L.) Kurz., Diasperus emblica (L.) Kuntze
Dichelactina nodicaulis Hance, Emblica arborea Raf., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Phyllanthus
glomeratus Roxb. ex Wall. nom. inval., Phyllanthus mairei H. Lév., Phyllanthus mimosifolius Salisb.,
Phyllanthus taxifolius D. Don [64].
4.
VERNACULAR
NAME
Arabic: Amliy, Amlaj. Assami: Amalaki, Amluki, sohmyrlain. Bengali: Ambolati, Amla,
Amalaki, Amlati, Amulati, Aunlah, Yeonlah. Burma: Hziphyu, Shabju, Siphiyusi, Tasha, Zibyu,
Ziphiyusi. Cuttack: Alathanda. English: Emblic myrobalan tree, Indian Gooseberry. Gujarati: Amli,
Ambala, Ambri, Amla, Bhoza, Bhozzmali. Hindi: Amalaci, Amla, Amlika, Anola, Anuli, anvula,
Anvurah, Anwerd, Aonla, aungra, Aunra, Daula. Kashmiri: Ambali, Amli Aonla Konkani: Anvallo,
Dogranvalli, Dogranvallo. Malayalam: Amalakam, Nelli, Nellikka. Marathi: Anvala, Aonli, Avla,
Arola, Bhuiawali. Nepal: Amla. Punjabi: Ambal, Ambli, Ambul, Amla, Aonla. Sanskrit: Dharti-
phala, Amraphalam, Amalku, Adiphala Sinhalese: Awusadanelli, Nelli, Nellika. Tamil: Amalagam,
Andakoram, Indul, Kattunelli, Nelli, Perunelli, Sirottam, Tattiri, Topunelli. Telugu: Amalakamu,
amalaki, Nelli, pullayusirika, Usirika, Usirikaya, Usiriki. Tulu: Nelli. Urdu: Anwala. Uriya:
Khondona, Onola [63, 65].
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5.
NUTRITIONAL
COMPONENTS
More than 80 percent of water is included in the chemical makeup of the Amla fruit. It is one of the
richest polyphenols, minerals and vitamin C sources. Figures (1, 2 and 3) and Tables (1) and (2) show
the main nutrient components [64,8,9,65].
Fig. 1: Diagrammatic representation of Nutritional content of P. emblica.
Fig. 2: Diagram exhibiting various Phyto-chemicals reported from P. emblica fruit.
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Fig. 3: Phytochemicals present in different parts of the plant P. emblica.
TABLE (1) :PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDS PRESENT IN P. EMBLICA L. (GAERTN.) FRUIT.
Sl.
Bioactive
Compounds Chemical constituents Ref.
1 Alkaloids Phyllembein, Phyllantine, Phyllantidine. 66
2 Amino acids Glutamic acid, Proline, Alanine, Lysine, Aspartic acid,
Cystine. 66
3 Carbohydrades
Pectin 66
4 Flavonoids Quercetin, Kaempferol 66, 67,
68
5 Organic acids Citric acid 66
6 Sterols βsitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside and Stigmasta-7,22-dien-3-O-β-D-
glucoside 69,70
7 Tannins
Hydrolysable tannins viz. Emblicanin A and B, Ellagotannin,
Pedunculagin, Punigluconin, Chebulagic acid (Benzopyran
tannin), Chebulinic acid (Ellagitannin), Geraniin
(Dehydroellagitannin), Corilagin (Ellagitannin), Ellagic Acid,
Phyllemblin, Pyrogalol, Gallic acid, Corilagin.
66, 68,
71.
Plant Parts Biologically active components
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8 Triterpenes Secofriedelanophyllemblicine, Ursophyllemblicoside. 72
9 Vitamins Ascorbic acid 66
10 Essential oil Methyl salicylate and benzaldehyde 73
TABLE (2): CHEMICAL CONSTITUEN TS AND THEIR BIOACTIVITY IN P. EMBLICA L. (GAERTN.) FRUIT.
Chemical
Compounds
Molecular
Formula
Molecular
Weight
(g/mol)
Pharmacological significance Ref.
Ascorbic Acid C
6
H
8
O
6
176.12
Antioxidant., Antidiabetic. Hepato-
protective, Cardio-protective.
