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The space between: Language discordant social work in Norway

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This thesis explores how language discordant social work transpires. Resulting from an ethnographically oriented approach, the thesis is based on data from participant observation, informal conversations, and qualitative interviews with social workers and minority language speakers. Contributions to research on language discordant social work are as follows: First, I claim that social work meetings are so communicatively complex and demanding that a high level of language proficiency is required for effective participation. When that proficiency is lacking, unresolved language discordance severely hampers social workers’ ability to work effectively with clients: service-user participation is difficult to achieve, communicative interaction tends to become problematic, and issues often remain unresolved. Moreover, when meetings are carried out in a language in which clients are not proficient, minority language speakers tend to use communicative strategies that partly cover up these communicative difficulties. Similarly, when insufficiently competent interpreters attempt to carry out interpreter-mediation, their impact on communication is detrimental. In these situations, language discordance and power asymmetry are interrelated, with the potential of silencing and muting minority language speakers. Second, I argue that the language practices in social welfare offices are communicatively oppressive and marked by linguicism. Contrary to the policy guidelines of NAV (the Norwegian Employment and Welfare Agency), interpreting is not consistently provided when needed, and those who are appointed as interpreters often lack the qualifications that the guidelines require them to have. It is of paramount importance to have in place structures that ensure adequate interpreting when needed. Such structures must not place the burden of requesting or demanding interpreting on the individual minority language speaker, and they must not leave it to the individual social worker to assess whether interpreters have sufficient skills and qualifications. Policy makers have, for at least a decade, been fully aware of research documenting the abysmal quality of interpreting services provided by external interpreting agencies, particularly private for-profit agencies. Despite this awareness, no measures have been taken to organize services to ensure that interpreters with sufficient skills and qualifications are appointed when there is language discordance. Finally, I suggest that certain attributes of the social work profession have contributed to why these issues with language discordance have not been effectively resolved. In my observations, the combination of communicative complexity and structural shortcomings in managing language discordance frequently left social workers unable to achieve adequate communication and uphold the rights and dignity of their clients. Social workers tended to do their best to “get by” in these situations, rather than oppose or protest against these structures. To compensate for the insufficient communication, they reflected on various matters, analyzed, discussed with other social workers, and tried to imagine the needs and preferences of service users. By absorbing structural shortcomings in these ways, social workers inadvertently contributed to upholding structures that were communicatively oppressive. Drawing, as this thesis does, on conceptualizations of communication and communicative interaction may serve to re-frame debates about social work with minorities and, more broadly, social work in linguistically diverse societies. In particular, the thesis centers issues of communication, professional practice, power relations, and linguistic domination and subordination. One of its central aims is to call attention issues of linguicism embedded in the very structures of welfare state service provision.
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The space between:
Language discordant social work in Norway
Hilde Fiva Buzungu
Dissertation for the degree of philosophiae doctor (PhD)
Department of Social Work and Social Policy
Faculty of Social Sciences
OsloMet – Oslo Metropolitan University
Autumn 2021
OsloMet Avhandling 2021 nr 39
ISSN 2535-471X
ISBN 978-82-8364-342-8
OsloMet – storbyuniversitetet
Universitetsbiblioteket
Skriftserien
St. Olavs plass 4,
0130 Oslo,
Telefon (47) 64 84 90 00
Postadresse:
Postboks 4, St. Olavs plass
0130 Oslo
Trykket hos Byråservice
Trykket på Scandia 2000 white, 80 gram på materiesider/200 gram på coveret
Dedication
“Before we returned to Australia, my mother and I traveled through Ethiopia, where my
grandmother lived, and to South Sudan. I saw her treated with a level of honor that I had
never seen before. She was respected, she was known, and she was relied upon for advice
and counsel. She had a voice - a strong voice. It was so strong that her people had once
picked to her to represent them as a member of parliament.
I could not help to compare that to her life in Melbourne, where she struggled to find work
as a cleaner or an aged-care worker. I had watched her struggle with the language, struggle
to understand the complex letters sent by Centrelink, insurance companies or banks. It is a
blunt contrast to go from having a voice strong and clear enough for the national
parliament of South Sudan to struggling on a phone call, nearly in tears, in Australia. It was
as if her tongue had been cut out, as if she was socially crippled in this society”
Nyadol Nyuon (2019)
This thesis is dedicated to those whose tongues are cut out.
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Acknowledgments
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Abstract
Ǥ
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Ǥ 
1
Table of contents
PART I: THE STUDY ................................................................................ 5
1. Introduction ................................................................................................................. 7
Language discordant social work........................................................................................................12
The state, service provision, and linguistic heterogeneity ............................................................13
Social work as a discipline and profession .......................................................................................15
Previous research on language discordant social work ................................................................18
Identifying the gap ..................................................................................................................................21
Research questions ................................................................................................................................23
Structure of the thesis ..........................................................................................................................24
2. Context: Linguistic minorities’ access to welfare services ................................... 27
Equitable access to welfare services ..................................................................................................27
Interpreter-mediated communication ...............................................................................................29
Provision of interpreting services in Norway ..................................................................................34
The Norwegian Labor and Welfare Administration (NAV) ........................................................38
Comprehensive follow-up of low-income families in NAV ..........................................................41
3. Research methods and data .................................................................................... 45
Ethnography as a source of insight.....................................................................................................45
Ethnographic data ..................................................................................................................................48
Interviews as a source of insight ........................................................................................................50
Interviews and contextual data ...........................................................................................................51
My failed and flawed attempts .............................................................................................................52
Positionalities ..........................................................................................................................................53
Research ethics .......................................................................................................................................55
Confidentiality and anonymity in the presentation of data ..........................................................58
Translation and interpreting ................................................................................................................59
Limitations of my data...........................................................................................................................61
The process of analysis .........................................................................................................................62
4. Analytical concepts and theoretical perspectives ................................................. 65
