ChapterPDF Available

Transdisciplinary Citizen Science Connects Caribbean Hope Spots of Colombia to Improve Coral Reefs Governance

  • International Coral Reefs Observatory / Foundation ICRI Colombia in Pro of Coral Reefs
  • Fundación ICRI Colombia en Pro de Los Arrecifes Coralinos


Two Caribbean Hope Spots were declared as bottom-up protection scheme based on communities governance to improve coral reef conservation effectiveness in Colombia. Data acquisition through a citizen science program with the participation of scuba diving operators, fishers and other volunteer observers since 2008 received 1958 geo-referenced reports of observations and semi-structured interviews with videos and photos. Applying the transdisciplinary conceptual dimensions of the Sustainable Development Goal 14—Protection of Life below Water—was measure the performance of ecological, social and economic indicators illustrated with three cases studies: (1) Spatial Collaborative Multicriteria Decision Support System to evaluate the National Park Corales del Rosario per dive sites Varadero Reef had higher performance indicators under all the perspectives. (2) Opportunity Cost of Dredging vs. Protecting Varadero Coral Reef; the minimal benefit of protection was US$244 million/Km² with an expected Annual Revenue>10%. (3) Change in Fisheries Productivity in Hope Spot Capurganá Reefs shows a decline with industrial fisheries and after the appearance of the lionfish Pterois volitans of commercial important native stocks up to 2013; afterwards a gradual replenishment was due to exclusive artisanal fisheries and biological control of the invasive species. Compared with the Park, coral reefs in the Hope Spots have higher healthy coral cover>70% and more frequent sightings of vulnerable species listed on the IUCN Red List (7–10 per). They also have higher fishers’ community stewardship, effective bottom-up schemes of protection and less visitors in contrast with the Park. More ecological complex food webs of resilient coral reefs in the Hope Spots with open seawater currents at the bottom, mixed at the surface during the rainy season with run-off producing a natural shadow that avoids impact from climate change, and low sedimentation rates make them potential climate change refugia. These results point out the urgency to connect the case studies within an effective protection framework, increasing governance to guarantee ecological connectivity.
Governance Approaches on Social
Inclusion and Sustainability in
Latin America
Science, Technology,
and Higher Education
Edited by
Luis Antonio Orozco ·
Gonzalo Ordóñez-Matamoros ·
Jaime Humberto Sierra-González ·
Javier García-Estévez · Isabel Bortagaray
Palgrave Studies in Democracy, Innovation,
and Entrepreneurship for Growth
Series Editor
Elias G. Carayannis, The George Washington University, Washington,
The central theme of this series is to explore why some areas grow and others stagnate,
and to measure the effects and implications in a trans-disciplinary context that takes
both historical evolution and geographical location into account. In other words,
when, how and why does the nature and dynamics of a political regime inform
and shape the drivers of growth and especially innovation and entrepreneurship? In
this socio-economic and socio-technical context, how could we best achieve growth,
financially and environmentally?
This series aims to address such issues as:
How does technological advance occur, and what are the strategic processes
and institutions involved?
How are new businesses created? To what extent is intellectual property
Which cultural characteristics serve to promote or impede innovation? In what
ways is wealth distributed or concentrated?
These are among the key questions framing policy and strategic decision-making at
firm, industry, national, and regional levels.
A primary feature of the series is to consider the dynamics of innovation and
entrepreneurship in the context of globalization, with particular respect to emerging
markets, such as China, India, Russia, and Latin America. (For example, what are the
implications of China’s rapid transition from providing low-cost manufacturing and
services to becoming an innovation powerhouse? How do the perspectives of history
and geography explain this phenomenon?)
Contributions from researchers in a wide variety of fields will connect and relate
the relationships and inter-dependencies among (1) Innovation, (2) Political Regime,
and (3) Economic and Social Development. We will consider whether innovation
is demonstrated differently across sectors (e.g., health, education, technology) and
disciplines (e.g., social sciences, physical sciences), with an emphasis on discovering
emerging patterns, factors, triggers, catalysts, and accelerators to innovation, and their
impact on future research, practice, and policy.
