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Exploring the influence of the pivot to online instrumental lessons during the COVID-19 pandemic on Chinese music students in a UK university



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Jiangnan Xia
Department of Music, University of York, York, United Kingdom, E-mail:
There are a growing number of Chinese students studying music at U.K. universities and
conservatories. Measures taken to decrease the spread of coronavirus in 2020 led to school
closures worldwide, which resulted in current and prospective music students facing new
challenges. This qualitative study is based on literature investigating the influence of the
COVID-19 pandemic on Chinese music students studying at a U.K. university. Online semi-
structured one-to-one interviews with five Chinese music students explored information
about their perceptions and experiences of online learning during the pandemic. The results
demonstrate that the pandemic made them experience the following: additional pressure and
adjustment of mental status; changes in their learning environment during school closure;
changes in the way of approaching online lessons; and changes to strategies of autonomous
learning. This study is based on analysis of the literature and interview data exploring the
influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on Chinese music students' learning. It also provides
suggestions to teachers that teach online courses and offers ideas for the future of music
education institutions.
KEY WORDS: online music lessons, Chinese students, higher music education,
instrumental and vocal studies, COVID-19 pandemic
Since March 2020, the world has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. According to
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2020), the nationwide
closures intended to reduce infection (Imai et al., 2020) impacted over 40% of the global
student population in August 2020, and while the situation has improved, 90% of global
2377-9527/21/$35.00 © 2021 by Begell House, Inc. DOI: 10.1615/IntJInnovOnlineEdu.2021039138
International Journal on Innovations in Online Education, 5(3) 2021
students were affected in April 2020. Schools can only temporarily replace previous face-to-
face lessons with online lessons (Zhou et al., 2020).
Although there is a great deal of literature exploring the feasibility and challenges of online
teaching for music education, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is
limited research on the perspectives of Chinese music students studying abroad. Therefore,
in this study we collected data from five Chinese students studying music performance at a
U.K. university, and through interviews, we explored how they continued their learning during
the pandemic in order to understand their views on online instrumental music lessons and
what challenges they faced and overcame. They were recruited because they experienced
the shift from face-to-face to online lessons for at least one term (10 weeks). This means
they had sufficient online learning experience to provide interview content.
The University of York was chosen because it provided timely online education plans
(including synchronous one-on-one and group lessons, online tutorials and supervision, and
asynchronous video lessons) and substituted digital pianos for piano students. All of the data
are based on the personal experiences and perspectives of the individual interviewees. The
results of this research could validate previous studies on the effects of online lessons and
the experiences of Chinese international music students learning abroad, particularly during
the pandemic. Additionally, this study could provide teachers with opportunities for reflection
and suggestions for approaches to online lessons and teaching methods.
2.1 Chinese Music Students in Overseas Universities/Conservatories
The primary objective of this study focuses on Chinese music students studying overseas.
Therefore, it is important to understand the reasons why Chinese students study abroad, the
challenges they encounter, and the factors influencing their academic success (Choi, 2013;
Haddon, 2019; McMahon, 2011). McMahon (2011), who did not target any specific academic
discipline, used qualitative research methods to explore the experience of Chinese students
studying and living at U.K. universities. Interviewees expressed consensus across four
topics, including (a) difficulties in establishing friendships with British students; (b)
significance of academic success; (c) less self-confidence in English expression and writing;
and (d) unwillingness to actively ask questions in class. The research conclusion was
representative of overseas students. The Choi (2013) research on music students expanded
the McMahon (2011) perspective on academic success. Choi (2013) focused on East Asian
students (Taiwanese, Japanese, mainland Chinese, and Korean) studying music at the
Juilliard School in the United States and explored what affected their academic success. The
results presented in Table 1 come from 92 participants who completed the survey.
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TABLE 1: Some influencing factors of East Asian students' academic success studying
overseas (Reprinted from Choi with permission from SAGE Publications, Copyright 2013, p.
Number Factor Mean SD
1 Good relationship with professors 4.46 0.78
2 Good feedback from professors 4.41 0.70
3 My emotional stability 4.19 0.81
4 Conversational English skills 3.96 1.00
5 Asian cultural background 3.95 0.86
6 Good relationship with American friends 3.85 0.88
7 Familiarity with the American school system 3.80 0.75
8 Written English skills 3.80 0.86
9 Presentational English skills 3.77 0.88
10 Good feedback from American friends 3.69 0.85
11 Social support network in the United States 3.69 0.93
12 Asian learning style 3.66 1.02
For international students studying music abroad, a good relationship with the professor and
good feedback were the most influential factors in achieving academic success, as shown in
Table 1. In addition, emotional stability in the face of stress and alienation was highly
recognized. Only these three factors exceeded the mean of 4.0. English proficiency was also
considered to affect academic success, including general writing and presentation skills.
However, defining their previous learning style as Asian was less important (mean of 3.66)
because there are some changes that need to be made. In summary, McMahon (2011) and
Choi (2013) showed that the most important factors influencing the academic success of
Chinese students abroad are language skills, social activity, and emotional stability.
Haddon (2019) conducted an interview-based qualitative study on nine postgraduate
program music students from mainland China and Hong Kong who studied at British
universities. The study focused on their reasons for choosing to study in the United Kingdom,
their perspectives on academic performance, and the challenges they experienced. The
study found that Chinese students come to the United Kingdom to study music for the
following reasons: (a) the positive academic atmosphere; (b) a one-year postgraduate
degree could accelerate academic and financial progress; (c) it provides an opportunity to
expand cultural awareness and language skills; and (d) a chance to develop friendships and
understand different perspectives. In terms of academic learning, interviewees in the study
stated they liked the student–supervisor relationship at the institution, and the feedback
given by the teacher was very important. Additionally, the students were very satisfied with
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the school's facilities, which included a 24-hour library, school studio, and availability of
musical instruments. In terms of learning challenges, Haddon concluded:
These participants experienced challenges in adjusting to different ways of thinking and
using new learning strategies, particularly in developing critical thinking skills,
individuality and self-reliance in interpretation in performance. Students were concerned
about their English language skills, and might experience challenges concerning the
peer group. (Haddon, 2019, p. 49)
The results from McMahon (2011), Choi (2013), and Haddon (2019) show that students
consider language, social interaction, and academic achievement to be important. Only
Choi's research focused on the importance of student mental stability for academic success,
while Haddon (2019) additionally emphasized the cultivation and challenge of students'
critical thinking and self-reliance in interpretation of performance abilities, which would be
different from the previous Asian learning style (Choi, 2013).