Language, communication, and communicative complexity .........................................................65
Perspectives on professions and professional practice .................................................................69
Perspectives on power and disempowerment ................................................................................73
Silencing and muting of minority language speakers ......................................................................77
PART II: ORGANIZATION OF SERVICES .......................................... 83
5. Determining when interpreting is needed ............................................................. 85
Guidelines for assessing the need for interpreting .........................................................................85
How frequently were interpreters appointed? ...............................................................................86
Financial considerations ........................................................................................................................90
Assessments of language proficiency .................................................................................................92
Topic/importance/difficulty of meeting .............................................................................................95
2
Preferences of minority language speakers ......................................................................................96
Relying on family members for interpreting ................................................................................. 101
Social workers’ perspectives on interpreter mediation ............................................................. 103
What impacted how frequently interpreters were appointed?................................................ 108
6. Ensuring that qualified interpreters are appointed ............................................ 110
Guidelines for appointing interpreters ........................................................................................... 110
Qualifications of interpreters ........................................................................................................... 112
Are there qualified interpreters in these languages? ................................................................... 113
Do social workers prefer unqualified interpreters? .................................................................... 115
Relying on external agencies to appoint interpreters ................................................................ 119
What impacted interpreter qualifications in NAV? ..................................................................... 122
PART III: LANGUAGE DISCORDANT MEETINGS ......................... 125
7. Complexity of talk in social work meetings ......................................................... 127
Social worker perspectives on the complexity of social work talk ......................................... 127
Complexity in a language concordant meeting ............................................................................ 129
Thematic complexity in a language discordant meeting ............................................................. 131
Providing guidance in a language discordant meeting ................................................................. 133
Asking for input and preferences in an interpreter-mediated meeting .................................. 139
Expressions of pain in an interpreter-mediated meeting ........................................................... 143
The risk of stereotyping in language discordant social work .................................................... 146
Communicative complexity in social work talk ........................................................................... 148
8. Service-user participation in social work meetings ............................................ 151
Participation in a language concordant meeting ........................................................................... 151
Silencing in a language discordant meeting .................................................................................... 156
Trying to participate in a language you do not understand ....................................................... 159
Participation disorganization in an interpreter-mediated meeting .......................................... 162
Omissions and participation in an interpreter-mediated meeting ........................................... 170
How does language discordance affect participation? ................................................................ 174
9. Communicative interaction in social work meetings ......................................... 178
Interaction in a language concordant meeting .............................................................................. 179
Interaction in language discordant talk .......................................................................................... 181
Interactional essentials of interpreter-mediated talk .................................................................. 185
Physical space and interaction in interpreter-mediated talk ..................................................... 188
Pronouns in interpreter-mediated interaction ............................................................................. 190
Achieving understanding in interpreter-mediated meetings ..................................................... 192
Chaotic interpreter-mediated interaction..................................................................................... 196
Impact of language discordance on communicative interaction ............................................... 199
10. Requesting clarification and persisting until clarity is reached ........................ 203
Requesting clarification in language concordant talk .................................................................. 204
Persisting until clarity is reached in language concordant talk .................................................. 206
Clarification requests in language discordant talk ....................................................................... 208
Assuming, rather than asking, in language discordant talk ......................................................... 210
When clients need clarification in interpreter-mediated talk ................................................... 214
When social workers need clarification in interpreter-mediated talk .................................... 216
3
Requesting clarification, persisting, and yet not reaching clarity .............................................. 219
How can clarity be reached? ............................................................................................................ 224
Impact of language discordance on communicative repairs ...................................................... 226
11. Summary of findings ............................................................................................. 229
Language concordant meetings ........................................................................................................ 229
Language discordant meetings without interpreting ................................................................... 230
Interpreter-mediated meetings with unqualified interpreters .................................................. 231
Interpreter mediated meetings with qualified interpreters ....................................................... 231
Achieving social work communication ........................................................................................... 232
PART IV: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ................................ 235
12. Social work and human dignity in language discordant contexts.................... 237
The illusion of communication ......................................................................................................... 239
The interpreter effect ........................................................................................................................ 241
How failed communication leads to risk of culturalization ....................................................... 243
A profession between a rock and a hard place? .......................................................................... 246
Social workers absorbing structural shortcomings in NAV ...................................................... 248
Power, morality, and disciplining in communication ................................................................... 250
Who is the problem represented to be? ....................................................................................... 256
Can the service user speak? ............................................................................................................. 258
Linguicism and communicative oppression in social work practice ........................................ 261
13. Conclusions ............................................................................................................ 263
Revisiting the research questions .................................................................................................... 263
Implications of this thesis .................................................................................................................. 265
References ................................................................................................................... 268
4
5
Part I: The study
6
7
1. Introduction

