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La nutria marina en el sur del Perú

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The book is a compilation of research results on the marine otter (Lontra felina) carried out in the Peruvian regions of Tacna, Moquegua and Arequipa. The work is focused in conservation issues of the species such as: interaction with fisheries, absence of effective conservation within the marine protected areas, habitat fragmentation, and ocurrence in anthropic habitats. Measures are suggested to improve the conservation of the marine otter in both within and outside Peruvian protected areas.
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We analyzed the distribution of marine otter Lontra felina on the Peruvian coast, from Punta Aguja (05°47'S) to the boundary with Chile (18°21'S). We performed a comprehensive analysis of the literature on L. felina to elucidate a northern boundary of its geographic distribution, concluding that there is no solid evidence of a possible northern limit at 6°S. For the same reasons, the affirmation of a "historic distribution" to the Lobos de Tierra island was discarded. It is also presented information of 272 otters from 130 locations between the years 2000 and 2010. The distribution of these records no has spatial autocorrelation, suggesting a homogeneous distribution. Considering the morphostructure and geomorphology of the Peruvian coast we can see similarities with the division into three zones: north, central and south, the last two add all records of otters, which could provide habitat characteristics that, allow a continuous distribution of L. felina. Finally there is an increase in the number of otters in the Peruvian coast to compare the current values with those of 40 years ago, but we show the lack of traceability of the latest information. We suggest undertaking research linking abundances and densities of otters with the characterization and distribution of their habitats, and behavioral studies that reveal the processes or intrinsic characteristics of the species to move into its geographic range.
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The marine otter (Lontra felina) is a little-known South American otter of conservation concern. We report the I st detailed information on its activity patterns, home ranges, core areas, and territoriality from 6 otters radio-tracked near a fishing village in central Chile. Marine otters were solitary; females exhibited intrasexual territoriality, but there was no territoriality between males or between sexes. Home ranges were <= 4,134 m long and < 110 m wide, and range size did not differ between sexes. Marine otters spent 81% of their time on land, mostly resting, with no preference for day or night. Hence, core areas were associated with resting places and dens. Otters concentrated their activity in the littoral zone associated with refuges on land and with fishing waste, which was used as a food resource. Availability of land refuges, combined with their proximity to food resources, could be a decisive factor influencing the distribution of L. felina.
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Mammalian Biology j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . d e / m a m b i o a b s t r a c t The marine otter Lontra felina is an endangered and little known species living in a fragmented habitat: the coast of Peru and Chile. The smallest marine mammal's presence is unclear in Argentina and southern Tierra del Fuego and the current limits of the distribution are still under discussion. Recent population genetic studies suggest certain levels of gene flow despite a disjunct population. In the 20th century intensive hunting was the major threat to L. felina. This top predator still faces an uncertain future due to the impact of human activities (urbanization, pollution, and intensive fisheries). There is a need of further studies deepening the knowledge on population genetics, population numbers and migration behavior. Environmental education work, law enforcement and monitoring of protected areas are suggested to secure the survival of the species.
Article
The marine otter (Lontra felina) has a patchy distribution associated with rocky coastlines along the Pacific coast of South America. In Peru marine otters are found from La Libertad (8°04′S) to Tacna (18°09′S), however, few studies have assessed its population and conservation status. To assess marine otters' current distribution along the Peru coastline, we conducted visual surveys and collected environmental characteristics such as human presence and habitat type. We surveyed 20 locations from five regions where otter presence was based on signs of detection (spraints, food leftovers, tracks, or direct observations). In addition, data on human presence, habitat type, and geographic location were also collected. Across the 20 locations, 268 sections were scanned, and marine otters were detected in 90% (n = 18) of locations and in 19% (n = 52) of sections. Spraints were the most frequent sign detected while direct observations occurred only in seven locations. Our analysis indicates habitat features play an important role in marine otter presence, with habitats with large rocks providing preferred conditions. Our study provides information on marine otter distribution along the Peru coastline that can assist in the identification of locations for focused conservation initiatives and strategies, which should be coordinated among regions to strengthen their design and implementation.
