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A General Evaluation of Neuromarketing Techniques

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Abstract and Figures

Introduction: The question that has occupied the marketing discipline from past to present is how to predict consumer behavior. The fact that consumers do not act rationally, in other words, the inconsistency between the statements of individuals and their behaviors pushes marketing research to neuromarketing applications where cognitive/emotional effects can be detected and the mind of the consumer is opened to the outside world. It is argued that emotions are more effective in purchasing decisions, and the importance of neuromarketing techniques, in which emotional impact can be measured, is gradually increasing. Aim: The aim of this study is to review the brain imaging (EEG, fMRI), biometric (eye tracking, facial coding, facial EEG) and other physiological techniques (GSR, heart rate) used within the scope of neuromarketing discipline, which is still in development, and to determine their advantages and disadvantages. The aim of the study is to evaluate the studies made with these techniques in the literature and to make suggestions for future studies in this field. Method: This study analyzed neuromarketing techniques and studies with these techniques Findings: Existing studies have shown that neuromarketing techniques can illuminate cognitive states. It has been observed that the studies conducted within the scope of neuromarketing mostly focus on brain imaging techniques, and it has been suggested that studies to be conducted with biometric techniques will provide convenience to researchers in terms of applicability. Simultaneous application of all biometric methods over artificial intelligence-based facial coding, along with the inclusion of traditional methods in the research method, has been suggested to adopt a mixed method approach, and it has been argued that more reliable and comprehensive studies can be carried out. Key Words: Neuromarketing, EEG, fMRI, Eye Tracking, Facial Coding, GSR, Heart Rate, Facial EEG
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V. Congress of International Applied Social Sciences
C-iasoS 2021 Kuşadası -Turkey
07-09 October 2021
V. International Applied Social Sciences Congress
07th-09th October 2021
ii
V. INTERNATIONAL
APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCES CONGRESS (C-IASOS)
PROCEEDING BOOK
07th-09th October 2021
“Applicable Knowledge for a Sustaniable Future”
EDITORS
Prof. Dr. Simon GRIMA Assoc. Prof.Dr. Ercan ÖZEN
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hakan BOZ PhD. Esat SAÇKES
Lecturer Aykut AKSU
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Copyright © 2021
CONGRESS ID
Name of Congress
International Applied Social Sciences Congress
Type of Participation
Davetli ve Çağrılı / Keynote and Invited
Date and Place 07-08-09 October 2021 Turkey
Co Chairs Honorary Boards of Congress
Doç. Dr. Ercan ÖZEN Uşak U. Prof. Dr. Erdoğan KOÇ Bahçeşehir U.
Doç. Dr. Hakan BOZ Uşak U. Prof. Dr. Atilla YÜKSEL Adnan Menderes U.
Executive Committee
Prof. Dr. Beate SWIECKA Szczecin University, Poland
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hab Grațiela Georgiana Noja West University of Timisoara, Romania
Dr. Mirela CRISTEA Universitatea din Craiova, Romania
Dr. Maia Diakonidze Akaki Tsereteli State University, Georgia
Prof. Dr. Simon GRIMA University of Malta
Doç.Dr. Ercan ÖZEN Uşak U.
Doç. Dr. Hakan BOZ Uşak U.
Öğr.Gör. Dr. Esat SAÇKES Balıkesir U.
Dr. Öğr. Üyesi Özer YILMAZ Bandırma Onyedi Eylül U.
Dr. Öğr. Üyesi Aytuğ ARSLAN İzmir Katip Çelebi U.
Öğr. Gör. Burçin BOZ Uşak U.
Öğr. Gör. Aykut AKSU İzmir Kavram MYO
Öğr. Gör. Hülya KARAKARTAL İzmir Kavram MYO
Vedran MILOJICA University of Rijeka
Dr. Öğr. Üyesi Özlem Koçtaş Çotur İzmir Kavram MYO
Öğr. Gör. Nihal Tuzcu İzmir Kavram MYO
Öğr. Gör. Cansu Hazal Yanardağ İzmir Kavram MYO
Öğr. Gör. Şule Kaya Ünal İzmir Kavram MYO
Öğr. Gör. Betül Taş İzmir Kavram MYO
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A General Evaluation of Neuromarketing Techniques
Mustafa Seçkin Aydın
1
Abstract
Introduction: The question that has occupied the marketing discipline from past to present is how to predict
consumer behavior. The fact that consumers do not act rationally, in other words, the inconsistency between the
statements of individuals and their behaviors pushes marketing research to neuromarketing applications where
cognitive/emotional effects can be detected and the mind of the consumer is opened to the outside world. It is
argued that emotions are more effective in purchasing decisions, and the importance of neuromarketing
techniques, in which emotional impact can be measured, is gradually increasing.