Ǧ
ȋǦǤǡʹͲͳͺǡǤͳ͸ȌǤ
ȋȌǤ
ǡ
Ǥ

Ǥǡ

Ǥ
ǡ
Ǥǯ
ǤǦ

ǤǦǡ
ȋʹͲͳͷȌ
Ǥ
Ǣ
ǡǤ
ʹͲͳͺǡ
Ǥ
Ǥǡǯ
ȋǡʹͲͳͳǡǤ͵ͳȌǡ
Ǥ
Ǥ
ǣ
ǣȏǥȐ
ǣǡǡ
ǤǡʹͲǡʹ͵ͶǤ
8
͵ǡͲͲͲǡǡ
ǥͳ
ȋȌǣʹ
ǣǥǡǡǤ
ǡǡǤ
Ǥ͵
ǣȏǥȐ
ǣǡǡǥͶ
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9
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Ǥǡ
Ǥ
ǡǡǡ

ǡǯǤǡʹͷ
ǡǡ
ǡǤ
Language discordant social work
ǡDz
ǤdzʹͲ
ȋȌȋǤǡʹͲͳͻǡǤʹǢǤǡ
ʹͲͳ͵ǡǤͷ͵ͷȌǤ
ǡ
ȋǡʹͲͳͺǡǤͺȌǤ
Ȁǡ
ȋǡʹͲͲ͵ǢƬǡʹͲͲͷǢǡͳͻͻͶǢÚǡʹͲͳ͵Ǣǡͳͻ͹ʹǡǤ
ʹͳͻǢǡʹͲͲ͸ȌǤȀ
Ǥ
ʹͲǡclientservice user
Ǥǡclientǡservice
userǡservice user
Ǥ
13

