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In this paper, the lateral limiting pressure offered by the deep ‘flow-around’ soil failure mechanism for perimeter (ring) pile groups in undrained soil is explored using two−dimensional finite element modelling. A parametric study investigates the role of group configuration, pile−soil adhesion, group size, pile spacing and load direction on group capacity and corresponding soil failure mechanisms. The finite element output show that the plan group configuration (square or circular) has a negligible influence on lateral capacity for closely spaced perimeter pile groups. When compared to ‘full’ square pile groups with the same number of piles, the present results suggest that for practical pile spacing (≳ two pile diameters), perimeter groups do not necessarily increase capacity efficiency, particularly if the piles are smooth. Nevertheless, perimeter groups are shown to be characterized by both the invariance of their capacity to the direction of loading and their highly uniform load-sharing between piles, which are beneficial features to optimize design.

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... As the load increases, the zones of soil resistance between neighboring piles gradually overlap. The group effect consists of both the "edge effect" and the "shadowing effect" due to, respectively, the interaction of resistance zones within a pile row and between different pile rows (Brown D A 1988;Fayyazi, Taiebat 2014;Rollins, Peterson 1998), with the edge effect being less noticeable than the shadowing effect (Watford, Templeman 2021). ...
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Scour can cause the water-induced failure of fluvial and marine bridges and structures. Previous studies have focused on the scour mechanisms and their effects on the load capacity of single piles, although deep foundations consist mostly in pile groups. In this paper, scouring on pile groups embedded in soft clay is studied when piles are laterally loaded and affected by the formation of scour holes. This boundary problem is simulated using the three-dimensional finite element method. The scour depth, slope angle, and pile spacing are analyzed as main influence factors. Summary charts quantify how the dimensions of scour holes affect the lateral load capacity of 3x3 pile groups for varying pile spacing and their corresponding p-multipliers. Importantly, results indicate that it is unreasonable to design pile foundations by ignoring the influence of scour holes or directly removing the soil layer above the scour depth, as frequently assumed in practice.
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