This series will delve into what are the sustainable and sufficient growth mecha-
nisms for the foreseeable future for developed, knowledge-based economies and soci-
eties (such as the EU and the US) in the context of multiple, concurrent and inter-
connected “tipping-point” effects with short (MENA) as well as long (China, India)
term effects from a geo-strategic, geo-economic, geo-political and geo-technological
set of perspectives.
This conceptualization lies at the heart of the series, and offers to explore the
correlation between democracy, innovation and growth.
More information about this series at
Luis Antonio Orozco ·
Gonzalo Ordóñez-Matamoros ·
Jaime Humberto Sierra-González ·
Javier García-Estévez ·Isabel Bortagaray
Science, Technology,
and Higher Education
Governance Approaches on Social Inclusion
and Sustainability in Latin America
Luis Antonio Orozco
School of Management
Universidad Externado de Colombia
Bogota, Colombia
Jaime Humberto Sierra-González
Pontificia Universidad Javeriana
Bogota, Colombia
Isabel Bortagaray
Universidad de la República
Montevideo, Uruguay
Gonzalo Ordóñez-Matamoros
Universidad Externado de Colombia
Bogota, Colombia
Javier García-Estévez
Universidad de Los Andes
Bogota, Colombia
ISSN 2662-3641 ISSN 2662-365X (electronic)
Palgrave Studies in Democracy, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship for Growth
ISBN 978-3-030-80719-1 ISBN 978-3-030-80720-7 (eBook)
© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer
Nature Switzerland AG 2021
This work is subject to copyright. All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the
Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights
of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on
microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and
retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology
now known or hereafter developed.
The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc.
in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such
names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for
general use.
The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and informa-
tion in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither
the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with
respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been
made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps
and institutional affiliations.
This Palgrave Macmillan imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature
Switzerland AG
The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland
1 Science, Technology, and Innovation Governance
for Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development
in Latin America 1
Luis Antonio Orozco, Gonzalo Ordóñez-Matamoros,
Javier García-Estévez, Jaime Humberto Sierra-González,
and Isabel Bortagaray
Part I Cases on STI Capacities for Inclusion and
Sustainable Development
2 Relevance of Science, Technology and Innovation
Diplomacy for STI Capacity Building in Central
America: The Cases of Guatemala, El Salvador
and Honduras 21
Kleinsy Bonilla and Milena Serafim
3 Transdisciplinary Citizen Science Connects Caribbean
Hope Spots of Colombia to Improve Coral Reefs
Governance 55
Nohora Galvis and Rosa Helena Galvis
4 Community-Based Innovation Ecosystems
in Peace-Building and Resilience Contexts 85
Juan David Reina-Rozo
5 Local Economic Development and the Colombian
Strategy for a Sustainable and Inclusive Bioeconomy 115
Hector Heraldo Rojas-Jimenez
6 Sharing Economies and Digital Platforms: Between
Access and Social Inclusion in Colombia 151
John Alirio Sanabria and Luis Antonio Orozco
Part II Cases on Higher Education as an Agent for STI
7 Developing Transformative Innovation Through
Policy Experimentation in Two Colombian
Universities 181
Diana Velasco, Alejandra Boni, and Salim Chalela
8 The Contribution in STI of the Higher Education
Institutions of Cauca for the Peace Building
and Social Inclusion 205
Alexander Castillo-Garcés, William Chará-Ordóñez,
and Paula Andrea Mora-Pedreros
9 A Classification Model to Analyze Inclusion
in Higher Education Systems: An Approximation
from Contingency Theory 227
Cristhian Fabián Ruiz Ramos, Ricardo Bonilla Jiménez,
Javier García-Estévez, and Luis Antonio Orozco
10 Methodology for the Governance and Management
of the University as a Complex Adaptive System
Based on the Three Missions: Research, Education,
and Connecting with Its Surroundings 253
Ronald Cancino, Luis Antonio Orozco, Javier Medina,
Mauricio García, José Coloma, Felipe Bustos,
and Cristian Alister
11 Science, Technology, Innovation, and Inclusive
Development: A Country Comparison Between
Colombia and Mexico 287
Jaime Humberto Sierra-González
and Carlos Eugenio Ramos-Pérez
Index 345
Notes on Contributors
Cristian Alister Sanhueza is a Ph.D. candidate in intercultural studies
at the Catholic University of Temuco. He is a computer engineer and
sociologist. His areas of research are sociology of science and technology,
sociology of development and sociology of work. He is currently working
on the development of his Ph.D. research on the processes of indigenous
consultations as devices for approaching socio-technical controversies and
strategies of ethnogovernance.