The research shows that Chinese music students studying in the United Kingdom have
different characteristics compared to other students studying in the United Kingdom, which
need to be further researched during the pandemic in order to understand whether and how
these characteristics changed.
2.2 The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
COVID-19 was characterized as a pandemic by the Director-General of the World Health
Organization on March 11, 2020 (World Health Organization, 2020). Many countries took
joint containment and mitigation measures aimed at flattening the curve of infection and
delaying a surge in patients to meet the demand for hospital beds, while focusing on
protection for the most vulnerable groups (Bedford et al., 2020). Measures were designed to
restrict mass gatherings and maintain social distancing to reduce the spread of the virus.
Many countries decided to impose a complete lockdown (Chakraborty and Maity, 2020). For
higher education students, face-to-face lessons were suspended to slow the spread of the
disease; instead, teachers sent teaching materials and facilitated exams through distance
learning platforms and moved to online pedagogies (Ortiz, 2020). In the United Kingdom, the
pandemic created a significant disruption for students and impacted their final term, exams,
and potentially future employment opportunities and mental health (Sahu, 2020).
Nguyen et al. (2020) performed a quantitative study of the impact of COVID-19 on college
students in Vietnam and received 440 completed questionnaires. Table 2 contains the means
and standard deviations (SDs) for the ratings (1 = strongly disagree; 5 = strongly agree) of
five perspectives of the impact of COVID-19 on their learning/work. Nguyen et al. (2020)
showed that COVID-19 influenced learning for most students, who agreed that universities
were not safe places and their learning activities changed. They believed that the learning
content load was reduced, but they did not have a high level of agreement on whether their
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learning was less efficient. However, the study did not specify how COVID-19 affected
students' learning and work in detail.
TABLE 2: Perspectives of the impact of the outbreak on participants' studies/work (Adapted
from Nguyen et al. under a CC BY 4.0 license, 2020, p. 4;
Number Item Mean SD
1 COVID-19 has greatly affected work/study activities 4.05 0.98
2 Work/study activities are transformed during COVID-19 pandemic 4.44 0.91
3 Work/study loads are reduced 3.74 1.25
4You are concerned that going to work/university is not safe amid
the pandemic 4.21 0.88
5You feel that your time spent on working/studying is less
productive 3.37 1.15
Sahu (2020) and Zhai and Du (2020) analyzed the influence of the pandemic on college
students' mental health. They highlighted many potential negative effects of the pandemic on
contemporary college students, including some who experienced feelings of loneliness and
isolation from friends, classmates, and partners. College students were also troubled by
uncertainty within the semester. Technical challenges of online lessons bothered students
and caused them anxiety and irritability (Sahu, 2020). In addition, interruption of their
research projects and internships, and delays in examinations and graduation threatened
their study and employment plans, thereby exacerbating the anxiety of the college students
(Zhai and Du, 2020). However, these two studies did not indicate specific mental health risks
that students were experiencing. These studies were not specific to the context of
instrumental and vocal music education, but are a good guide for in-depth research and
In summary, the impact of the pandemic on universities was that campus closures shifted
face-to-face lessons to online modes, with a potential impact on learning methods,
effectiveness, and students' mental health. However, the impact of the pandemic on online
teaching and learning in the context of Chinese students' studying abroad is not fully
understood. Therefore, the next step is to understand the current research and development
of online lessons in order to understand the impact of online teaching and learning on
Chinese music students studying in the United Kingdom.
2.3 Online Instrumental and Vocal Lessons
Distance online education is popular today. Moore (1992) asserted that distance instruction
would be an important pattern of future education. Crawford-Ferre and Wiest (2012) further
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stated that managers of higher education were, at the time, paying more attention to online
teaching and learning, and were preparing to use it as a development strategy for both the
short and long term. For the field of online music education, many studies have focused on
effective methods to teach and learn online using Skype, Zoom, and LoLa (a low-latency
tool). Their research has suggested that while technology poses challenges, online music
teaching and learning is feasible (Dammers, 2009; Koutsoupidou, 2014; Redman, 2020).
Dammers (2009) arranged nine lessons for a case study of a student and teacher pair using
Skype videoconferencing software. The results revealed that the benefits of Skype lessons
were that they could be used for distance learning, Skype's connection was reliable, and the
teacher's evaluation and pace of lessons were not affected. However, the case study
showed that the challenges of a Skype lesson were the following: the delay between video
and audio, which prevented the teacher and student from playing duets in real time; limited
visuals, which prevented comprehensive and detailed analysis of behavior; and the presence
of a camera and headphones, which caused limitation of movement. However, Dammers
(2009) did not consider these challenges to be the main factors affecting teaching and
Additionally, Koutsoupidou (2014) collected information on seven teachers' understanding.
The Koutsoupidou (2014) research results were more extensive than those of Dammers
(2009), and indicated that online lessons require students to have a certain level of maturity
and discipline. Moreover, in asynchronous academic lessons, a sense of isolation often
prevents students from enjoying lessons. Perhaps the solution would be to increase one-to-
one or videoconferencing real-time communication. Despite these shortcomings, Dammers
(2009) and Koutsoupidou (2014) both stated that being able to achieve remote teaching and
learning was the biggest advantage of online lessons, and expressed a positive attitude
toward the feasibility of online lessons. By contrast, in online piano teaching research, a
digital piano is often a technical tool of distance teaching (Hamond, 2017). In Hamond
(2017), both teachers and learners pointed out the limitations of digital pianos. In summary of
those limitations:
Musical performance parameters associated with limited response on the digital piano
are sonority, touch, tone quality, and pedalling. These limitations occur mainly because
of differences in the mechanics of digital pianos in comparison with acoustic pianos, and
also in the resonance of their harmonics. (Hamond, 2017, pp. 277–278)
Previous studies have compared and analyzed teacher and student behavior in face-to-face
and online instrumental music lessons (King et al., 2019; Orman & Whitaker, 2010). The
research of Orman and Whitaker (2010) indicated that “teacher modelling through
performance occurred 28% more often during face-to-face lessons and student
performance increased over 22% during distance” (p. 96). In support of the findings by
Dammers (2009) that the online teaching process would be affected by the limited visual
range, participants in Orman and Whitaker (2010) said that it was easier to cheat or make
mistakes in online lessons, such as using wrong fingerings. Similarly, subsequent research
by King et al. (2019) also focused on the behavior of teachers and students; however, in
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contrast to Orman and Whitaker (2010), King et al. (2019) found no difference between the
behavior of teachers and students in digital lessons and face-to-face lessons, including
teachers asking questions, feedback, demonstrations, listening, observing, and students'
playing or singing. However, King et al. (2019) found that it took longer for teachers and
students to talk because communication was more difficult on Skype. In addition, due to the
time delay, accompanying activities of online lessons became more difficult, with a significant
decline compared to face-to-face lessons.