Aim: The aim of this study is to review the brain imaging (EEG, fMRI), biometric (eye tracking, facial coding,
facial EEG) and other physiological techniques (GSR, heart rate) used within the scope of neuromarketing
discipline, which is still in development, and to determine their advantages and disadvantages. The aim of the
study is to evaluate the studies made with these techniques in the literature and to make suggestions for future
studies in this field.
Method: This study analyzed neuromarketing techniques and studies with these techniques Findings: Existing
studies have shown that neuromarketing techniques can illuminate cognitive states. It has been observed that the
studies conducted within the scope of neuromarketing mostly focus on brain imaging techniques, and it has been
suggested that studies to be conducted with biometric techniques will provide convenience to researchers in terms
of applicability. Simultaneous application of all biometric methods over artificial intelligence-based facial coding,
along with the inclusion of traditional methods in the research method, has been suggested to adopt a mixed
method approach, and it has been argued that more reliable and comprehensive studies can be carried out.
Key Words: Neuromarketing, EEG, fMRI, Eye Tracking, Facial Coding, GSR, Heart Rate, Facial EEG
Jel Codes: M30, M31, D87
1
PHD, Aydın Adnan Menderes University, Social Sciences Institute, Business Administration, Turkey
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INTRODUCTION
Technological developments have increased the differences between generations and caused changes
in marketing approaches. Today, individuals access information more easily thanks to internet
technologies and use the information they obtain in their choices. This situation creates a competitive
environment for businesses and creates an obligation to understand and satisfy the consumer. The
understanding that “I sell what I produce” has evolved into a marketing approach in which completely
personalized products are produced today. Nevertheless, efforts to understand consumer behavior and
preference may result in the inability to obtain accurate determinations due to the inadequacy of
traditional methods. The consistency and validity of traditional methods such as surveys and focus group
interviews have been debated recently due to biased reasons such as individuals being influenced by
each other's thoughts and the desire to conform to the general public. The need to accurately measure
the behavior of individuals rather than their thoughts, whose rationality is still being debated, has paved
the way for the development of new methods.
Fisher et al. (2010) argues that the word neuromarketing was first announced in the press release
describing the advertising company named BrightHouse in Atlanta, which used the fMRI device in its
marketing research. The firm of BrightHouse has taken advantage of Emory University's facilities,
including professors of psychiatry. Discussion of the ethical dimension of neuromarketing started in this
process. Ćosić (2016) argues that the term neuromarketing was first used by Ale Smidts in 2002 and the
definition of neuromarketing is as follows: “the study of the cerebral mechanism to understand the
consumer’s behaviour in order to improve the marketing strategies”.
Even before the neuro supplement came to marketing studies in this field and a new concept was
mentioned, many marketing companies supported many academic studies examining consumer behavior
with electroencephalography (EEG) (Fisher et al., 2010). Later, this concept was developed by attracting
the attention of many scientists. Morin (2011) argues that although the term neuromarketing began to
be used by a few marketing companies such as Brighthouse and SalesBrain, and this term began to be
heard around 2002, it does not belong to a specific person or organization. He also considers
neuromarketing as looking at consumer behavior through changes in the brain activities of individuals.
The expertise of neuroscientists is needed with current technologies to interpret movements in
different parts of the brain. Thus, it becomes possible to establish objective correlations between human
behavior and cerebral activities against a stimulus. Neuromarketing provides the opportunity to measure
the reactions of consumers on issues such as advertisement, product, packaging, brand image,
experience, website usability, purchasing and awareness level, through brain activities and emotions
(Bercea, 2012).