Article
La costa peruana se han visto sometida a una fuerte presión por contaminación humana e industrial, especialmente en las últimas cuatro décadas, lo que ha afectado seriamente a la integridad del ecosistema marino. En el presente trabajo se hace un estudio de los niveles de contaminación por elementos ecotóxicos en sedimentos marinos por efectos antropogénicos, de los siguientes elementos: Cu, Zn, Cd, As, Hg, Pb y Fe, en la Bahía de Ite, Distrito de Ite. Provincia de Jorge Basadre Grohmann de Tacna, determinando la incidencia que tendrían los mismos sobre la fauna bentónica de la zona, como consecuencia del vertimiento por más de 35 años de los relaves mineros provenientes de las minas de Toquepala y Cuajone. Los resultados obtenidos de los metales ecotóxicos Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Fe, analizados que se encuentran en los sedimentos superficiales de la Bahía de Ite, en orden decreciente son: Fe > Cu > Zn > As > Pb > Cd > Hg. Los valores promedios reportados son los siguientes: Cu = 608.063 mg/kg, Zn = 39.923 mg/kg, As = 8.66 mg/kg, Cd = 0.41 mg/kg, Hg< 0.01 mg/kg, Pb = 8.472 mg/kg, Fe = 33078.63 mg/kg. Estos resultados fueron comparados con análisis en sedimentos marinos superficiales efectuados en la zona sur, en el lugar denominado Las Mesas o Punta Mesa, área que consideramos libre de efectos contaminantes antropogénicos. De igual manera se realizó una verificación en la zona norte, Santa Rosa para poder establecer si en la zona existe incidencia de los efectos contaminantes de los relaves mineros depositados en la Bahía de Ite.
Article
With coverage on all the marine mammals of the world, authors Jefferson, Webber, and Pitman have created a user-friendly guide to identify marine mammals alive in nature (at sea or on the beach), dead specimens in hand, and also to identify marine mammals based on features of the skull. This handy guide provides marine biologists and interested lay people with detailed descriptions of diagnostic features, illustrations of external appearance, beautiful photographs, dichotomous keys, and more. Full color illustrations and vivid photographs of every living marine mammal species are incorporated, as well as comprehendible maps showing a range of information. For readers who desire further consultation, authors have included a list of literature references at the end of each species account. For an enhanced understanding of habitation, this guide also includes recognizable geographic forms described separately with colorful paintings and photographs. All of these essential tools provided make Marine Mammals of the World the most detailed and authoritative guide available! * Contains superb photographs of every species of marine mammal for accurate identification * Authors collective experience adds up to 80 years, and have seen nearly all of the species and distinctive geographic forms described in the guide * Provides the most detailed and anatomically accurate illustrations currently available * Special emphasis is placed on the identification of species in problem groups, such as the beaked whales, long-beaked oceanic dolphin, and southern fur seals * Includes a detailed list of sources for more information at the back of the book.
Article
The diet consisted of crabs (69.8%), fishes (19.9%), shrimp (6.4%), and molluscs (3.9%). Behavior of otters at the central Chile site was characterized by a high percentage of time spent foraging, low success rate, and consumption of large prey. At the S site, otters specialized on crabs, lacked crepuscular activity, and spent a low percentage of time in social groups. Otters at the N site were intermediate in most behavioral attributes. The social organization seemed to consist mainly of monogamous family groups. -from Authors
Article
The consequences of habitat fragmentation include reduced habitat availability, increased isolation and patch extinction. This study investigates the occupancy patterns of Lontra felina, a little known and endangered marine otter, on naturally discontinuous habitat and the relationship between otter occupancy and rocky seashore patches, patch size and isolation and human influences. Marine otter occupancy was determined through direct sightings and the presence/absence of spraints, and measured by logistic regression and general linear models. The study was conducted in Chile between 28°S and 40°S, and consisted of eight study sites. Within these sites, a total of 23 rocky seashore patches, 2.3–63.8 km long, were surveyed from January 2005 to March 2006. The strongest predictors of marine otter occurrence were rocky seashore patches larger than 5 km long and <6 km apart. These networks should be no farther than 20 km from contiguous (without sandy beaches) rocky seashore patches over 15 km long.