Fighting against bacterial infections.
64,11
Emblicanin A C
34
H
22
O
22
782.5
Strong inhibitor of the growth of
prostate cancer cells. Antioxidant.
Cardio-protective.
64,11,3
6
Emblicanin B C
34
H
20
O
22
780.5 Antioxidant. Cardio-protective. 64,11
Chebulagic
Acid C
41
H
30
O
27
954.7
Inhibitor of Lipooxygenase enzymatic
activity.
Antispasmodic action.
11
Chebulinic
Acid C
41
H
32
O
27
956.7 Anti-oxidant, Anti-secretory and
cryo-protective. 11
Citric Acid C
6
H
8
O
7
192.12
Anti-oxidant. As a preservative.
Acidulant to control pH.
Anticoagulant by chelating calcium in
blood.
11
Ellagic Acid C
14
H
6
O
8
302.19
Antioxidant and anti-
proliferative/anti-cancer effects.
Radio-protective and chemo-
preventive, anti-tyrosinase,
antiatherogenic Properties,
estrogenic/anti-estrogenic. Cardio-
protective.
4,11
Gallic Acid C
7
H
6
O
5
170.12
Antidiarrheal, Radio protective effect,
chemo preventive effect,
antioxidative, antimutagenic,
antiallergic, anti-carcinogenic and
anti-inflammatory activities. Hepato-
protective.
64,11
Phyllantidine C
13
H
15
NO
3
233.26 Neuro pharmacological activity (CNS
activity). 37
Phyllantine C
24
H
34
O
6
418.5 Not yet studied.
Kaempferol C
15
H
10
O
6
286.24 Antioxidant. 14
Quercetin C
15
H
10
O
7
302.23
Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy
effects. Potential chemo-preventive
activity.
11
Pedunculagin C
34
H
24
O
22
784.5 Antitumor, Antioxidant activity. 11
Punigluconin C
34
H
26
O
23
802.556 Antioxidant activity. 11
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6.
P
OTENTIAL THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS
The plant has been employed as a potent Rasayana and traditional medicine for the treatment of
various disease disorders for indigenous people throughout the world due to the presence of phenolic
compounds, tannins, phyllambelic acid, phyllembeline, emblicanin A and B, ellagic acid, gallic acid,
ascorbic acid. Table (3) and Fig. (4) deal with traditional therapeutic potentials of P. emblica L.
(Gaertn.).
Fig. 4: Diagrammatic representation of therapeutic potentials of individual phyto-constituents from Fruits
of P. emblica.
TABLE (3): TRADITIONAL TH ERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS IN P. E MBLICA L. (GAERTN.) FRUIT.
Sl.
No
Diseases/
Treatment for Parts used Preparation /Administration/Dose Ref.
1 Boils and spots Fruit pericarp Decoction with cow ghee. 64,74,75
2 Constipation Fruit
Pickled or preserved in sugar is the
fruit or fresh fruit. Used when dry.
When dry. Every day, one or two
fruits.
11
3 Dental problems Root, leaves,
node
The roots of 10 grammes are collected
and ground. Take twice a day after
dinner.
11
4 Diabetes Fruit
Juice tablespoon combined with a cup
of bitter gourd juice. Two months
every day.
11
5 Diarrhoea Fruit, bark, root,
leaves
Fruit decoction is combined with acid
or bark of the fruit's astringency.
Decoction and development of the
11, 63
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root solution create a catechu-like
astringent extract. The leaves are
additionally infused with fenugreek
seed.
6 Diuretic Fresh fruit
Fruit paste + Saffron [more likely to
be Curcuma longa (Indian saffron) +
Crocus sativus (saffron)] and rose
water + Nelumbium speciosum (the
Egyptian Lotus).
64,74.
7 Fever Leaves, fresh
fruit, seed
The leaves and seed decoctions are
applied, dried grapes and sugar are
applied, or fresh fruits and compounds
comprising equal amounts of emblica,
chitrak, chebulic myrobalan, and pipli
are decocted.
11
8 Gonorrohoea Bark Bark juice is administered in
combination with honey and turmuric.