Survey, focus groups, etc. in the field of marketing. traditional approaches fall short in evaluating
the unconscious aspect of consumer behavior. Moreover, considering that 90% of the data in the human
brain is processed subconsciously, it is thought that consumer behavior can be explained more accurately
by detecting unconscious actions in individuals. It has been determined by various studies that
subconscious thoughts play a more important role in the purchase decision of the consumer. There is an
important limitation that traditional methods can only provide an assessment at the level of
consciousness, and the thought that they do not reflect the real behavior of the consumer sufficiently
comes to the fore (Aldayel et al., 2020).
“Consumer don’t think how they feel. They don’t say what they think and they don’t do what they
say” David Ogilvy advertising and communication expert
Neuromarketing does not exclude traditional methods and allows working together. It is thought that
more comprehensive and most importantly more accurate results can be obtained when neuroscience-
based measurements are used together with traditional measurements in marketing research and related
fields. The aim of this research is to introduce neuromarketing tools, which have been increasing in
popularity recently, on topics such as consumer behavior, user experience, purchasing, human-computer
interaction, to determine their pros and cons, and to make suggestions for future studies on how
neuromarketing research should be done.
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NEUROMARKETING TECHNIQUES
Gill and Singh (2020) have broadly classified neuromarketing tools as neuro-imaging and non-
neuroimaging. Bercea (2012) made the same classification as tools that measure metabolic brain
activity, electrical brain activity, and tools that do not record brain activity. Ćosić (2016) evaluated only
the measurements of heart rhythm and skin conductivity level physiologically and classified other
measurements (fMRI, PET, EEG) as brain imaging and eye tracking. In this study, it is argued that all
the techniques shown in the classification already make physiological measurements. Neuromarketing
tools can be evaluated under 3 main headings in terms of measuring brain (metabolic and electrical),
biometric and other physiological activities in general (Zurawicki, 2010; Kenning et al, 2005; Bercea,
2012; Ohme et al, 2011; Ćosić, 2016; Tarczydło, 2017). This classification is given below.
Figure 1. Classification of Neuromarketing Techniques.
Source: Bercea, 2012; Ćosić, 2016; Gill and Singh, 2020
The general classification of neuromarketing tools is given in the figure above, and the most used
techniques are listed in the figure.
It is known that the founder of the neuromarketing discipline is Gerry Zaltman, who applied the fMRI
technique as a marketing study in 1999 (Ćosić, 2016). It is claimed that the next neuromarketing
experiment was carried out by Read Montague in 2003 to determine the relationship between
individuals' preferences and brain activities by using the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
technique (Bercea, 2012). Subsequently, studies involving other neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI
and biometric techniques began to be conducted.
2.1. Brain Imaging Tools
As it can be understood from the figure 2, brain reactions and behavioral responses are measured
separately in the process that starts with a marketing stimulus, and then the data obtained from these
measurements are interpreted. With the addition of other (biometric) neuromarketing techniques to this
scheme, it will be possible to conduct research in which more data is drawn and processed.
Figure 2. Scheme of Neuromarketing
Neuromarketing Tools
Brain Imaging EEG
fMRI
Biometric
Activity
Eye Tracking
Facial
Electromyography
Facial Coding
Other
Physiological
Activity
Heart Rate
Galvanic Skin
Response
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Source: Lee et al., 2017
The figure 3 below shows the parts of the human brain and contains information about the parts that
are emphasized in the field of neuromarketing.
Figure 3. Human Brain Parts related to Neuromarketing
Source: Reddit.com
The midbrain, known as the limbic region, contains the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and
thalamus. The most important feature of the limbic region is that it is the region where emotions are
formed and managed. The mid-brain is frequently examined in neuromarketing studies, due to the high
impact of emotions on decision-making processes. The amygdala is activated in changes in affective
level. The hypothalamus is where information is processed and the body reacts to changes in emotional
level. The thalamus, on the other hand, is responsible for sending messages from all senses to the cortex,
except smell. Processes related to planning, behavior, comparison and thinking take place in the frontal
region of the brain. It is also referred to as the most developed region of the brain. It can complete the
forebrain development, which allows us to control our behaviors, until the age of 22 on average
(Girişken, 2017).