Alejandra Boni is professor at Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain)
and deputy director of Ingenio (CSIC-UPV). She is honorary professor
at the University of the Free State in South Africa. Her research interest
focus on human development, higher education, global citizenship and
transformative innovation. She is leading the formative evaluation compo-
nent of the Transformative Innovation Policy Consortium.
Kleinsy Bonilla is an Associate Researcher, Department of Science and
Technology DPCT, University of Campinas UNICAMP—Brazil. Her
areas of interest are: Science and Technology Policy, International Coop-
eration, Science Diplomacy, S&T Capacity Building.
Ricardo Bonilla is a Professor at Corporación Universitaria Minuto de
Dios UNIMINUTO, Bogotá—Colombia. He is an expert in quantitative
modelling for decision-making in complex social systems. He is a Physi-
cist with Master of Science, and a Doctor of Engineering with application
in Operations Research, Complexity Sciences and Information Theories.
He is a consultant in visual, predictive and prescriptive analytics, and a
Leader in data quality management projects, conceptual and quantita-
tive updating of indicators, models for prospective. He is a Teacher of
Complex Thinking, Operations Research and Business Analytics, and a
Researcher with publications on applied probabilistic models.
Isabel Bortagaray is a sociologist, who holds a Ph.D. in Public Policy,
with a focus on Science, Technology and Innovation Policy from the
Georgia Institute of Technology. She is Professor at the University of the
Republic in Uruguay; and Honorary Research Fellow at the Center for
Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators (CeSTII), of the Human
Sciences Research Council of South Africa.
Felipe Bustos Mg (c) on the Social Science Department of the Univer-
sidad de la Frontera, Chile. He graduated as Sociologist in The Univer-
sity of the Frontera. His theoretical–methodological developments are
inscribed in the general field of social studies of science and technology,
especially in science and technology policies, bibliometrics and political
economy of science.
Ronald Cancino Salas is an anthropologist, a Lecturer at Social Sciences
Department and Researcher at Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas
(CIS), Universidad de la Frontera, Chile. He is a Ph.D. in Social Sciences
from the University of Chile. His main area of research is contempo-
rary science from the perspective of Complex Adaptive Systems, espe-
cially regarding the relationship between the structure and evolution of
lines of research as emerging phenomena and the forms of collabora-
tion and regulation of scientific activity. Along with this, he works on
the modelling of science, technology and innovation systems, the anal-
ysis of conflicts and socio-technical controversies, and science, technology
and innovation policies in Latin America. Methodologically, he employs
Agent-based models, bibliometrics and network analysis, and qualitative
and ethnographic research in science and technology studies. Member at
the board of ESOCITE Latin American Association of Social Studies in
Science and Technology.
Alexander Castillo Garcés is a Political scientist, Mg. in Public Policies.