Regarding the challenges of time delay and the inability to play duets, the research by
Redman (2020) explored the potential of low-latency acoustic technology (LoLa) in teaching.
LoLa is intended to minimize the vocal delay between teachers and students, allowing for the
possibility of ensembles. Redman (2020) first investigated the needs of teachers and
students for performing synchronously in face-to-face lessons. The results showed that in
face-to-face lessons, after students finished playing, the most common teaching method for
teachers was to play the same phrase with students at the same time. Redman (2020) then
planned two trials using LoLa in four institutions in the United Kingdom, and the students and
musicians who participated in the experiment expressed that compared with standard
videoconferencing platforms, LoLa minimized the delay, improved audio quality, and allowed
for the simultaneous performance of two people; the natural sound also made people feel
comfortable. However, Redman (2020) stated that the use of LoLa could not eradicate the
difficulties of physical separation, including the observation of student posture and instrument
detail. Moreover, the inability to purchase, install, and use LoLa was its biggest challenge
since it “requires a specialist build with dedicated sound and graphics cards, along with a
specialist camera, a separate lens, and high-speed monitors” (Redman, 2020, p. 12).
The studies described previously explored the feasibility of online instrumental music lessons
in detail, and have shown there were no obvious behavioral differences for teachers and
students in online lessons compared to face-to-face lessons; however, technical challenges
still limited simultaneous performance between teachers and students, which reduced
accompaniment activities, and low-latency technology was difficult and expensive. Therefore,
based on the results of existing research, how university students' online music lessons
change and whether they are efficient is worth investigating. In particular, there is a gap in
the evidence regarding the learning characteristics of Chinese music students at U.K.
universities, and how the shift to online lessons during the pandemic influenced their
instrumental music learning.
At the time of submission, the impact of the global pandemic is ongoing; therefore, online
education is likely to continue. This demonstrates the importance of the present research
and supports the development of online education as recommended by Crawford-Ferre and
Wiest (2012) and Moore (1992). The aim of this study was developed based on review of
previous literature and in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and to explore the
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influence of the pandemic and online lessons on Chinese students studying instrumental and
vocal music in the United Kingdom. Three smaller research questions were devised for this
group of interest:
1. What are students' perceptions of the shift to online learning during the COVID-19
2. How have online lessons and the COVID-19 pandemic affected the way students
approach their lessons?
3. How have online lessons and the COVID-19 pandemic affected students'
independent learning?
4.1 Participants
The five participants (P1–P5) in this study were Master of Arts (MA) students studying music
performance at a U.K. university. They were all Chinese, aged around 23 years, and at the
time the study was conducted they were preparing for the third term recital in September
2020, which is assessed. They used the English language in lessons, which was not their
first language; an International English Language Testing System score of at least 6.0 was
required for university admission. All participants were learning and practicing advanced
level music pieces. Table 3 describes the individual details for each student's U.K. MA
course and musical instruments, living location at the time of the interview, lesson and
practice locations, lesson types, and learning materials.
The interviews were held at a time when the school's piano practice room and concert hall
were conditionally open. P1 had the opportunity to take face-to-face piano lessons and go to
the piano room to practice on the grand piano. The interview with P4 was conducted during
the opening stage of the school library. She had a new learning location, and the rest of her
learning continued in an online learning environment. Among them, P2 and P5 returned to
China before the start of the third semester, and did not returned to the United Kingdom
since they were able to learn online. P1 and P3 planned to return to China from the United
Kingdom within two weeks of the interview. Therefore, the information presented in Table 3
changed over time, where various resources were used at different times instead of all of the
materials listed in Table 3 being used in every lesson.
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TABLE 3: Participant information
Participant U.K. MA
Lessons and
Lesson Type Materials
MA Music
Dormitory room
and practice
room in music
video lessons
and tests
Laptop; iPad;
digital piano;
printed sheet
MA Music
China Study at home
Twice a week
practice video
Laptop; iPad and
apple pencil;
printed sheet
music; book;
speaker; music
MA Music
Kingdom Dormitory room
lesson; group
printed sheet
music; music
MA Music
room, library,
and practice in
a public indoor
facility on
lesson; group
Laptop; iPad;
digital piano;
printed sheet
music; music
MA Music
China Study at home
video lessons
and tests
Laptop; acoustic
upright piano;
printed sheet
4.2 Materials
The main interview tools used were Zoom and WeChat (with video and audio communication
functions) and emails. The interviewees were given the choice of whether or not to turn on
their camera in one-to-one interviews. Due to Internet restrictions, it was not convenient to
use Zoom for interviewees in China; therefore, some interviewers used WeChat video or
audio calls on mobile phones, and recording was done using separate computer equipment.
For participants in the United Kingdom, Zoom was used for interviews, which can directly
record. The aforementioned interview methods all respected interviewee choice. Recording
required the interviewee's consent, and all interview videos, audio, transcripts, emails, and
social software chat records were not shared with any third party and were deleted
immediately after the study was completed. The interview times all followed interviewee
schedules; to ensure that the interview had no impact on their lives, the schedule was built
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such that the interviewees could participate in the interview in a comfortable time without
tension. The interviews lasted between 25 and 40 minutes and were conducted in Chinese
(since this was the interviewees were most familiar language), which allowed them to fully
express themselves and minimized the impact of language challenges on both the efficiency
of the interview and the quality of the answers.