2.1.1. Electroencephalography (EEG)
Electroencephalography (EEG) is a tool that allows to study brain activity and is frequently used in
neuromarketing studies. In the EEG technique, electrical activities in the brain are measured by means
of electrodes placed on the scalp, based on voltage changes in neurons (Aldayel et al., 2020). EEG
directs marketing researches in terms of recording the changes and variations in the brain waves
produced in the cortex and obtaining interpretable data. However, the fact that the EEG, which provides
high resolution, can collect information only from the cortex, is seen as an important limitation (Ohme
et al, 2011). However, it can be said that it is advantageous for researchers due to its relatively small
size and portability compared to fMRI devices. Different images of the EEG device are given below.
Figure 4. EEG Devices
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Source: Imotions (a) and Labachema
Past studies have focused on how the purchasing decision is made. Neuromarketing discipline
examines how the human mind responds to many features such as design, taste, color, visuality,
including purchasing. EEG can reveal cognitive decisions as it can directly analyze mental activities
over the brain. Considering that the majority of decisions are made unconsciously, the EEG technique,
which includes unconscious habits, emotions, repetitive thoughts and behavior patterns, can provide
important outputs within the scope of neuromarketing (Shaari et al, 2019). EEG is used not only in
neuromarketing studies, but also in Brain-Computer-Interface (BCI) studies as it can convert signals
from the brain into interpretable commands (Khurana et al., 2021).
The activities on each lobe, which has a specific task in the brain, are monitored and recorded over
brain waves with the EEG technique. Waveforms in the brain (Alpha, Beta, Theta, Delta) are used to
understand the state of mind. The waveform representing consciousness in the brain is the Beta wave
produced between 15 Hz and 40 Hz. Alpha wave is detected in cases where both conscious and
unconscious activities occur simultaneously in the brain. Theta wave, which operates in the range of 5
Hz to 8 Hz, is observed in brain activities when the consciousness is at a maximum level of 25%, in
other words, when the unconscious is active up to 75%. Delta wave operating in the range of 1 Hz to 4
Hz occurs when the unconscious is most active, such as sleep and resting states. The EEG technique
allows us to detect the conscious and unconscious (and subconscious) working levels of our brain against
any stimulus through these waveforms (Shaari et al, 2019). A summary of this information is shown in
the table 1 below. Table 1. Waveforms and Cognitive Feature
Waveforms
Working Range
Cognitive Feature
Alpha
9 Hz - 14 Hz
Simultaneous conscious
and unconscious active
Beta
15 Hz - 40 Hz
high state of
consciousness
Theta
5 Hz - 8 Hz
low conscious,
unconscious high
Delta
1 Hz - 4 Hz
very high unconscious
People act out of awareness while doing many things they have learned before, such as driving a car
in their daily lives. Moreover, talking to another person at the same time while driving still does not
constitute activities that require attention. In this process, our brain is still working unconsciously.
Similarly, consumers show unconscious action when exposed to any marketing stimulus.
In 2009, Microsoft conducted an experiment using the EEG device to evaluate the in-game
advertisements of the Xbox product and the player relationship. As a result of the research, it was
determined that in-game advertisements have high cognitive effects on the player and cause positive
emotional reactions (Mazurek and Tkaczyk, 2016).
2.1.2. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI)
Functional magnetic resonance tomography (fMRI), which provides the highest contrast and
resolution, is the most widely used brain imaging technique in the world. This technique, which
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combines magnetic field and radio waves, provides detailed imaging of brain structures. This technique,
which is frequently used in neuromarketing studies, detects the active regions of the brain during the
experiment and tries to associate them with behaviors. It can monitor blood flow at more than 100,000
points on the brain and measure oxygen levels in the blood flow over regions. When the subjects are
exposed to a stimulus, the amount of oxygen in certain parts of the brain changes, which indicates that
those regions are activated. In other words, the most used part of the brain glows red during an fMRI
scan. Measurements made with this technique are transformed into outputs according to features such
as emotion (fear, happiness, excitement), attention, memory, and cognitive status with various software
(Ruanguttamanun, 2014; Lindstrom, 2020). Although it is preferred in neuromarketing researches in
terms of providing detailed brain imaging, researchers can create a disadvantage due to its expensive,
large footprint and not being portable.
Figure 5. FMRI device (left) and the brain image obtained from the device (right).