Professor at the Faculty of Law, Political and Social Sciences of the Cauca
University, and a member of the Social Sciences and Humanities Inter-
disciplinary Research Group—GIISCH. He is Professor of the Faculty of
Law, Social and Political Sciences of the Cauca Autonomous University
Corporation, a member of GIICSH. He is a postgraduate professor at
the School of Social Work and the Administration Sciences Faculty of the
Universidad del Valle. He is also a Consultant for UNDP, Transparency
Secretariat of the Presidency of the Republic, Ministry of Justice and Law,
National Planning Department.
José Coloma Zapata is a Ph.D. candidate in Sociology from the Alberto
Hurtado University, Chile. He graduated as a Master in Applied Social
Sciences and also graduated in Sociology at Universidad de la Frontera.
He is working for more than eight years in bibliometrics and social studies
of science. He has recently started working on the role of technological
mediators in solidarity economy companies.
Salim Chalela Naffah is Ph.D. in Education at the Autonomous
University of Barcelona from the Applied Pedagogy Department. He
is the Chief of Research Promotion at Universidad del Rosario—
Colombia. His research field is research management in Higher Education
Institutions. He was Vice-Chancellor for Research at the Autonomous
Latin American University—UNAULA, and the Administrative Coordi-
nator of the Latin American and Caribbean HUB for Transformative
Innovation linked to Transformative Innovation Policy Consortium—
William Chará Ordoñez is a political scientist, with a master’s degree
in Sociology. He is Professor of the Faculty of Law, Social and Polit-
ical Sciences of the Cauca Autonomous University Corporation, and a
member of the Social Sciences and Humanities Interdisciplinary Research
Group—GIISCH. He is a Consultant at the National Planning Depart-
ment, Save The Children, Transparency Secretariat of the Presidency
of the Republic, UNDP, Ministry of Justice and Law and Verification
Mechanism FF.MM.
Nohora Galvis is a marine biologist who has dedicated her 30-year
career to study how to improve coral reefs conservation effectiveness.
Her multidisciplinary background reaches Ph.D. Studies from ecological
sciences towards the social involvement and economic valuations of coral
Rosa Helena Galvis has her Doctorate studies in Social and Environ-
mental Psychology and an expertise working with fishers communities.
Mauricio García Ojeda is Lecturer at Department of Social Sciences and
Researcher at Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS), Universidad
de la Frontera, Chile. He is currently completing his Ph.D. at Depart-
ment of Sociology at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. His main
area of research is the governance of public policy enforcement at local
and regional level. He is mainly interested in the role of trust, reputa-
tion, social networks and formal institutions, and their effect on expected
outcomes in public policy, specifically those having to do with effi-
ciency, citizens’ participation, citizens’ control and technological innova-
tion. Mauricio Garcia Ojeda specializes in behaviourally enriched rational
choice theory, principal-agent theory, social capital theory, institutional
design theory, social network theory, new institutional economics and
new economic sociology. Methodologically, he employs social networks
analysis, game theory and analytic narratives.
Javier García-Estévez is an Associate Professor in planning and territo-
rial development at the Interdisciplinary Centre of Development Studies
at the University of Los Andes. His area of research is regional and
local economic development with particular emphasis in science, tech-
nology and innovation. He is the principal investigator of the “Contri-
bution of Universities to Regional Development” project, participates in
the “Transformative Innovation Policy in Colombia” project led by the
University of Sussex’s Science Policy Research (SPRU), and is a researcher
on the “Regional Development Index - Latin America” Project in collab-
oration with researchers from the Autonomous University of Chile, the
Inter-American Development Bank and the University of the Republic of
Uruguay. He is an economist from the Industrial University of Santander
(Colombia) and has a master’s degree and a doctorate in economics from
the University of Barcelona (Spain).
Javier Medina is Doctor of Social Sciences, Gregorian University. He is
a Coordinator of the Confederation of Latin American and Caribbean
Foresight Networks, CYTED Program. Full Professor, Universidad del
Valle, Cali, Colombia. He has designed and executed around 50 prospec-
tive exercises since 1989. He has published 134 texts, including books,
articles and institutional documents as author, co-author and editor.