4.3 Procedure
Semi-structured one-to-one online interviews were the main data collection method used in
this research project. This interview method can obtain in-depth and specific information
(Hofisi et al., 2014) from interviewees. The interviews were conducted within a week of
receiving the university's ethical approval. The interviewees read and agreed to the consent
form and information sheet before the interviews. When transcribed manuscripts were given
to the interviewees to modify and supplement, some interviewees continued to provide
information. Moreover, after the interview, according to the passage of time and changes in
university reopening and examination policies, some interviewees continued to provide
supplementary information through the WeChat software program. These data sources
made the research content richer and more accurate.
4.4 Data Analysis
After the interviews, the recorded data were first transcribed in Chinese, which were then
sent back to the interviewees to modify and supplement according to their own wishes.
Some of the interviewees added more detail to the interview questions. After the Chinese
interview manuscripts had been approved, they were translated into English and information
not related to the research was deleted. The Chinese and English transcriptions were read
again by the interviewees; however, there were only a few modifications the second time and
the interviewees agreed to their anonymous use. The repeated reading and translations
increased familiarity with participant comments and helped prepare the data for coding. The
NVivo tool was used to help with the coding, followed by a thematic approach of inductive
analysis. The conclusions of this study were also informed by the issues raised in the extant
The participants stated that, compared to previous face-to-face lessons, the pandemic and
online lessons had changed many aspects of their perceptions and learning. Therefore, the
results obtained are discussed in the following four sections in relation to: student pressure
and changes to mentality; learning environmental changes; lesson approach changes; and
changes in the way autonomous learning is approached.
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5.1 Students' Perceptions of Online Lessons during the Pandemic:
Pressure and Mentality Changes
All five participants had experienced a certain amount of pressure and mentality changes
after campus closure and online lessons were implemented. Pressure mainly arose from
assessed recitals. They all mentioned the need to prepare for the third term recital, which
included a 45-minute performance. As one participant claimed, “the pandemic and school
closures does not cancel the concert exam and the works would be harder as the duration
will be longer from 30 minutes to 45 minutes” (P4). At the time of writing this study, the
university could provide on-campus venues for students in the United Kingdom for recitals,
and the remaining students received instructions for recorded performances from a MA
program leader. P5 explained that they needed to set up a Zoom meeting for live
performances and use additional video recording equipment to record the performance for
assessment. Therefore, students in China said that they also worried about live performance
and recording videos, since they now needed to find suitable venues and video equipment.
For vocal and flute exams, they also needed suitable accompanists. In addition, P1 (who
was returning to China) reported just before the exam:
Due to the pandemic, people who take international flights back to China need to be
quarantined at designated hotels for 14 days (Cheng, 2020). My tutor says that if this is
the reason affects the exam, I can have 14 days more after the scheduled time. But
there will be no piano during the isolation period, it will take some time to practice again
after 14 days … Therefore, it is still quite stressful to complete the exam with high quality
within the limited time. (P1)
Additionally, P2 and P3 both stated that their learning pace was slower than expected since
they did not successfully learn many pieces during the middle of the semester; this made
them feel under pressure to complete the works in a limited amount of time.
In terms of mentality, the interviewees said that their acceptance of online learning had
undergone fundamental changes, including transitioning from doubting to accepting online
lessons and from anxiety to enjoyment; however, some interviewees also expressed
despondency. P4 stated: “If you interviewed me at the beginning of this term, I could
definitely pick out a lot of challenges towards the online lessons. It felt like the whole world
was going to collapse.” However, later she said: “I used to think that the effect of online
classes must be bad, but I have no choice but to adjust my mentality and face the status quo
to accept.”
As a result of having undergone at least 10 weeks of adjustment and adaptation, the
interviewees said that they could accept this way of learning during the pandemic. P1 said
that using digital pianos could facilitate preparation for the assessed recital by allowing
students to practice piano during the pandemic. P3 also said:
I think the current situation is pretty good, because there is no need to book a practice
room and fearing that others would hear it, so it is easy and good now as I do not worry
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about others and just focus on myself.
P5 also said that she enjoyed it because she had more time for her own practice at home,
not limited by the scheduled time of the school piano room. In this semester, P2 learned
many new techniques of contemporary flute music, such as flutter tongue. Focusing on new
techniques made her feel like “I will not be bored just studying alone. I still feel that learning
new things is quite fresh, and my mentality has not changed.”
Alternatively, the current lockdown environment still made P2 feel sad and despondent:
There are few classmates studying flute, and I am the only Chinese student. In the past,
the teacher would arrange small concerts and I could meet a lot of people, but now the
pandemic makes them all absent which makes me feel despondent.
The previous comments suggest that the pandemic had caused participants to face many
challenges from examinations and online learning, which brought certain pressures and
challenges to students. However, participants slowly accepted the online learning because
they knew it was the best solution given their current social environment. Moreover, they
believed that it was important to adjust and maintain their mentality, and some participants
also said that they were happy and satisfied with the current situation, although there were
some feelings of despondency.
5.2 The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Learning Environment
Analysis of the respondents' answers demonstrated that the pandemic had impacted the
learning and practice environment in two main areas, including changes in learning locations
(Table 3) and peer learning atmosphere. Changes in the learning location were due to the
pandemic limiting the use of the piano room, concert hall, and library. P3, who is learning
vocal performance, indicated:
The school is closed and students cannot use the piano room so I can only practice in
the dormitory, but later, I go to the kitchen to practice where it has a certain resonance
effect, which is more similar to a concert hall.
P2 similarly mentioned:
When I practiced flute in a concert hall with a very subtle sound, I can also hear it, so I
can adjust my music dynamic to a larger range. In the piano room, there is no such
effect, let alone in the bedroom, the sound effect will definitely be reduced.
Flute and vocal students all described the impact that the different places used for learning
or practicing has had on sound. This impact not only comes from the divergent contrasts
between the bedroom and kitchen compared to the concert hall, but it also comes from limits
on possible volume to avoid annoying others. P4 stated that:
Because of the pandemic, I do not have a place to practice. I do not like to practice in
the bedroom because if I sing too loud it would bother others, and practicing quietly is
International Journal on Innovations in Online Education
not what I want … I temporarily find an indoor facility on campus to practice, but at first it
is easy to be disturbed by people passing by.