ȋǡʹͲͳͲǡǤͳ͵ʹȌǤ
Ȁ
ǡǤ
ǡ
Ǥǡ
ǡ
Ǥǡ


Ǥǡ
ǤǡDz
dz
for the task at handǤǡDz
dzǡ

ǡǤ
The state, service provision, and linguistic heterogeneity
ǡ
Ǥ
ȋƬǡʹͲͳͶǡǤͳȌǡ
ȋǡʹͲͳͶȌ
ȋƬǡʹͲͳͷȌǤǡ
ȋǡʹͲͳ͸ǡ
ǤʹʹȌǤǡ
ȋǡʹͲͳ͹ǡǤͳ͵ͻǢǡʹͲͲʹǢǡʹͲͳ͸ǡǤʹ͵ǢƬǡ
ʹͲʹͲǡǤͷǢǡʹͲͲ͹Ȍ
ȋǡʹͲͲͺǢǡʹͲͳͺǡǤʹ͵Ȍǡ

ȋǡʹͲͳͷǡǤͳʹʹǢǡʹͲͲ͹ǡǤͳͲ͵͵ȌǤ
14
ȋȌ
ȋǡʹͲͳ͸ǡǤͳ͵ͳȌǤǦ
ȋǡͳͻͺͲǡǤ͵Ȍǡ
Ǥ
ǡ
ȋǡͳͻͺ͵ǢǡͳͻͺͲǡǤ͵ǢǡʹͲͲ͸ȌǤ
ǡǦ
ǡDzdzȋǡ
ʹͲͳͺǡǤͳ͵ͶǦͳ͵ͷȌǤǡ
ȋƬǡʹͲͲͳǡǤȌǤ
ǡ
ǡȋƬ
ǡʹͲͲͳǡǤȌǤ
ǡ
ȋǡʹͲͲͻǡǤͺȌǤ
ǡ
ȀǤ
ǡǡǡ
ǡǡȋƬǡ
Ǣ¤ǡʹͲͳͲǡʹͲͳʹȌǤ
DzǦdzDz
dzȋǡʹͲʹͲǢ§ƬǡʹͲͳͶȌǤ
ǡȋǡʹͲʹͲǢ
ǡʹͲͳͺȌǡ
ȋǡʹͲͲͺȌǤǡ

ǤǡDz
dzȋʹͲͳ͸ǡǤ͸ȌǤ

ǡ
ǡǤ
ǡ
ǡǯǤ
15
Social work as a discipline and profession


ȋǡʹͲͲ͹ǡǤͺȌǤǡ
ǡǡǯȋ
ǤǡʹͲͳͷǡǤͳȌǤǣ
ǡ
ȋǡʹͲͳͲǡǤͶ͵ǢǡʹͲͲͶǡǤͳͲȌǤǡ
ǡ
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ǡʹͲͳͷȌǤ
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DzǦǦdzȋǡͳͻʹʹǡǤͻͺǦͻͻȌǤ
ȋǡʹͲʹͲȌǡDzdz
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
ȋǡʹͲͳʹȌǤ
Ǧ
ǡ
DzȏǯȐdz
16
ǯǡǡȋͳͻʹʹǡǤͳ͵ʹȌǤ
ǯǡDz
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ȋāƬǡʹͲͳͲǡǤ͹ȌǤ
ǡǡǡ
ǡǡǡǡ
ȋÞǤǡʹͲͳ͸ǡǤͻȌǤ
Dzǡǡ
dzȋʹͲͳͺǡǤʹȌǤǡ
ǡ
ȋƬ
ǡʹͲͲͻǡǤͶ͸ͳȌǤ
Previous research on language discordant social work
ǡǤǡ
ǡǡǡǡ
ȋƬǡʹͲͲͷǡǤͳ͹͸ȌǤ
ǡ
Ǥ
ȋǡʹͲͳͷǢƬǡʹͲͳͶǡǤͺȌǤǡ
Ǥ

ȋƬǡʹͲͳ͸ǡǤͻͷ͵ǢÞǡʹͲͳͷǡǤͷ͸ͶǢǡͳͻͻ͹ǡǤͳͲ͸ǦͳͲ͹ǢƬ
ǡʹͲͳͲǡǤͳͳǦͳʹǢǤǡʹͲͲ͸ȌǤ
ȋÞǡ
ʹͲͳͷǢǡʹͲͳͺǡǤͳʹ͹ȌǤ
ǡȋāƬ
ǡʹͲͳͲǡǤͳͳǦͳʹȌǤ
ȋǤǡʹͲͳ͹ǡǤ
Ͷ͹ʹȌǤǡǡǡ
ȋƬǡʹͲͳ͸Ǣǡͳͻͻ͹Ǣ
ǡʹͲͳͷǢǤǡͳͻͻͻǡǤʹͺ͵ǢǡʹͲͳͻǢǡͳͻͻͻȌǤǡ
Dzǡdz
19
ȋǡ
ʹͲͳͷǡʹͲͳ͹Ǣ¤ƬǡʹͲͳͻǢƬǡʹͲͳͶǡǤͺȌǤ