Author of the “Prospective and Strategic Decision Manual”, published
by ECLAC, Santiago de Chile (2006), “Prospective and Public Policy for
structural change in Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC, 2014)”
and “Opening paths in the prospect of Latin America” (Universidad del
Valle - Usach, 2020).
Paula Andrea Mora Pedreros holds a Degree in Philosophy and Letters
and Master in Etnoliteratura, University of Nariño; is a Specialist in
Pedagogy of Autonomous Learning and specialist in Higher Education,
UNAD; has a Master’s Degree in Educational Technology Tecnológico de
Monterrey; is a Candidate for Doctor of Philosophy, Universidad Ponti-
ficia Bolivariana. He is also a Teacher Researcher of the Corporación
Autónoma del Cauca. GIICSH group.
Gonzalo Ordóñez-Matamoros is a Ph.D. in Public Policy of the
Georgia Institute of Technology and the Georgia State University, USA.
He is an Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Behavioural, Management
and Social Sciences at the University of Twente, The Netherlands, and
Dean at the Faculty of Finance, Government and International Relations
at the Universidad Externado de Colombia in Bogotá.
Luis Antonio Orozco is a Ph.D. in management at Universidad de los
Andes and business administrator at Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.
He is a Full Professor in the School of Management at Universidad
Externado de Colombia and senior researcher at Colombian Ministry
of Science, Technology and Innovation. He is a member at Asociación
Colombiana para el Avance de la Ciencia—Avanciencia. He is an edito-
rial advisory board member at the Journal of Management History and
a member at the scientific committee at the International Conference on
Scientometrics and Infometrics. He was adjoined researcher at Univer-
sity of Twente (The Netherlands), University of Massachusetts (United
States) and Observatorio Colombiano de Ciencia y Tecnología—OCyT.
Cristhian Fabián Ruiz Ramos is a Ph.D. candidate in Universidad
Católica de Perú. He is a Mechanical and environmental engineer. He is
the author of different books and articles in scientific journals on planning,
knowledge management, and data and information analysis. His areas of
research are data analysis of science, technology and innovation Systems.
He is the Director of Organizational Development in Governorate of
Carlos Eugenio Ramos-Pérez is an Adjunct Professor at the Business
Department, School of Business and Economics—Pontificia Universidad
Javeriana (Col). He is a Ph.D. in Business and Management, The Univer-
sity of Manchester (UK); and a Master in Economics and Innova-
tion Management, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana—Xochimilco
(Mex); with a B.Sc. in Management, Universidad del Pedregal (Mex).
Juan David Reina Rozo is an Industrial Engineer, is a Magister in
Environment and Development, and a Candidate to Doctorate in
Engineering—Industry and Organizations at Universidad Nacional de
Colombia. He is also a Researcher of the Technologies and Innovation
for Community Development Research Group. He had participated in co-
design processes of technologies in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Uganda and
Nepal. He is editor of the International Journal of Engineering, Social
Justice and Peace. His main topics of interest are community innovation,
socio-technical change, community-based innovation ecosystems, popular
engineering and peacebuilding.
Hector Heraldo Rojas Jiménez is a Researcher and lecturer at the
Faculty of Finance, Government and International Relations of the
Universidad Externado de Colombia, also a Professional in Finance and
International Relations from the same university; a lawyer, he holds a
M.Sc. in Economic Development in Latin America, M.Sc. sciences poli-
tiques spécialité idées politiques et intelligence du monde contemporain,
and Ph D. in sciences politiques of the Université Sorbonne Nouvelle,
Paris III. Under the auspices of the Externado University of Colombia
and the Rutherford Scholarship, he advanced a postdoctoral research stay
at the Manchester Institute of Innovation Research of the University of
Manchester researching about Bioeconomy.