P4 practiced outside and tried to raise practice efficiency. She said:
At first I practiced outside. If someone passed by, I would stop because it felt
embarrassing, but with time spent practicing their long-term efficiency actually improved
substantially: I got used to someone walking by and I still sing without being affected, so
the efficiency became much higher than before or in the bedroom.
P2 said that her efficiency had risen while practicing in a bedroom, and stated:
I am very worried about disturbing others, so I only practice piano between 10 a.m. and
4 p.m., and I have to eat lunch, so the time is compressed, and I have to accomplish my
goal in a limited time, so I have to improve effectiveness.
With respect to the library closure, P4 said:
The closure of the library only allows me to work on my commentary in the bedroom,
which is very inefficient for me, so closure of the library reduces my learning resources.
Fortunately, the school library just opened this week and I have a place to study, but the
library is only open from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., which is not as free as before.
Almost all of the participants mentioned that using a digital piano, or not having a piano to
practice, was one of the biggest changes from the past. However, for P5, learning at home,
this had little impact. For piano student P1, the only difference was to practice and learn with
a digital piano, which was also the biggest challenge in learning. P1 said:
Many sonorities in the music cannot be made by digital pianos … when I get used to the
digital piano, I suddenly feel uncomfortable when I return to the acoustic piano … if
some works with fast chords or heavy sound on the digital piano plays, it will shake,
which affects practicing.
The vocal and flute students said that not having a piano made it difficult for them to
determine whether their pitch was standard during practice, and it was inconvenient to use
mobile phones or computer software (P3 and P2).
Despite the problems associated with changes in learning locations, all interviewees
mentioned their influence on peer-learning and students' communication during the
pandemic. P3 and P2 said that although their exams were both solo, they still had a lot of
social activities in their previous study and life. For example, P2 participated in the baroque
orchestra, while P3 participated in both university and baroque choirs. The emergence of the
pandemic stopped these activities. P2 expressed her view on this change in peer learning:
Before the pandemic, we could rehearse in the orchestra, there were three flute learners
present with opinions and suggestions on the music. And we would ask each other what
music they have learned recently to share interpretations, which was a pretty good way
for me to learn. But the pandemic reduces a lot of activities so this kind of learning
between us is gone.
In contrast, P4 expressed the opposite view; she said:
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In fact, it does not matter if the communication and activities between peers are reduced.
I only joint a choir for one term because I felt that the time was wasted the peers are
almost at the same level, in fact, it does not help me much.
Therefore, everyone has their own way of learning, and it is unknown whether changes due
to the pandemic would have an impact on individuals. The previous comments demonstrate
the changes in the study and practice environment of the interviewees, the good and bad
effects of such changes, and the different viewpoints about the impact of changes in the
atmosphere of peer learning.
5.3 The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Lesson Approach Changes
The participants indicated that their current online lessons after the school closure are one-
on-one and group lessons in Zoom and asynchronous video lessons. They said there are a
few differences between one-on-one Zoom lessons and face-to-face lessons, which provide
some advantages and challenges to online learning.
For Chinese students encountering language challenges, Zoom lessons and asynchronous
video theory lessons had some advantages for understanding English. P2 said:
When there are some words that I do not understand, the teacher can text me in the
chat bar of Zoom and I can search for them immediately. The chat can be saved so I can
also review after lessons. This method is faster than before when my teacher wrote it
For P3, the search and translation functions of a smartphone helped to improve the
efficiency of understanding English:
I did not dare to use mobile phones to search the meaning of the lyrics and musical
terms at all in class before. Now I can secretly search and translate it into Chinese so
that I can understand right away, which avoids the comprehension and the efficiency of
lessons that are affected by the language.
For asynchronous video lessons and tests, two piano learners (P5 and P1) both mentioned
that one of the benefits of this kind of video lesson is that there are subtitles that can be
translated; therefore, the effect of learning was better than before because their
understanding became more comprehensive. Conversely, almost all of the interviewees
mentioned the impact of the technical challenges of network stall and delay during Zoom
lessons. P3 said the network lag had a big impact on her lessons because she brought the
emotions of the characters in opera when singing the aria, but a network stall would pull her
out of the emotions and she would need to bring them back again. She also said that if there
was a person with a network delay or break during the group lessons, all of the other
students would have to wait for this person, which was a waste of time. P1, P3, and P4
specifically stated that due to the network delay and the lack of accompanists during the
lockdown period, their one-to-one online lesson approach had undergone many changes. P3
explained the changes in detail:
International Journal on Innovations in Online Education
In the first few weeks after we switched to the online lessons, my teacher tried to play
accompaniment when I sang. But there was a time delay, which caused us to fail to
match. So, I sang alone for a few weeks in the middle, during which the learning
efficiency was the lowest and the lesson pace was very slow. Later, my teacher sent me
the accompaniment audio. I need to follow the audio by myself in class, but there is a
challenge to match the fixed speed of audios. So, the accompaniment greatly affects the
lesson, and the challenge has still not been solved in the end.
In addition, the online teaching methods of different teachers determined the approach of
students' online lessons. The lesson content of P2 had added more questions and answers
and pre-class video sections. The teacher also sought feedback from students on the online
lesson. P2 described the change between online lessons and previous face-to-face lessons
as follows:
In the past face-to-face lessons, we usually had a warm-up section first, and then
transition to the main class. Now after the online class, the teacher will ask me if I have
practiced before the class. I usually say that I practiced, he will skip the warm-up
This change made her feel a little uncomfortable in the beginning: “when the teacher asks
me to write the feelings and feedback of the online lessons, I wrote this point” (P2). The
teacher then adjusted her lesson later on. P2 summarized the change: “My teacher adds an
extra lesson to practice specific skills. And I am a kind of student who likes to ask questions
very much, so the teacher will answer questions in this additional lesson.”
In order to save more time in lessons and improve efficiency, P2 also mentioned that she
added the task of submitting practice videos, which also adjusted the content of her class.