ȋƬǡʹͲͳ͸ǡǤͻͷ͵ȌǤ
ȋÞǡʹͲͳͷǡǤͷ͸ͶǢǤǡͳͻͻͻǡǤ
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ǡ
Ǥǡ
ǡǡ
ȋǤǡʹͲͳ͹ǡǤͳ͹ͲȌǤǡ


ȋƬǡʹͲͳʹǡǤʹ͵ͳȌǤ
Ǧ
ȋǤǡʹͲͲͷǢǤǡʹͲͳ͹ȌǤ]ǯ
ǡ
ȋʹͲͲ͹ǡǤ
ͳʹʹȌǤǦ
Ǥǡ
Ǥ
ǡ

ȋʹͲͳ͹ǡǤͻͶȌǤȋǡ
ʹͲͳ͸ǡǤͶͶȌǡǡ
ǡ
Ǥǡ
ǡ
Ǥ
Identifying the gap
ǡ

ǤʹͲͲͳListening to the Welfare
StateǡDzdzDz
dzȋǤȌǤʹͲͳͺǡ

22
ȋǦǤǡʹͲͳͺǡǤʹʹͻȌǤ
Ǥ
ǯ
language discordantǤǡ

ȋǤǡʹͲͳ͵ǢƬǡʹͲͳʹȌǤǡthe authentic language discordant
conversationǡ
Ǥǡ
Ǥ
ǡorganization of services 
Ǥ
Ǥ
ǡȋ
ȌǤ
ǡǡǤ
ǡcomplex
ǡǤ
ǡ

Ǥ
ȋǡʹͲͲͷȌǡ
Ǥ
ǡ
Ǥ
ǡ Ǧ
ǦǡǤ
Ǧ
Ǥǡǡ
ǡ
Ǧ
Ǥ
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ǡcommunicative interactionǡ
ǦǡǤ
Ǧ
ȋƬǡʹͲʹͲǡǤ͵ȌǤ
Ǥǡ
ǡ
ȋǦǤǡʹͲͳͺǡǤʹ͵ͲȌǤ
ǡclarification is requested 
Ǥ
Ǧ
Ǥ
Ǥ
ȋǡǡǦ
ǡǡȌ
Ǥ
ǡǡ
ǡǤ
Research questions

Ǥ
ǡ
Ǥǡlanguage discordant social workȋ
Ȍǡinterpreting Ǥ

Ǥǣ
How does social work transpire in settings where social workers and clients do not
have a shared language?
ǡ
ǣ
24
x ǫ
x ǡ
ǡ
ǫ
x ǡǡ

ǫ

Ǥ
ǡ

ǤǤ
ǡ
ǡǤ
Ǥ

ǡǡǤǡ

ȋǤǡʹͲͳͲǢǡʹͲͳͷǢ]ǡ
ʹͲͲ͹ȌǤǡ
Ǥ

ǡ
ǡǤ
Structure of the thesis
ǡʹǡ
ǡǯ
Ǥǡ
ǡ
ǤǡǦ
Ǥǡ
25
ǡ
Ǥ
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Dz
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ǣȋ͹ȌǡǦȋͺȌǡ
ȋͻȌǡ
ȋͳͲȌǤǡ

Ǥǡ
ǡ
ǤǡǦ
Ǥǡ
ǡ
Ǥ
Ǥ
ǡǡ
ǡǡǡǡǡ
Ǥͳʹǡ
ǡ
Ǥͳ͵
ǡǡ
Ǥ
27
2. Context: Linguistic minorities’ access to welfare
services

Ǥ
Ǥ
ǡ
ȋƬ
ǡʹͲͳͲǡǤ͵ͳȌǤ

ȋ§ǤǡʹͲʹͲǡǤʹͲȌǤ
ǡ
Ǥ
ǡ
Ǥǡ
Ǧ
Ǥǡ
ǡ
ǡǡǦǤ
Equitable access to welfare services
Ǧǡ
ǡǡ
ǡȋǦ
ǡͳͻͻͲȌǤǡ
ǡǡ
ǡǡǤ