Source: (NDCN - fMRI, Pujol et al., (2012) - Brain image)
One of the prominent studies conducted in the field of marketing with the FMRI technique belongs
to Martin Lindstrom, who conducted an experiment on cigarette packages. The effect of cigarette
packages on individuals, in which brand visibility is greatly reduced and there are negative images about
the harm that cigarettes can cause, has been investigated. It is considered quite striking to reach the
conclusion that the said package images do not succeed in keeping individuals away from cigarettes, on
the contrary, they arouse the desire to smoke in individuals (Girişken, 2017).
The fMRI technique also reveals very radical results in brand research. Experiments with labeled and
unlabeled bottoms were conducted on the beverages produced by Coca Cola and Pepsi brands. It has
been observed that different activations occur in the ventromedial part of the prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)
when viewing unlabeled and labeled beverages (Kirk et al, 2009). Similarly, in another study, when
individuals viewed their preferred brands, they made an intuitive decision and increased activation in
the VMPFC region. Another conclusion drawn from this is that individuals look at the brands they prefer
emotionally, not rationally (Girişken 2017).
In the experiment conducted by Volunteers, volunteers were asked to try and interpret two wines that
were exactly the same, but with different price tags (one $10 and the other $90). Participants stated that
the wine with a price tag of $90 after tasting was better than the other. The more interesting part here
was the brain activity reflected in the fMRI device while the participants tasted the wines. During the
experience of these two wines, which are exactly the same, the high-priced product caused high
activation in the orbitofrontal cortex, the pleasure region of the brain in the subjects. In addition to the
perception of "higher price product is of better quality", the brain cannot perceive the same taste and
reacts more positively to expensive products (Plassmann et al., 2008).
2.2. Biometric Tools
Biometric methods (eye tracking, facial coding, pupil analysis, Facial Electromyography) can be
used together with brain imaging techniques in marketing research, or they are frequently used alone.
The most preferred one is the eye tracking technique, as it is easy to use, portable and easily yields
analysis outputs. Recently, remote facial expression identification has become popular with the
development of various software and offers many other biometric analyzes in an integrated way.
2.2.1. Eye Tracking
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While the excess of light shrinks the pupils, in the case of excitement and interest, pupil dilation
occurs. Therefore, the eyes react differently in certain situations. Fixing the eye on a point or focusing
on one place for a long time can represent various emotional states. With the eye tracking technique, the
direction and duration of gaze and changes in the pupil can be detected (Çetin, 2020).
Eye tracking is a technique suitable for use with other methods to measure cognitive responses.
Especially when it is used together with the face coding technique, besides the detection of the points of
view, emotional states can also be detected from the facial muscles simultaneously. The fact that these
two techniques can be used at the same time and the data can be taken at the same time increases the
reliability of the results to be obtained. This mixed method allows comprehensive and reliable
measurement of the interaction of the audience with the advertisement in the advertising industry (Dos
Santos et al., 2015). In addition, the combined use of eye tracking, facial coding, galvanic skin response,
and heart rate techniques in a mixed method approach creates data richness for research and increases
the reliability of the research (Cuesta et al., 2018).
Within the scope of a study conducted with eye tracking technique, a 16% increase occurred in the
sales of the brand as a result of a brand putting the logo on the package on the focus of the participants
(Girişken, 2017).
Figure 6. Eye tracker and heat map
Source: (Tobiipro.com and Singh, 2019)
2.2.2. Facial Electromyography
This technique, also referred to as facial EMG, examines the movements of voluntary (zygomaticus)
and involuntary (corrugator and orbicularis) facial muscles that reflect the conscious and unconscious
expressions of emotions. In a study, the measurement of emotional reactions to TV commercials was
carried out with Facial EMG. In the study, in which the participants' self-reports were also compared, it
was concluded that EMG outputs could represent deeper emotional reactions (Ohme et al, 2011).
In this technique, activity from certain facial muscles is measured by means of small surface
electrodes. Facial EMG technique, which allows more sensitive detections than observation and visual
techniques, provides accurate measurements of emotional states, and can also be supported by other
biometric techniques (eye tracking, etc.) (Bercea, 2012). The visual of the facial EMG technique is given
below.