She said:
My teacher suggests that I try to send her the video I recorded in 24 hours before the
class The biggest advantage is that it saves time after the teacher watched and
knew the conditions through the video, she could directly suggest where to start at the
beginning of the lesson, which is indeed much more efficient than before. (P2)
The interview results demonstrate that online lessons have advantages and disadvantages.
Some students' lessons had not fundamentally changed, while other students' lessons had
changed entirely. Vocal and flute students were more likely to be affected by network delays,
while piano students said that the online teaching had not changed. Moreover, online
teaching made it easier for Chinese students to face language challenges. Different teachers
also have differences in teaching methods with respect to how they approach their lessons.
P2's lessons were greatly changed from the previous face-to-face lessons; this aspect was
not mentioned by the rest of the interviewees.
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5.4 The Impact of Online Lessons on Learning: Changes in the Way of
Autonomous Learning
The previous sections have described the approaches of online lessons, as well as the
changes in learning environments. These changes brought about changes to students'
autonomous learning methods. These changes are solutions to the learning challenges
brought about by environmental changes and lesson approaches, and they also come from
the interviewees discovering the advantages of online lessons. In the interviews, the
students expressed that they were gradually taking the advantages of online lessons into
their own autonomous learning methods. As P5 said, “The disadvantages of online lessons
bring new learning methods for me to try and improve.” She said that due to the low quality
of the teacher's audio, use of the pedal is often not obvious enough to notice; therefore, they
hardly discussed the use of the pedal. This shortcoming motivated her to study the use of
pedals and analyze other people's video or audio to figure out the use of other pianists'
Moreover, due to the reduction of choir activities and audio delay preventing effective
accompaniment, P3 also stated, “I have paid more attention to cultivating my sight-reading
ability. I also buy a book of sight-reading practice. I rarely practiced sight-reading on my own
For vocal and flute students who needed accompaniment, due to the lack of access to piano
usage during the lockdown, they changed their way of accompaniment in class. The lack of
accompaniment had changed their self-learning method in two ways: one change was to
analyze the music by the accompaniment part, and the other was to pay more attention to
their intonation. P2 said, “So now when I read the score, I will read even the piano
accompaniment part as there may be hidden dynamics or articulation marks on it.” She also
Because there is no piano both where my teacher and I live, when I do decrescendo or
crescendo dynamics, I often get inaccurate pitch and the teacher will bring it up … now, I
pay more attention than before to recognize if there is a mistake with the pitch when I
play. (P2)
Vocal student P3 said, “I used to sing along with the accompaniment in class … now I have
to rely more on myself to sing accurately, so I will think about the relationship of pitch
especially when the two notes are far apart.” However, P4 said the influence of
accompaniment had not changed much and that “I used to learn a piece of music by
following other people's audio, and I am learning this way now, so it has no effect on me
without accompaniment during my practice.”
Furthermore, P1 did more work on analyzing and comparing different versions of sheet
music. This was also in line with the changes in P2's learning method:
Because I use my iPad to read digital sheet music when learning online, I can find
scores from many different publishers, and the teacher also scans and gives me the
International Journal on Innovations in Online Education
version she has. In this way, compared with before, I have a stronger ability to learn by
comparing and analyzing music scores, and I am better at finding a version of music
scores that suit me.
In addition to sharing music scores, the online lesson mode also provided students with an
advantage that the teacher scanned the teaching content and shared it via email. As P3
I used to look at the teacher's materials in class with the teacher together. After reading
it, I could not take it away now the teacher will scan a copy so I can save it for
repeated viewing after class, reducing the challenges of not understanding in class. In
addition to reading scanned materials sent by the teacher, she also said that she read
more books. Before the pandemic she could discuss with classmates about singing
technology, but during the pandemic there were fewer classmates to meet, so she tried
to read more and found that books illustrated the concepts well.
In terms of promoting the self-examination ability by listening and learning from self-recorded
video, P2 added the lesson content of submitting videos before every lesson:
I record the whole piece while I am practicing, and then listen to it repeatedly. I feel that
my mistakes are magnified by the video, so listening to my own recording captured
details that I did not notice, and improved my self-examination ability. Now, this learning
method is basically used every day when I practice flute, and it really improves the effect
of my independent learning.
The previous comments suggest that online lessons have several limitations, but these can
motivate students to change their approach to autonomous learning. In summary, their
autonomous learning methods included learning from video recordings, enhancing sight-
reading ability, comparing and analyzing music scores, promoting self-examination skills,
doing more research, and reading more books.
This study explored the experience of Chinese students studying instrumental and vocal
performance in the United Kingdom, and undertaking online lessons during the COVID-19
pandemic. Within the context of the pandemic, many of the impacts and changes that
affected teaching and learning have not been previously studied. The overall research
results show that the switch to online lessons during the pandemic led to a series of
changes, which are discussed subsequently.
First, students experienced additional pressure and mentality changes. The pressure came
from the assessed recital, and the change of mentality included adapting to approaches of
online lessons. The adjustment of examinations and changes in the approach to lessons
created considerable uncertainty. The detailed perspectives presented in this study
corroborate the work of Sahu (2020), in that change and uncertainty may contribute to
students' anxiety. Moreover, this present study supports research indicating Chinese
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The Pivot to Online Instrumental Lessons
students' ability to adjust their mental attitudes, and suggests that they can do so even
during the COVID-19 pandemic. Choi (2013) demonstrated that Chinese students are
generally effective at regulating emotions, which is considered related to academic success.
The pandemic also alienated classmates and friends and caused negative emotions of
despondency. These results support the analysis of Zhai and Du (2020) on the mental health
of students during the pandemic.
Second, the pandemic caused changes to the student learning environment and approaches
to lessons. The closure of the school's library and piano room had a negative impact, but is
in line with the suggested response by schools to reduce the outbreak (Ortiz, 2020).