ȋÞǡͳͻͻͷǡǤͳ͹ʹȌǤ
ȋǡʹͲͳͺǡǤͳͶͷȌǤǡ
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ǡǡ
ȋ¤ǡʹͲͳͲǡǤͳ͵ȌǤ

Ǥ
ǡ
ȋ¤ǡ
ʹͲͳʹǡǤͶ͵ȌǤǦ
ǡȋƬǡʹͲͳͲǡǤ
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ǡǡǤ
ǡ
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Ǥ
ǯ
Ǥ

Ǥǡ
ǡǡǡ
Ǥǡ
ǡǡǡDzdz
DzǤdz
ǡǡ
ȋƬǡʹͲͳͳȌǤ
ǡǡ
ǡ
Ǥ
Ǧǡ
Ǥ
Interpreter-mediated communication
ǡ
ǦǤ
Ǥǡǡ
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
Ǥǡ
Ǥ
interpreters are born, not madeǡǡ
ȋǡʹͲͳʹǡǤʹͷͷȌǤǡ
Ǧ
ȋǡͳͻͻ͹ǡǤͳͲ͸ǦͳͲ͹Ǣ
ǡʹͲͲͶǢǡʹͲͲʹǢǤǡʹͲͳͺǢǡʹͲͲͻǢǤǡʹͲͳͲǢ
ƬǡʹͲͲͻǢǡʹͲͲͷǡǤͻ͸Ǧͻ͹ȌǤͳͻ͹ͺǡ
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Ǥ
ǡDzdzǤǡ
ǡ
Dzdz
ȋǡʹͲͳͺǡǤͳͷȌǤ
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ȋÚǡͳͻͻͺȌǤ
ǡ
ȋǤǡʹͲͳͺȌǤ
ǡǡDzdz
Ǥǡ
ǡ
ȋǡʹͲͳ͹ǡǤͳʹ͹ȌǤȋʹͲͳͺȌ
ǡȋȌ
Dzdzǡ

ǡ
Ǥǡ
Dzdz
ǡǤ
Dzdzǡ
Ǥ
Dzdz
Ǥ
34
ǡ
Dzǡdz
ǫȋʹͲͳͶȌǡ
DzǡdzDz
ǡdzDzǡdzDzǦdz
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Provision of interpreting services in Norway
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ǡǣǡ
ǡƬǡǤǤȋʹͲʹͲȌǤǤInternational
Journal of Interpreter Education, 12ȋʹȌǡͷ͹Ǧ͸ʹǤǣȀȀǤǦǤȀȀǦǦͳʹǦʹȀǤ
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Ǧȋǡ
ʹͲͲͷǡǤͳͳȌǤ
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ȋǡʹͲͲͲǡǤ͵ͷǦͶͳȌǤ
ǡ(Forvaltningsloven)ȋͳͻ͹ͲȌ
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Ǥ
ͷ͹Ǥ
ʹͲͲʹǡ
ʹͲͲͶǤʹʹǦǡ
ȋtatsautorisasjonsordningenȌǡ

Dzdzȋstatsautorisert tolkȌǤȋǡʹͲͳͶȌǤǡ
ͶͲǡǤ
ͷͺ
Ǧǡ
(tospråktesten). 
Ǧ
(nasjonalt tolkeregister). 
ʹͲʹͳǡͳ͵ͺͺ͹ͶȋǡʹͲʹͳȌǤ

ǤʹͲͲ͹ǡ]

Ǥǡā
ǡǡ
ǦȋʹͲͳͲǡǤͳ͵͸ͳȌǤ
Ǧǡ
ǡ
ȋʹͲͳͷǡǤ
ͳͳͷȌǤ
ȋʹͲͳͷǡǤͳͳ͸ȌǤ
Ǧ
ǡǡȋ§ǤǡʹͲͲ͹Ǣǡ
ͳͻͺ͹ǢǡʹͲͲ͸ǢǡʹͲͳͺǢǡʹͲͳͷǢǡʹͲͲͷȌǤ
ʹʹʹͲͲͶǦʹͲͲ͹ǡʹͲͳ͹ǤȋʹͲͲͶǦ
ʹͲʹͳȌǣǡǡǡǡǡǡǡǡǡ
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
ȋǡʹͲͳͷȌǤ
38
ǡ
Ǧ
Ǥǡ
ǡǡ
ȋȌǤ
The Norwegian Labor and Welfare Administration (NAV)
ȋȌ