John Sanabria is a Ph.D. candidate at School of Management—Univer-
sidad Externado de Colombia. He has a master’s in industrial engi-
neering (Universidad de los Andes—Colombia), and is a business admin-
istrator (UNIMIMUTO). He is a Teacher, Researcher and Consultant
in management, strategy, entrepreneurial and business networks. He is
the Director of the Business Administration program at Universidad de la
Salle—Bogotá, Colombia.
Milena Serafim is Assistant Professor in the School of Applied Sciences
FCA—University of Campinas UNICAMP—Brazil. Her areas of interest
are: Analysis of Public Policies and Institutions; Actor, Governance and
Decision Process; and Higher Education.
Jaime Humberto Sierra-González is Associate Professor at the Business
Department, School of Business and Economics—Pontificia Universidad
Javeriana (Col). He is a Ph.D. in Business and Management, The Univer-
sity of Manchester (UK); He has Master’s in economics of the Interna-
tionalization of Business and Finance, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”,
Rome (Ita); a Master in Economics, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana;
Diploma in International Relations, Academia Diplomática (Col); B.A. in
Education, Universidad Distrital (Col). He is Professor at the Master in
Economics, Master in Strategy, Innovation and Competitiveness, Diploma
in Technology Management, and the Diploma in Management of Social
and Solidarity Enterprises at PUJ.
Diana Velasco is adjunct professor of the Universidad de Ibagué in
Colombia and research fellow in Ingenio (CSIC-UPV), Spain. She is a
Ph.D. in innovation studies from Edinburgh University and an active
member of the Transformative Innovation Policy Consortium with field
work in Sweden, Colombia, South Africa and Catalonia. Her research
interest focus on human development, higher education and transforma-
tive innovation.
List of Figures
Fig. 2.1 Online survey respondents by country 31
Fig. 3.1 Map of Colombian case studies 60
Fig. 3.2 Map of the case studies Corales del Rosario
and Varadero 61
Fig. 3.3 Map of the fishers´communities of Varadero Coral
Reef 62
Fig. 3.4 Fishing and diving sites in the non-protected area
declared Hope Spot Coral Reef Capurganá and Cabo
Tiburón 68
Fig. 3.5 Change of fisheries productivity of main commercial
and invasive species in Capurganá between 2009
and 2019 70
Fig. 4.1 Communal innovation (Source Reina-Rozo [2019a:
9]) 88
Fig. 4.2 STI co-design spaces (Source Reina-Rozo [2019b: 4]) 89
Fig. 4.3 Community-based innovation ecosystem (Source
Based on Hoffecker [2019]) 94
Fig. 4.4 San Antonio township (Source Author) 99
Fig. 4.5 Relations between actors in the Guajuí river
innovation ecosystem (Source Author) 101
Fig. 4.6 Point to point wifi network maintenance (Source
Author) 103
Fig. 4.7 Guajuí river community-based innovation ecosystem
(Source Reina-Rozo [2019b]) 104
Fig. 5.1 Monetary poverty (Based on DANE [2017]) 119
Fig. 5.2 “Laissez-faire”. Model
of government–industry–university relations
(Source Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff 1996 in Piñeres
[2016]) 123
Fig. 5.3 Relations between the actors of the TH 123
Fig. 5.4 Master’s and doctoral students graduated in areas
of bioeconomy (2006–2015) Source Observatorio
Colombiano de Ciencia y Tecnología (2016) 132
Fig. 5.5 Scientific articles on bioeconomy (Source Based
on Web of Science [2018]) 133
Fig. 5.6 Some production processes based on bioeconomy 137
Fig. 5.7 Where the bioeconomy and the LED intersect 142
Fig. 7.1 Participative identification of organisational
capabilities 191
Fig. 7.2 Universidad de Ibagué path-dependancy 194
Fig. 7.3 Experiment methodology phases 196
Fig. 8.1 Percentage of institutional activities carried
out in terms of territorial peace during 2012–2019
(Source based on,,,, 218
Fig. 8.2 Percentage of institutional activities carried
out in terms of territorial peace by the HEI
of the department of Cauca. 2012–2019
(Source based on,,,, 219
Fig. 8.3 Percentage of classification of institutional
activities carried out in terms of territorial
peace by the HEI of the department of Cauca.