However, the closure of campus equipment directly limits the research results presented by
Haddon (2019). That is, in the case of the pandemic, the 24-hour library and access to
musical instruments, which Chinese students considered as two of the main advantages of
learning in U.K. universities, were no longer available. The closure of the library made the
efficiency of academic writing lower; however, it had no effect on the efficiency of instrument
practice, and in some cases seemed to improve efficiency. This supports the research of
Nguyen et al. (2020), and among Chinese music students there is not necessarily a
reduction in effectiveness during the pandemic. As for piano students' temporary digital
piano practice, the shortcomings of sound response are supported by the research of
Hamond (2017); however, it would be fine if the student is using an acoustic piano in online
lessons. In addition, the results of this study found that the pandemic reduced social
activities and opportunities for students to communicate and learn from each other. This is in
accord with and exacerbates the difficulty of establishing friendships between Chinese and
British students described by McMahon (2011), and is a concern because it restricts the
development of friendships and the opportunity to encounter diverse viewpoints, which was
one of the major reasons for Chinese students choosing to study in the United Kingdom
(Haddon 2019).
For the change in the approach to lessons, the online mode allowed students to use
translation software on their smartphones, which reduced the challenges they faced in
understanding the English language. This compensated for the concerns of students' English
ability mentioned by both Haddon (2019) and McMahon (2011). However, written and
presentational English ability was considered in the research by Choi (2013) to be important
for academic success. The network stalls and delays caused by technical limitations have
been widely confirmed as shortcomings in the online learning experience in this research,
which is in line with the research results obtained by Dammers (2009) and Koutsoupidou
(2014). However, despite our results showing that technical limitations are not the main
factors to impact online teaching and learning efficiency, participants did not diminish the
impact of the network stalls and delays on their lessons. Network delays leave no reliable
way to play duets in vocal and flute lessons, and this is consistent with the research results
in Dammers (2009) and King et al. (2019), in that the accompaniment activities of online
teaching are greatly reduced. This study further indicates that the inability to synchronize
International Journal on Innovations in Online Education
accompaniment due to network delays and stuttering greatly reduces the teaching efficiency
of vocal lessons.
For group lessons, network breaks have a great impact on teaching pace because everyone
needs to wait for whoever is experiencing the network stall or loss of connection, which is an
important point that has not been mentioned in the previous literature. This study also
asserts that adding extra lessons and pre-class videos are new online lesson approaches;
however, none of the previously published literature studies are related to these methods.
Although these lesson approaches were provided by only one participant, they received
positive feedback on how they improved the teaching and learning process and student
autonomous learning.
Finally, in the face of the shortcomings of online lessons identified herein, this research
confirms that students would think about how to improve autonomous practice and learning
methods, including reading books, comparing and analyzing scores, developing sight-
reading practice, and strengthening self-examination skills. These changes in autonomous
learning methods are not mentioned in the literature review, but support the results of
Haddon's research that Chinese students studying in the United Kingdom need to use new
ways of thinking and learning strategies to adapt to changing learning environments and the
challenges and opportunities they represent (Haddon, 2019).
Although the COVID-19 pandemic delayed lessons and exams in most schools, the
participants in this study continued to learn through online distance lessons, which allowed
on-campus and remotely assessed recitals to be held within the scheduled time. During the
online lessons, the students' perceptions underwent several stages of adjustment, including
stress, anxiety, irritability, and despondency, but they all expressed their acceptance and
adaptation to online lessons. Some participants even expressed some benefits of online
courses, including time to search on their phones and translate to improve English
understanding, and the recording of online lessons. In addition, teachers were able to easily
share sheet music and reading materials with students, which helped them review and
thoroughly understand the lessons after class.
In terms of lesson approaches, different teachers and learners of different musical
instruments experienced different changes. For piano students, their teacher's methods did
not change a great deal. However, for vocal and flute students who experienced
dissatisfactory accompaniment, some considered the online lessons as having a negative
impact on learning efficiency. However, the changes in lesson approaches and the
shortcomings of online lessons, as well as the lockdown environment, meant that the
students' autonomous learning abilities were subsequently improved. Overall, despite the
low number of participants in this study, it suggests that the pandemic caused important
changes in the learning of Chinese music students studying at a U.K. university. However,
not all of these changes were negative since the approach to lessons was adjusted, and the
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The Pivot to Online Instrumental Lessons
changes promoted autonomous learning to adapt to and accept the online learning
This research demonstrates that, because of the visual limitation, the students were able to
use translation to improve the efficiency of their English understanding, which might be a
positive effect of online lessons. Therefore, future research should explore the positive or
negative effects of visual limitation in online lessons. The previous research on LoLa
(Redman, 2020) has shown that it provides an accurate solution to the time delay challenge
presented by online music learning. However, this technology was not used by the
participants in this study. If it could be used more widely, many of the challenges faced by
online lessons that have been previously investigated in the literature and this research—
such as accompaniment reduction and network stall—would be solved. Therefore, in future
research, universities and educational institutions could use the context of this technology to
continue to study the implementation and challenges of online education and possible lesson
Peer–peer, student–professor, and student–supervisor relationships represent a common
point in the research of Haddon (2019) and McMahon (2011), and are important for students'
academic success and enjoyment. Therefore, in the context of online one-to-one music
lessons, the relationships of peer groups, and the relationships between pupil and teacher,
are worth exploring further. Similarly, for the future development of music education
institutions, it would be important to study the challenges and negative impacts of the lack of
learning atmosphere in online lessons, for example, in relation to peer learning and orchestra
and choir activities.
Additionally, this research has suggested the advantages of online lessons for students'
learning and promoting greater student autonomy. Therefore, after the pandemic, future
research and music education institutions should study comprehensive synchronous and
asynchronous online music lessons and the mutual advantages of face-to-face and online
lessons, and try to comprehensively design lessons to potentially maximize the effect and
autonomy of student learning, which may be in line with the future development of higher
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Full-text available
The potential of videoconferencing and low-latency (LoLa) technology for instrumental music teaching The research presented in this paper seeks to understand the responses of a variety of music teachers and students to using videoconferencing and low-latency (LoLa) audiovisual streaming technology in instrumental music lessons, and to determine the potential and limitations of its use in educational settings. LoLa technology facilitates remote parties performing together, but there is limited research available on how effective the technology is when used for instrumental music teaching. Pilot studies and interviews with practitioners examine issues surrounding distance learning in instrumental music lessons, and sets the context from which the LoLa trials emerge.