ȋǤǡʹͲͳ͵ǡǤͳͳȌǤ

ȋƬǡʹͲͳͷǡǤͳͷȌǡ
ʹͲͲͷʹͲͲ͸ȋǡʹͲͳ͹ǡǤͳ͸͸Ǧͳ͸͹ȌǤǡ
ȋarbeidsmarkedsetatenȌǡ
ȋtrygdeetatenȌǡȋsosialtjenestenȌ
Ǥ
ǡǦ
ȋ¤ǡʹͲͲͻǡǤʹͶ͹ȌǤǦ
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ȋǡʹͲͳ͹ǡǤͳ͸͸ȌǤ
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ǡǡ
ǡ
ȋǡͳͻͺʹǢƬǡʹͲͳ͵ǡǤͺͶȌǤ
ǦDzǦǡdz

ȋǦǤǡʹͲͳͺǡǤʹ͵͸ȌǤ
ǡǡ
ǣǦǡ
ȋǡʹͲͳ͵ǡǤͳͲͳȌǤ
ǡ
39
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ȋʹͲͳ͵ǡǤͳͲͳǦͳͲʹȌǤ
Dzdz
ǡǡ
Ǧǡǡǡ
ȋʹͲͳͺǡǤʹ͵ȌǤ
ǡǤ
ǡ
Ǥ
ǡǡ
ȋ¤ǡʹͲͲͻǡǤʹͶͻȌǤDz
dz(arbeidslinja)ǡʹ͵ͳͻͻͲǡ

ȋƬÞǡʹͲʹͲǡǤͳ͹ͷȌǤ

ȋÞƬǡʹͲʹͲȌǤ
ǡ
ǡ
ȋÞƬǡ
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DzǦdzDzdzǤDz
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DzǦdzDzdz
Ǥ
40
ǤDzdz
ǡ
Dzdz
ȋƬ§ǡʹͲͲͶǡǤͳʹ͵ȌǤʹͲͲͲǡ
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 Ȃǡ
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ȋǡʹͲʹͲǡǤͳͻͶǦͳͻͷȌǤǡ
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ǡȋÞƬǡ
ʹͲʹͲǡǤ͵ͲͷȌǤ(sosialhjelp) 

ȋÞƬǡʹͲʹͲǡǤ͵Ͳ͹ȌǤǡ
ǡǡ
ǦȋÞƬǡʹͲʹͲǡ
Ǥ͵ͳͲȌǤ
ǡDzǦǦǤdz
41
Comprehensive follow-up of low-income families in NAV
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42
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ǡ
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ȋÞǤǡʹͲͳͻǡǤͳͲȌǤ
Dzdzǡ
Ǥǡ
ǡǡ
Ǥ
ǡ
ǡ
Ǥ
DzǦǡdz
Ǥǡ
ǡ
Ǥ
45
3. Research methods and data
ǯǡ
Ǥ
ǡǤ

Ǥ
ǡ
Ǥ
ǡʹͻ
ǤʹͲͳ͹ʹͲͳͺǤ
ǡ
Ǥǡ
Ǥǡ
Ǥ
Ǥ

Ǥ
Ethnography as a source of insight
ȋʹͲͲͳȌ
Ȃǡ
Ǥ
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ǡǡ
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Ethnographic data
ǡ
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ǤͳͷǦ
Ǥ
ǡ

ǤǡʹͶ
Ǥǡ
ǡǦǦǤǦ
ǡ
Ǥǡ
ǡ
Ǥ
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Ǥ
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ʹͲͳͺǤǡ

Ǥǡ
Ǥǡ

Ǥǡ

ǤǦ

Ǥ
ʹͲͳͺǡǤ
Interviews as a source of insight
ǡ
ǡ
Ǥǡ
ȋƬǡʹͲͳͶǡǤͳ͹ͺȌǡ
Ǥ
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