11, 64
9 Hair growth and
prevent greying Fruit
Fresh fruits or crushed fruits. Dried
fruit boiled in coconut oil prevents
greying. Dried Amla pieces are soaked
overnight in water, nourishing to hair.
37, 64
10 Headache Fruit Fruit + buttermilk. 64,40.
11 Sleep disorder, body
coolant Fruit Regular consuming raw fruits. 63
12 Eye disorder Seed Seed infusion applied externally. 64
13 Mouth ulcers Root Bark, leaf
Root bark combined with sweetheart
and leaf decoction used to oral
irritation. Root bark with sweet
massaged to treat aphthous stomatitis
(an inflammation of the mouth).
64, 75.
14 Nose bleed Seed
As the lep to the forehead, amla seeds
should be cooked in ghee and crushed
in conjee are applied to stop nose
bleeding.
1, 64, 76
15 Respiratory problem
Fruit
Regular consuming fruit juice cures
respiratory problem due to cigarette
smoking.
64, 77
16 Piles Fruits
Drinking fresh Amla juice + 100 Gms.
of milk after lunch cures chronic piles
problem + 1 teaspoon of honey+ half
teaspoon of ghee.
64, 78.
17 Skin whitening Fruit Combination with Neem. 64,
75,78,
18. Gout Fruit Amla juice with old ghee helps joints
soften. 64
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7.
AMLA
IN
AYURVEDA
AND
PHARMACOLOGICAL
SIGNIFICANCE
According to two main classic texts on Sushrut Samhita, Charak Samhita and Ayurveda, Amlaki
plant is considered the finest among rejuvenating herbs, helpful in cough and skin conditions soothing
and the best in the sour fruit [8,9]. The regular use of the fruit of amla can assimilation of food,
strengthen digestion [8,9] and absorption. There are so many merits that Amla imparts that are
mentioned in pharmacological and Ayurvedic texts. These are discussed in Fig. (5).
Fig. 5: Diagram exhibiting some previously reported experimental Pharmacological studies on extracts of
different plant parts of P. emblica L. (Gaertn.).
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8.
FRUIT
INFECTION
CAUSED
BY
FUNGI
Although Amla fruit has above said pharmacological and therapeutic potentials, this valuable fruit
has been infected by several pathogenic fungi, which affects the fruit quality to a great extent. For
example, vitamin-c concentration declines gradually when the fruit is infected by Phoma exigna
(phoma infection is generally observed frequently during the colder month of January) [91, 92]. Table
IV depicts previously reported fungal infections on fruit of Phyllanthus emblica L. (Gaertn.).
TABLE (4) : PREVIOUSLY REPOR TED FUNGAL INFECTION ON P. E MBLICA L. (GAERTN.) FRUIT.
Disease Causal organism Reference Ref.
Rust
Styd,
Phakopsora phyllanthi Diet.
Gantait,
et. al
, 2021 ,NHM,
2012 1, 79
Blue mould
Penicillium citrinum. NHM, 2012 79
Aspergillus niger Ramadasan Kuttan, K.B.
Harikumar., 2011. 80
Soft rot Phomopsis phyllanthi Punith.
Sengupta
et. al
, 2019, NHM,
2012 80, 81
Black spot Thielaviopsis paradoxa Sikder et al, 2020 82
Fruit rot
Penicillium islandicum Sopp. Setty, 1959 83
Aspergillus spp. Srivastava et al., 1964 84
Cladosporium
Jamaluddin, 1978
85
Phomopsis phyllanthi
Punith
Lal
et al
., 1982
86
Pestalotia
sp.
Tondon and Srivastava
, 1964
87
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
(Penz) Sacc. Mishra and Shivpuri, 1983 88
Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler Pandey et al., 1984 89
Penicillium funiculosum
Thom.
Yaday
et al
., 2009
90
Brown fruit
rot
Aspergillus luchuensis
Ramadasan Kuttan, K.B.
Harikumar, 2012
80
Fusarium acuminatum
Fusarium equiseti
Penicillium funiculosum
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9.