2012–2019 (Source based on,,,, 219
Fig. 8.4 STI strategies in research, interaction and social
intervention carried out by IES of the department
of Cauca (Source based on,,,, 221
Fig. 9.1 Gini Index of Undergraduate Enrollment in Colombia
from 2006 to 2015 (Source SNIES - MEN 2016, p. 3) 231
Fig. 9.2 Complementary cumulative distribution function
of the number of students enrolled by HEI (Source
Education Information System [SNIES], January
2018. Dashed vertical lines show the change
in the stepwise function at 10,000 freshmen. The
KS-test gives a pValue =0.36 greater than 0.05,
then the null hypothesis the data follow a specified
distribution is accepted) 240
Fig. 9.3 Complementary cumulative distribution function
of PhDs hired by HEI (Source Education Information
System [SNIES], January 2018. Dashed vertical
lines show the change in the stepwise function so
in the underlying dynamic at 130 PhDs. The KS-test
gives a pValue =0.18 greater than 0.05, then the null
hypothesis the data follow a specified distribution is
accepted) 241
Fig. 9.4 Clusters that determine HEI on statistical order
or disorder state 242
Fig. 9.5 Average Change in freshman vs. Change in PhDs
by Region and Development Between 2017–2018
at Colombian HEIs 243
Fig. 9.6 Change in Freshman vs. Change in PhDs Between
2017–2018 for each Colombian HEI by Region
and Development level 245
Fig. 10.1 The university as a CAS (Source BasedonCancino
and Univalle [2017]) 262
Fig. 10.2 Method for information processing (Source based
on Cancino et al./Univalle [2017]) 264
Graphic 11.1 Composition of the Colombian, Mexican, LAC,
and OECD member economies (2017). Notes Data
for OECD members (average) and LAC (average)
as reported in original statistics. Differences in data
correspond to either unreported values or incomplete
information (Source Own elaboration with data
from World Bank [2020a] and CIA [2020]) 310
Graphic 11.2 Technological composition of exports
(2018)—selected economies (Source CPC
[2020, p. 280]. Our emphasis) 318
Graphic 11.3 Evolution of exports from Colombia and Mexico
(1991–2018) to selected partners (Source Own
elaboration based on WITS [2020a, 2020b]) 319
Graphic 11.4 Colombia and Mexico—graduates from HEIs
at different levels (2007–2017) (Source Own
elaboration with data from Garavito and Cifuentes
[2018] and ANUIES [2020]) 327
List of Tables
Table 2.1 STI international cooperation vs STID 47
Table 4.1 Characteristics of innovation ecosystems 92
Table 4.2 Semi-structured interview information 97
Table 4.3 Methods used and data collected 98
Table 4.4 Communal innovations of the CBIE Rio
Guajuí—Colombia 102
Table 5.1 Analysis summary by dimension 125
Table 5.2 Antecedent of the initiative of Green growth 130
Table 5.3 Why document CONPES 3934 130
Table 5.4 Main scientific universities and its research groups 134
Table 5.5 To synthesize the answers to the main questions 141
Table 6.1 ICT-related programs for social inclusion in Colombia 161
Table 7.1 Characteristics of transformative innovation 187
Table 7.2 Modes of experimental engagements (Schot et al.,
2019: 2) 188
Table 7.3 Unaula narrative for STI 192
Table 7.4 UI capabilities list 197
Table 10.1 Micro level 265
Table 10.2 Macro level 268
Table 10.3 Indicators of volume and intensity 271
Table 10.4 Factoria study indicators 276
Table 11.1 A snapshot of the top four Latin American countries 290
Table 11.2 Colombia and Mexico compared—selected indicators
2015–2019 291