Figure 7. Facial EMG and Electrodes
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Source: Ant-Neuro
There are 43 muscles on the human face and the activities of these muscles can be measured with
Facial EMG. However, because measuring all muscle groups is time consuming and does not serve the
focused purpose, 2 muscle groups are usually followed. The first of these is the zygomaticus, which
works voluntarily and is responsible for smiling, as mentioned above. The other is the corrugator, which
represents the Nerve and is responsible for the frown. These two muscle groups are frequently examined
with the Facial EMG technique and monitored in order to determine the positive or negative responses
of the participants to the stimuli. Facial EMG technique, which is also used in the determination of
diseases such as ALS, facial palsy, Parkinson's, has also started to be used in marketing researches.
Facial EMG is a technique used in Virtual Reality, web usability and user experience research (Wilson,
2018).
2.2.3. Facial Coding
This technique is called Facial Coding or Facial Action Coding System (FACS). The basis of the
technique is based on people's perception of what they see in the first 40 milliseconds and the reflection
of this perception on the facial muscles, making the expressions interpretable. Actively examining the
facial muscles and revealing the unconscious reactions here by coding over micro-expressions express
the working logic of the facial coding technique. In this technique, there is no need to connect electrodes
as in facial EMG. Micro expressions and emotional states of the subjects can be detected through the
camera via the software. Relatively, it creates an advantage in terms of providing a more natural
atmosphere to the participant. Being able to examine 43 facial muscles at the same time and detecting 6
basic emotions (sadness, dislike, anger, jealousy, smile, surprise) are among the advantages of this
technique. On the other hand, the need for subjectivity at the time of the action reveals the limitation of
the technique. Within the scope of marketing, the Facial Coding technique is used for purposes such as
testing advertisements, measuring user experience, and evaluating product-packaging designs. Toyota
and Capital One companies actively use the Facial Coding technique in examining consumer behavior
(Girişken, 2017; Bercea, 2012; Roth, 2014).
2.3. Other Physiological Activity Tools
Techniques such as heart rate and skin conductance level, which allow physiological analyzes on
other parts of the human body, can be used simultaneously with other methods.
2.3.1. Heart Rate
With the heart rhythm measurement, it provides the opportunity to monitor and record the changes
in the heart rhythm of the individual against the stimulus, similar to other neuromarketing measurement
techniques. Heart rhythm, which is considered as a neurophysiological signal, can provide valid
guidance about consumers' preferences, likes and dislikes. Neuromarketing experiments can use a
combination of galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate. While GSR measures the sympathetic
responses related to emotion and cognitive state, the heart rhythm technique measures the positive or
negative response of the stimulus in the individual. Heart rate is usually measured with an
electrocardiogram (ECG). Heart rate is controlled by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous
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systems. The automatic response to an external stimulus is decided by the sympathetic system and results
in an increased heart rate. On the other hand, the parasympathetic system comes into play in states of
calm that lowers the heart rate. If the individual focuses more on an advertisement or promotion, the
heart rate is slower (Rawnaque et al, 2020).
2.3.2. Galvanic Skin Response
The galvanic skin response (GSR), which is used to measure the temperature and electrical
conductivity of the skin that changes according to the humidity level, is also called electrodermal activity
(EDA). It is very common to use in conjunction with the pulse rate. Pulse changes give information
about the response of individuals to stimuli, and the same response is measured on the skin. GSR is used
in neuromarketing research to detect and measure psychological and physiological responses (Kumar &
Singh, 2015). GSR is used to monitor market performance and measure arousal. The inability to
determine the type of an emotional response is seen as a limitation of the technique. However, it can
determine the degree and severity of arousal (Bercea, 2012).
Figure 8. GSR Device
Source: Imotions (b),
3. EMPIRICAL NEUROMARKETING RESEARCH AND CONSIDERATIONS
When the literature is examined, it is seen that neuromarketing research first started with fMRI
device, and nowadays, many brain imaging or biometric methods such as EEG, GSR, eye tracking,
facial coding are used. Recently, with the discussion of rational and emotional behavior in consumption
by psychologists and marketing experts, techniques that go beyond traditional methodologies and in
which emotion measurement is at the forefront have gained importance. Neuromarketing does not claim
that consumer behavior is purely emotional, but argues that emotional decision-making processes are
more dominant. However, he does not accept the idea that neuromarketing techniques will replace
traditional methods. It is accepted that the use of both neuromarketing techniques and traditional
marketing research methods such as surveys and focus groups will create more accurate and reliable
results (Girişken, 2017).