CONCLUSIONS
India has a rich herbal heritage. In India the ancient medical systems of homoeopathy and folk
medicine (Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani) continue to play a significant part in the public health care
system as a whole [93, 94, 95, 96]. According to the two important Ayurvedic classical books Sushrut
Samhita and Charak Samhita, Amalaki is considered to be the finest among rejuvenating herbs, the best
among the sour fruits and the better amongst cough and skin diseases. P. emblica L. (Gaertn.) of the
Phyllanthaceae family is of moderate type (8-18m) with a crooked trunk deciduous tree [91] with
spreading branches that grow in India but are also extensively dispersed in Uzbekistan, Pakistan,
Srilanka, Burma, South East Asia, Ceylon, Malaysia and China [91]. In India, P. emblica trees are
mostly found up to 200ft and 4500 ft. in hills and coastal areas [91]. It is widely found in the Madhya
Pradesh deciduous forest [64]. This possible agricultural plant grows on marginal soils and many
degraded lands such as salt-affected soils, saline, dry and semi-dry regions [64]. This plant and
production area in India amounts to 0.91 lakh hectares and 1,025 million tonnes, respectively, in 2016-
17 [96]. The sub-sessile leaves are simple and closely set along with the branchlets. The flowering
period of this plant is usually from February to May [91]. In the colour of the sphere in the form of the
fruit, the yellowish-green has a triangular six-lobed nut. The fruits generally start to ripen during
autumn [91]. Since ancient period P. emblica L. (Gaertn.) has been a well-known plant for its
pharmacological and therapeutic potential. Large numbers of biologically active components such as
alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids etc. are reported to indicate varieties of pharmacological
properties such as antitumor, antigenotoxic, anticancer, antioxidant, and ant carcinogenic effects. In the
modern period several authors try to validate clinically their above-said potentialities. In terms of
vitamin C content, amla is the most abundant natural source available. Due to the presence of strong
antioxidant and other biological properties, it has the potential to be utilised as a food additive in
biopharmaceutical sectors to avoid a variety of health problems. In this review, we try to summarize the
medicinal and therapeutic usefulness and clinically proven pharmacological activities of Amla. Amla,
with its multi-faceted properties, may occupy a prominent position in herbal medicinal systems in the
next few decades because of its tremendous pharmacological applications and its high nutritious value.
The authors are also trying to summarize the conventional use of sun-dried Amla for household
treatment by indigenous people, phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of this valuable
medicinal plant. In this context, it is essential to generate awareness among general people and its
beneficial resources for a healthy living. Here, an effort has been formed in this review to raise the
awareness for the medicinal significance and utilization of the amla as natural rich sources of novel
bioactive components for the welfare of the humankind. So, it can conclude that Indian gooseberry fruit
'Amla or Amlaki' is a traditionally multi-component phytochemical and it is Ayurveda's oldest
medicinal herb as clinically proven fruit as potential effects for both its application and efficacy.
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... These highly potential contributed from the richest sources of vitamin-C (600-1500 mg), Fe (1.2 mg) vitamin K (20 mg), Ca (50 mg), fibre (3.4 g), fat (0.1 g), protein (0.5 g), essential minerals (0.5 g), hydrolysable tannins, alkaloids, phenolic acids, emblicanin A and B, gallic acid, ellagic acid and water (81.8 g) (Gul et al., 2022). (Acharya et al., 2021). ...
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Thinking of fruit crops, we only remembering the mango, banana, grapes like etc., except amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.). Amla is one of the important unfamiliarized therapeutic potential fruit from the rainfed zone globally. Mostly it contains vitamin C, fiber and water with the least amount of fats. It is mostly recommended for jaundice, urinal disorder, respiratory disorders, stomach upset, anti-cholesteromic and cosmetic properties. Nationally six varieties like Banarasi, Chakaiya, Kanchan, Krishna, N. A 7 and BSR 1 are dominant ones. Proper following of cultivation and crop protection approaches (for biotic - Pest & Diseases) and abiotic (boron deficiency) give better outcome in yield from fields at 2 times per year. Additionally, value added things from production to marketing will take time to time for better net profit from amla, accompanied by a memorandum to multinational industries as a better choice for net earnings very soon with proper cultivation.