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This article presents a novel data set on perceptions and behaviors of university students collected after the beginning of the Covid-19 outbreak in Vietnam. Our questionnaire design is based on employing both qualitative interview with students and survey of SARS literature, probing into the sensitivity of students toward the crisis in making crucial decisions of daily routines, as well as future travel plans in presence of a grave health concern. The data set consists of 440 valid responses from Vietnamese university students through Internet platforms (Facebook, Google Form). Besides descriptive statistics, this article also includes the results of explanatory factor analysis, which may serve as a good reference for future studies.
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The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), originated in Wuhan city of China, has spread rapidly around the world, sending billions of people into lockdown. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus epidemic a pandemic. In light of rising concern about the current COVID-19 pandemic, a growing number of universities across the world have either postponed or canceled all campus events such as workshops, conferences, sports, and other activities. Universities are taking intensive measures to prevent and protect all students and staff members from the highly infectious disease. Faculty members are already in the process of transitioning to online teaching platforms. In this review, the author will highlight the potential impact of the terrible COVID-19 outbreak on the education and mental health of students and academic staff.
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Background : Several non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been implemented across the world to control the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Social distancing (SD) interventions applied so far have included school closures, remote working and quarantine. These measures have been shown to have large impacts on pandemic influenza transmission. However, there has been comparatively little examination of such measures for COVID-19. Methods : We examined the existing literature, and collated data, on implementation of NPIs to examine their effects on the COVID-19 pandemic so far. Data on NPIs were collected from official government websites as well as from media sources. Results : Measures such as travel restrictions have been implemented in multiple countries and appears to have slowed the geographic spread of COVID-19 and reduced initial case numbers. We find that, due to the relatively sparse information on the differences with and without interventions, it is difficult to quantitatively assess the efficacy of many interventions. Similarly, whilst the comparison to other pandemic diseases such as influenza can be helpful, there are key differences that could affect the efficacy of similar NPIs. Conclusions : The timely implementation of control measures is key to their success and must strike a balance between early enough application to reduce the peak of the epidemic and ensuring that they can be feasibly maintained for an appropriate duration. Such measures can have large societal impacts and they need to be appropriately justified to the population. As the pandemic of COVID-19 progresses, quantifying the impact of interventions will be a vital consideration for the appropriate use of mitigation strategies.
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Continuing interest in higher Music education in the UK from the international market has led to increased recruitment of students from China and Hong Kong; however, academic scholarship focusing on this pedagogical context has not grown as swiftly as student numbers. This qualitative study contributes to literature investigating the complexities of higher Music education as perceived by students from China and Hong Kong undertaking one-year taught Music MA programmes at a UK university. Semi-structured interviews with nine international postgraduate students revealed information about their previous studies in China and Hong Kong, their choice of UK programme,family support, future plans and views on academic and performance study in the different countries. Students discussed the challenges of UK study relating to language skills, critical thinking and the peer group, but also identified expansion of repertoire, individuality in performance, access to a wide range of resources, facilities and opportunities, and the supervisor relationship as positive learning experiences. Findings relating to informed independent thinking, academic and performance teaching, authenticity and agency, and pedagogical potential are of relevance to educators.
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The provision of instrumental lessons in certain areas of England can be hampered by the geographical position of some schools that are rural in nature, with teachers needing to travel long distances between schools. Internet-based technologies have been successfully used elsewhere to deliver instrumental lessons. A collaboration between the authors, North Yorkshire Music Action Zone and YouCanPlay allowed the delivery of instrumental lessons using Skype in combination with a Roland VR-3EX, an AV Mixer which offers 3 camera angles and good quality sound. Our aim was to repurpose existing technology to provide instrumental lessons in remote rural communities. The study was conducted in two-phases: a pilot study in North Yorkshire; and a further roll-out of the lessons in four additional areas (Cornwall; Cumbria; Durham/Darlington; and East Riding of Yorkshire). We wished to investigate the technical challenges and pedagogical aspects of the delivery, and also compare digitally-delivered and face-to-face instrumental lessons to explore the differences in behaviour. Data collected included pre- and post-project interviews with teachers, recordings of the teachers’ first and last lessons, and post-project questionnaires from pupils and their parents. Results suggested that there were technical challenges relating to sound, video and connection quality, and the physical environment of the lessons, some of which were alleviated by the Roland VR-3EX. Some concerns expressed by teachers in the initial interviews failed to materialise; others were overcome to some extent. Pupils concentrated well, were motivated to practice, and made good progress. Further analysis of the video data has allowed the comparison of face-to-face and digitally-delivered lessons. All teachers found the digital teaching more challenging than their usual face-to-face teaching; however, all reported that they would undertake similar teaching again. This paper focuses upon the exploring the behaviour of participants observed in the lessons. Digital delivery has the potential to provide greater access to instrumental lessons for children in rural communities.
The COVID-19 pandemic is considered as the most crucial global health calamity of the century and the greatest challenge that the humankind faced since the 2nd World War. In December 2019, a new infectious respiratory disease emerged in Wuhan, Hubei province, China and was named by the World Health Organization as COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). A new class of corona virus, known as SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) has been found to be responsible for occurrence of this disease. As far as the history of human civilization is concerned there are instances of severe outbreaks of diseases caused by a number of viruses. According to the report of the World Health Organization (WHO as of April 18 2020), the current outbreak of COVID-19, has affected over 2164111 people and killed more than 146,198 people in more than 200 countries throughout the world. Till now there is no report of any clinically approved antiviral drugs or vaccines that are effective against COVID-19. It has rapidly spread around the world, posing enormous health, economic, environmental and social challenges to the entire human population. The coronavirus outbreak is severely disrupting the global economy. Almost all the nations are struggling to slow down the transmission of the disease by testing & treating patients, quarantining suspected persons through contact tracing, restricting large gatherings, maintaining complete or partial lock down etc. This paper describes the impact of COVID-19 on society and global environment, and the possible ways in which the disease can be controlled has also been discussed therein.
College students encounter unique challenges leading to poor mental health in the wake of the COVID-19 outbreak. Before the pandemic started, one in five college students experienced one or more diagnosable mental disorders worldwide. The fact that the COVID-19 pandemic affects collegiate mental health underscores the urgent need to understand these challenges and concerns in order to inform the development of courses of action and public health messaging that can better support college students in this crisis. This article provides recommendations that prepare higher education institutions and health professionals for addressing collegiate mental health needs and challenges posed by COVID-19.