Conference Paper

Holistic evaluation of components and systems for electrified vehicles – Life cycle assessment as a decisive factor in the innovation and development process?

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Vehicle manufactures not only have to comply with current and future CO2 regulation, they also increasingly commit themselves to a holistic optimization of the automotive life cycle with the aim to become carbon-neutral. This is generating a high pressure for innovation on vehicle manufacturers and the upstream supply chain as well as the demand for a transparent reporting of greenhouse gas emissions. To offer innovations that contribute to the decarbonization of vehicle manufacturers, suppliers need to integrate life cycle assessment (LCA) into early innovation and development processes to win supplier awards. The holistic technology assessment approach E2P helps to evaluate technology options already in the concept phase and therefore enables comprehensive technology strategies to comply with the changing decision factors in supplier awards. Two case studies of systems of electric vehicles show how LCA aspects can be taken into account besides economic and performance aspects to support the innovation process. An aluminum reference battery case showcases a lightweight potential in the use phase compensating the higher emissions in the production phase against a steel variant in a first case study. Enlarging the evaluation dimensions in a second case study by cost and further performance parameters, a high-speed drive-module outperforms the lower-speed reference with better cost, power-density and emissions despite slightly worse cycle efficiency. The comparison of the two case studies proves the necessity of a holistic technology assessment to get a clear decision basis.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Traction motors play a critical role in electrified vehicles including electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. With high efficiency and power density, interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous machines have been employed in many commercialized electrified powertrains. In this paper, three different IPM rotor design configurations, which have been used in electrified powertrains from Toyota, Nissan, and General Motors, are comparatively investigated. Each topology is redesigned and improved to meet new design requirements based on the same constraints. The designed motors are then compared and comprehensively evaluated for motor performance, torque segregation, demagnetization, mechanical stress, and radial forces. The results suggest that the single V-shape configuration achieves the best overall performance and is thus recommended as the best candidate.
Chapter
Der VDI-Bericht ist ausschließlich als PDF-Dokument erschienen! Die Dritev 2019, ein internationaler VDI Kongress, der es in sich hat: Drei Veranstaltungen an 2 Tagen! Neben der „Drivetrain for Vehicles“ fanden auch noch die „EDrive“ sowie die „Drivetrain Solutions for Commercial Vehicles“ statt. Sie möchten mehr erfahren? Erfragen Sie das umfangreiche Inhaltsverzeichnis per E-Mail. ...
Article
At present, the costs of electric vehicles are still comparatively high, which is partly due to expensive battery systems. With an efficient automated development process from the Institute for Automotive Engineering at RWTH Aachen University, the transmissions of electric vehicles can be designed according to demand, so that costs can be saved in the overall vehicle system, for example by using smaller batteries. Online available: https://www.springerprofessional.de/automated-design-and-optimization-of-transmissions-for-electric-/17266362
Conference Paper
Interior permanent magnet (IPM) brushless (sychronous) machines are a popular technology choice in commercial hybrid- or all-electric vehicles (HEVs/EVs), such as the Toyota Prius, GM Chevy Volt, Lexus LS, Nissan Leaf, for example. Much is claimed of IPM topologies in terms of their saliency torque contribution, minimum magnet mass, demagnetisation withstand, wide flux-weakening capability and high operational efficiencies when compared to brushless machines having surface mounted permanent magnets. This paper presents the findings of a comparative study assessing the design and performance attributes of an example IPM machine implemented in the Nissan Leaf EV, when compared to a surface permanent magnet (SPM) machine designed within the main Nissan Leaf machine dimensional constraints. The Nissan Leaf IPM traction machine has been widely analysed and there is much public domain data available for the machine. Hence, this machine is chosen as a representative benchmark design against which the SPM machine is assessed. The Nissan Leaf machine is analysed via finite element analysis (FEA) and the results confirmed via published experimental test data. The procedure is then applied to a SPM design and results compared. The study illustrates and concludes that both the IPM and SPM topologies have very similar capabilities with only subtle differences between the design options. The results highlight interesting manufacturing options and materials usage.
Conference Paper
This paper presents performances comparison of several permanent-magnet (PM) machines with different rotor topologies and similar slot and pole numbers. These rotor topologies include one surface-mounted PM (SPM) topology and three interior PM (IPM) topologies. The four structures are compared for the same stator geometry and winding excitations, and the rotor topologies are considered with the same volume of PM materials. The performances comparison includes the air-gap flux density, the back-electromotive force (EMF), the cogging and ripple torque, the losses (i.e., in the iron and in the PMs) and the efficiency. The 2D finite-element method (FEM) is used to achieve this comparison.