... These highly potential contributed from the richest sources of vitamin-C (600-1500 mg), Fe (1.2 mg) vitamin K (20 mg), Ca (50 mg), fibre (3.4 g), fat (0.1 g), protein (0.5 g), essential minerals (0.5 g), hydrolysable tannins, alkaloids, phenolic acids, emblicanin A and B, gallic acid, ellagic acid and water (81.8 g) (Gul et al., 2022). (Acharya et al., 2021). ...
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Introduction: Thinking of fruit crops, we only remembering the mango, banana, grapes like etc., except amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.). Amla is one of the important unfamiliarized therapeutic potential fruit from the rain fed zone globally. Mostly it contains vitamin C, fiber and water with the least amount of fats. It is mostly recommended for jaundice, urinal disorder, respiratory disorders, stomach upset, anti-cholesteromic and cosmetic properties. Nationally six varieties like Banarasi, Chakaiya, Kanchan, Krishna, N. A 7 and BSR 1 are dominant ones. Proper following of cultivation and crop protection approaches (for biotic - Pest & Diseases) and abiotic (boron deficiency) give better outcome in yield from fields at 2 times per year. Additionally, value added things from production to marketing will take time to time for better net profit from amla, accompanied by a memorandum to multinational industries as a better choice for net earnings very soon with proper cultivation.
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Phyllanthus emblica Linn (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) usually referred as Amla is well known tree used for the production of herbal as well as pharmacological medicines. It is a famous truth so as to every components of amla are beneficial for the treatment of numerous illnesses. Among all, the maximum vital element is fruit. Amla fruit is extensively utilized in all around the world gadget of medication as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, metabolic syndrome, cardioprotective, hair energizer, stomach-ulcer protective, sickness, as by myself or in aggregate with different herbs. The different research shows that it contains large number of biochemical components especially alkaloids, phenols, tannins, multivitamin and inorganic compounds. The organic chemical constituents present in amla involve Ellagic acid, Gallic acid; Emblicanin A & B, Phyllembein, Quercetin and Ascorbic acid are decided to be efficient for health. The review articles related to amla well-known its palliative, anti-coughing, anti-atherogenic, immune-booster; aerobic, intestinal-protective, kidney-protective and neuro-protective, chemo-preventive, radio-modulatory and anticancer homes. It is also stated to possess amazing unfastened radical scavenging, oxidation inhibitor, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, immune-modulatory sports, that are effectual inside the remedy and treatment of diverse illnesses like cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, liver and coronary heart illnesses. In this text, we communicate the nutritional fee, biochemical components, conventional makes use of, medicinal cost of amla and its use as a household treatment. We moreover emphasized the mechanisms entails in pharmacological sports based on the modern-day research critiques and attempted to summarize the results of studies carried out from the beyond five years with proper specifications on the destiny possibilities in a pharmacological perspective.
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Emblica officinalis Gaertn. syn. Phyllanthus emblica L., universally known as ‘Amla’ or ‘Aonla’ or ‘Indian gooseberry’, is a popular fruit tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae and order Geraniales. It is said to be the very first tree that originated on earth, as claimed by age-old Indian mythology. Almost all parts of the tree i.e., root, bark, leaf, flower, fruit and seed are utilized in Ayurvedic and Unani medicinal formulations to improve the overall digestive process, decrease fever, act as a blood purifier, relieve asthma and cough, improve heart health, etc. This tree contains major secondary metabolites like emblicanin-A and emblicanin-B, and also is an affluent source of vitamin-C. Additionally, some other secondary metabolites like tannins, gallic acid, pyrogallol, and pectin are also present in significant amounts. Conventional propagation has been improved via suitable interventions of agrotechnology both in production and protection areas. However, the rate of propagation remains slower; therefore, attempts have been made for biotechnological advancements on E. officinalis. The present review makes an attempt to highlight the botanical description, geographical distribution, ethnopharmacological importance, conventional propagation and protection of this medicinal tree, describing the in vitro-based plant organ and tissue culture methods like direct and indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis along with interventions of molecular marker-based biotechnology and nanotechnology. Further, the prospect of the yet-to-be-explored biotechnological methods for secondary metabolite enhancement like cell suspension, protoplast culture, genetic transformation, etc. and their potential for enhanced emblicanin production have also been discussed in this appraisal.
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