Studies in the field of neuromarketing generally include literature information, and the scarcity of
practice-oriented studies is noteworthy. Moreover, there is a lack of publications that provide guidance
on which techniques, under what conditions, and for what purposes neuromarketing experiments should
be conducted. For instance; There is a lack of instruction and information on why EEG or facial coding
should or should not be used instead of fMRI technique. Clearly confirming why such techniques are
suitable for marketing research studies may be an important way to expand the acceptance of such
studies, especially among neuroscientists, and thereby increase the impact of research in the field of
neuromarketing (lee et al., 2018). Undoubtedly, the fact that this discipline is still developing, its ethical
dimensions are discussed, it has an interdisciplinary dimension, and the production of standard
procedures delays it. Another controversial issue is that many neuromarketing techniques, especially
brain imaging, require serious expertise and the correct interpretation of the experimental results.
Working with neuroscientists on this subject is very important in terms of obtaining more reliable
research results.
4. CONCLUSION
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In neuromarketing research, it has been observed that brain imaging techniques are mainly focused
on, and eye tracking technique is also used extensively. In addition, it is expected that marketing
researches will become more comprehensive with mixed methods that allow the use of biometric tools
together, which do not create high investment costs, are portable, can give fast and accurate results.
Cognitive/emotional decisions, the importance of which has clearly emerged in recent years, is
becoming increasingly important in psychology, sociology and other fields, especially in marketing.
Therefore, the correlation between the individual exposed to a stimulus and the simultaneously changing
physiological symptoms of the individual has the potential to answer many questions.
Many studies have classified neuromarketing tools as neuroimaging and physiological methods.
Brain imaging techniques measure brain waves and the activation of parts of the brain. These activations
should also be evaluated among the physiological responses of the human body. Therefore, in this study,
all neuromarketing techniques were evaluated physiologically, and they were shown under three
subheadings as brain imaging (EEG, fMRI), biometrics (eye tracking, FEMG, facial coding) and other
physiological techniques (GSR, heart rate).
It has been seen that the most used techniques in neuromarketing research are fMRI, EEG and eye
tracking. The fact that the fMRI device is expensive and fixed pushes researchers to the EEG method,
which is another neuroimaging technique and has a portable form. In addition, it is seen that eye tracking
technique is used together with EEG in neuromarketing research such as advertising effectiveness and
brand loyalty (Girişken; 2017; Lindstrom, 2020).
Neuromarketing researchers can focus on a single technique or apply multiple methods by combining
methods. It is thought that multiple methods (for example: simultaneous use of GSR, HR and eye
tracking) will increase the findings to be obtained from the research and decrease the margin of error.
Eye tracking, which is one of the neuromarketing techniques, is preferred in many marketing researches,
from interior design to shelf arrangement, from advertising activities to packaging design, because it
can be used actively outside the laboratory, is portable, has low cost, and is easy to use. It is predicted
that eye tracking, which is very prone to use with other techniques, will be preferred even more in
neuromarketing studies.
It is seen that Remote Facial Coding has taken its place among neurotechnics with the development
of the software industry. Especially with artificial intelligence supported software, experiments can be
carried out on participants in different locations without the need for any hardware. With new
developments, advanced facial coding software, which can even provide remote heart rate data, is seen
as the most comprehensive method among biometric methods. The fact that facial coding technique can
define micro facial expressions, measure emotional states, perform eye tracking simultaneously,
measure heart rate remotely, monitor the change in pupil size, and offer all biometric methods in an
integrated way has been seen as a great advantage.
In future studies, neuromarketing tools will be used not only in marketing research but also in
customer experience, augmented reality, architectural design, web usability, etc. Its use in many areas
will contribute to the development of these areas, which are human behavior at their origin. Universal
conduct of neuromarketing research, adding participants from different nationalities to the sample, is
more possible with the remote artificial intelligence assisted facial coding technique, and it would be
beneficial to increase neuromarketing researches based on this technique. In addition, it is recommended
that the studies conducted with neuromarketing techniques are supported by traditional methods such as
questionnaires, focus groups, interviews, and the adoption of mixed method approach increases the
validity and reliability of the researches.
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