Article
The brushless PM DC motor is extremely common in a wide variety of low-power applications such as computers and office machinery. As magnetic properties improve and control electronics become more sophisticated, the brushless PM motor expands its application potential to higher power levels. The author looks at applications of brushless permanent magnet motor drives
Haben Vergabeticker für CO2-Emissionen
  • S Gelowicz
  • . Bmw-Einkaufschef Wendt
S. Gelowicz, 2020. BMW-Einkaufschef Wendt: "Haben Vergabeticker für CO2-Emissionen" https://www.automobil-industrie.vogel.de/bmw-einkaufschef-wendt-habenvergabeticker-fuer-co2-emissionen-a-918885/ Last retrieved: 10.07.2021
Council of the European Union Regulation (EU) 2019/631 setting CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars and for new light commercial vehicles Official Journal of the European Union
  • European Parliament
European Parliament, Council of the European Union Regulation (EU) 2019/631 setting CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars and for new light commercial vehicles Official Journal of the European Union, 25.4.2019
Life cycle assessment as a game changing challenge for automotive suppliers: Near-term portfolio opportunities and business perspectives
  • C Harter
  • N Neumann
  • A Busse
C. Harter, N. Neumann, A. Busse, 2020. Life cycle assessment as a game changing challenge for automotive suppliers: Near-term portfolio opportunities and business perspectives 2030+ In: 29th Aachen Colloquium Sustainable Mobility
Ford Carbon Neutrality Strategy And Implications For Automotive Supply Chain In: AZL TechTalk "Sustainability strategies and implications for the automotive value chain
  • W Schmidt
W. Schmidt, 2021. Ford Carbon Neutrality Strategy And Implications For Automotive Supply Chain In: AZL TechTalk "Sustainability strategies and implications for the automotive value chain"
Body-in-white structure in interaction with high-voltage battery housing (HVBH)
  • I Lüken
I. Lüken, 2019. Volkswagen ID.3, Body-in-white structure in interaction with high-voltage battery housing (HVBH). In: Aachener Karosserietage 2019, Aachen.
Crashsichere Batteriegehäuse aus ultrahochfesten Stählen für moderne Elektrofahrzeuge In: Aachener Karosserietage
  • E Hilfrich
E. Hilfrich, 2017. Crashsichere Batteriegehäuse aus ultrahochfesten Stählen für moderne Elektrofahrzeuge In: Aachener Karosserietage 2017, Aachen.
Image: Battery of VW e-Golf and MEB platform
  • Volkwagen Newsroom
VOLKWAGEN NEWSROOM, 2021 Image: Battery of VW e-Golf and MEB platform https://www.volkswagen-newsroom.com/de/bilder/alben/batterie-2258 Last retrieved: 10.07.2021
Design and benchmarking of electric vehicles fka GmbH
  • Gmbh Fka
fka GmbH, 2021. Design and benchmarking of electric vehicles fka GmbH, Aachen.
Integrated battery and occupant protection body-in-white concept using tailored blanks. Battery systems in car body engineering conference
ARCELORMITTAL, 2020. Integrated battery and occupant protection body-in-white concept using tailored blanks. Battery systems in car body engineering conference, virtual 17.11.2021.
Life cycle engineering Environmentally sound lightweight design along the value chain
  • T Dettmer
T. Dettmer, 2017. Life cycle engineering Environmentally sound lightweight design along the value chain. In: Aachener Karosserietage 2017, Aachen.
High Speed E-Motor Development -22,000 rpm and the Challenges
  • J Trumpff
J. Trumpff, 2020. High Speed E-Motor Development -22,000 rpm and the Challenges. In: 29th Aachen Colloquium Sustainable Mobility. pp. 491-500.
Wide Band Gap Materials: Revolution in Automotive Power Electronics
  • L Bartolomeo
L. Bartolomeo et al., 2016 Wide Band Gap Materials: Revolution in Automotive Power Electronics, STMicroelectronics, Tokyo
Anwendung mathematisch und wissensbasierter Verfahren zur Stirnradauslegung. Dissertation
  • H.-J Tenberge
H.-J. Tenberge, 1996. Anwendung mathematisch und wissensbasierter Verfahren zur Stirnradauslegung. Dissertation, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen.
High voltage battery systems -Challenges and opportunities for automotive suppliers
  • N Neumann
  • A Busse
N. Neumann, A. Busse, 2020. High voltage battery systems -Challenges and opportunities for automotive suppliers. ika-Meetup.